@@@
@@@@@@@@Summary of NOXILO grammar@Version 3.1

  (NOXILO is pronounced enoshilof)

@@@@@@@@@@@  @      @@@      @        @   1  January  2022

 

 

NOXILO is easy and equal artificial language for everybody in the East and the West.   It has very simple grammar without
meaningless exceptions, and has SOV (Mode I) and SVO (Mode II) reversible structure to support equality.   Most people can
talk or write NOXILO sentences in the same, at least close to, word order of their mother language such as English, French,
German, Hindi, Japanese, Spanish, Swedish, etc.


(Note)@The nickname for NOXILO is eSAAnf ( = Sun).

 

1)   Main characteristics@

     œ   Very simple and precise grammar without meaningless exceptions.

     œ   Reversible SOV (mode I) and SVO (mode II) word order to support equality.

        (Note)  Renowned linguists (Matthew S. Dryer, Arthur Tomlin, Ohio State, Tasaku Tsunoda, et alii) report that
          the SOV type word order (Mode I) is most frequently seen (40%, 497 out of 1228 languages in Dryer, 2005), and
          the SVO type (Mode II) comes next (35%, 435 out of 1228 langs in Dryer, 2005),  based on their sampling studies.


œ   Vocabulary consists of 500 Basic Words (BWs) and over 19600 International Standard Words (ISWs)
      as of  September 2021.  Total 20100 NOXILO words.  Please see web page 8.


œ   BWs are core vocabulary that form NOXILO grammar.  ISWs can be replaced with English, German, French,
     Japanese, or any other natural languages.  ISWs have erootf (mostly 2 or 3 consecutive letters on the head
     of each word) which show a specific meaning such as automobile, bad, bird, color, fish, education, family,
     good, land, ship, etc.

 
œ  
 Pronunciation (upon International Phonemic Rule)  is super simple .

 

 

2)   Most important basic words and greetings

NOXILO greetings for eHellof (eHow are you ?, too) is eFIINAf [fi:na] and eALOOf [alo:]. People should say eFIINAf before
they start talking or writing to others in using Mode 1 of NOXILO, and  eALOOf in using Mode 2.  eYUPf [yu:p] is for eYesf,
and eNAIf [nai] for eNof or eNotf.

 

NOXILO Basic words

      @@@Meaning and usage

ALOO    [alo:]

Hello,  How are you ? c. for those who want to talk/write in SVO word order (M2)

FIINA    [fi:na]

Hello,  How are you ? c. for those who want to talk/write in SOV word order (M1)

YUP     [yu:p]

Yes c. for both M1 and M2

NAI      [nai]

No,  not c. for both M1 and M2



The following is a glossary of frequently used NOXILO greetings.

 Good morning

 HAU  [hau],   from Lakota (one of the native American nations)

 Good night

 BOnSOWAA   [boNsowa:],  French

 Excuse me.

 DAMIHI   [damihi],   Latin

 Here you are.  
 Here we go.

 NA   [na],  Greek

 Congratulations

 MABLUK   [mab(u)lu:k],   Arabic

 Thank you.

 ASAnTE   [asaNte],   Swahili in Africa
 KAMSA    [kam(u)sa],   Korean
     (Note) NAI ASAnTE,  NAI KAMSA = No thank you.

 Thank you very much.   

 MUQ  ASAnTE   [mu:ch(u) asaNte]
 MUQ  KAMSA    [mu:ch(u) kam(u)sa]

 Not at all.

 PARAKAALO   [paraka:lo],   Greek

 Fine !  Nice !  Smart !

 GUT   [gu:t(u)],   German
 ALIn   [aliN],   Quechua in South America

 Take care of yourself.

 SMAKKLyANA   [sma_k(u)lyana],   Quechua

 Good bye.

 KWAHELI   [k(u)waheli],    Swahili

 See you again.

 ABIAnTO   [abiaNto],   French

 Welcome

 WELKAM    [welkam],   English

 Sorry

 IZVINII    [iz(u)vini:],   Russian
 SOORII   [so:ri:],   English

 I am sorry.

 IZVINIITIE   [iz(u)viniitie],   Russian


The following has been added since July 2007.

 Come on !   Stick to it.

 YEELA  [ye:la]

 Enjoy it.  or  Take it easy.

 QAAMO  [cha:mo] ........

  Ex.
@QAAMO America = Enjoy America.
 
@  @ QAAMO exam = Enjoy exam.
 
@@  QAAMO coffee = Enjoy coffee.

 Good Luck.

 GUTENAAS  [gu:te na:s]

 I wish the current situation was gettin gbetter.

 GUTEPOOL  [gu:te po:l]

 God save us.

 AHA  GATEE  [aha gate:]

 The universe will save us.

 AHUL  GATEE  [ahu:l gate:]

 Poor  (poor my John ! )

 POONA  [po:na]

 Very poor

 SOO  POONA  [so: po:na]

 Expressing my sympathy.

 APSIAALE  [aspia:le]

 Offering my Condolence

 KOnDOLAATI  [koNdola:ti]

 Let's go !    Launch !
 Shoot !    Go !

 XPAADA  [shpa:da]

 One, two, three !
 (In cooperative work,
 members release their full
 power at the moment of
 saying 'SAM' (three).

 WAn  NI  SAM  [waN ni sam]

 Ready ? Go !

 REDII  DAn  [redi: daN]


The following has been added since March 27, 2010.

 I see.

 SEAn  [seaN]  

 Wait a minute.
 Just a minute.  Hold on.

 IDyUTE  [idyu:te]

 Can you wait a minute ?
 Can you hold ?   

 ?  IDyUTEBL  
     [esk idyu:tebl] or [e idyu:tebl]
      in conversation.

 nnn ....
 I can't agree./I can' believe it.
 (No. of  N shows the strength of
 doubtness; NNN or NNNN)

 NNN  [NNN]

 We met again !

 SAIIn  [sai:N]

 Lups, Look, Alas, Ah (small surprise)

 LE / LELE  [le / lele]

 By the way  BAIZA   [baiza]
 Let's see. / Let's see ?  LASII   [lasi:]

   <Note>  In conversation,  '?' can be pronounced [e] instead of [esk].
                For other NOXILO Basic words, please see Webpage No.5 in English.

 

 

3)    The outline of the NOXILO grammar

 

There are 2 symmetrical (reversible) mode in NOXILO, which are Mode I (M1 for short)  and  Mode II (M2).

 

3-1.  Sentence pattern   (word order)

The sentence pattern of Mode I  is     SV,    SOV,    SCV,    S ( Oa Ob ) V,    S ( O C ) V,
where Oa is indirect object, and Ob direct object.

The sentence pattern of Mode II  is    SV,    SVO,
@SVC,    SV ( Oa Ob ),@ SV ( O C ),
where Oa is indirect object, and Ob direct object.

3-2.  Modification pattern  (word order)

 

3.2.1.  Mode I

There are 3 kinds of modifiers; modifing word ( MW ), modifing phrase ( MP ),  and modifing clause ( MC ).  The MW includes
adjectives, adverbs, and verbals without object o
r complement.  The MP include adjective phrases and adverb phrases, which are
the combination
of nouns and modification agents, the combinations of verbs and modification agents, and verbals with object or
complement.  The MC include adjective clauses and adverb clauses, which are the combination of clauses and clause leaders.

 

The order of the modifier (underlined below) and the modified word (modificand) for Mode I are as follows;

MW + modified word (modificand)               Ex.  EILO  BIIUS  ( yellow house )
MP + modified word         
@@@@    Ex.  Japan  AT  BIIUS  ( Japan in house )
MC + modified word         
      Ex.  Japan  AT  RIZ  Ky  BIIUS  ( Japan in exist which house )

 

  <Note>  'BIIUS' means 'house'.   Nouns have only one form, and they are not changed
                to indicate number or gender.  The same form is used for all circumstances.  
       @@ 'RIZ' means 'to exist'.   'Ky' [kyu] means 'that/which/who'
(relative pronoun in English)
   @@@  and also 'when/where' (relative adverb).  'Ky' has a
broad range of meaning.

 

3.2.2.  Mode II
There are 3 kinds of modifiers; the modifying word (MW), the modifying phrase (MP), and the modifying clause (MC).  The MW
includes adjective, adverb, and verbal without object and/or complement.  
 The MP include adjective phrases and adverb phrases,
which are the combination of nouns and modification agents, the combinations of verbs and modification agents, and verbals with
object or complement.  The MC include adjective clauses and adverb clauses, which are the combination of clauses and clause leaders.

 

The order of modifier (underlined) and modified word (modificand) for Mode II are as follows;


MW + modified word (modificand
@    Ex.  EILO  BIIUS  ( yellow house )
modified word + MP      
@@@@@     @   Ex. BIIUS  ATL  Japan  ( house in Japan )
modified word + MC  
@  @@                            Ex. BIIUS  Ky  RIZ  ATL  Japan  ( house which exists  in Japan )

 

3.2.3.  Comparison of Mode I and Mode II


          Mode I  (M1)                                EILO   BIIUS
          Mode II  (M2)                               EILO   BIIUS
                                                             ( yellow  house )

          Mode I  (M1)                        Japan  AT   BIIUS
          Mode II  (M2)                                          BIIUS   ATL  Japan
                                                                          ( house  in  Japan )

          Mode I  (M1)          Japan  AT  RIZ  Ky  BIIUS
          Mode II  (M2)                                          BIIUS  Ky  RIZ  ATL  Japan
                                                                         ( house which exists (= is)  in Japan )

 

Letfs look at examples of sentence and modification patterns.

š@SV

Ex.  I walk.

M1:  SE  RyU.
M2:  SE  RyU.

   
<Note>  M1 stands for Mode I.   M2 stands for Mode II.  'SE' means 'I', and it's Basic Word. 
                 
'RyU' means 'to walk' and  it's NOXILO International Standard Word.

 

If you prefer to use English word over NOXILO International Standard Word (ISW), you can write as follows.

M1:  SE  walk.
M2:  SE  walk.

     <Note>  The use of  'SE' is necessary because it's NOXILO Basic Word.

Ex.  We swim.

M1:  SEN  DyUMI.
M2:  SEN  DyUMI.

    <Note>  'SEN' means 'We',  and 'DyUMI' means 'to swim'.

If you prefer to use English words over International Standard Words (ISW),  you can write as follows.

M1:  SEN  swim.
M2:  SEN  swim.

    <Note>  The use of 'SEN' is necessary because it is Basic Word.

š@SOV   (SVO  for  M2)

Ex.  I love you.

M1:  SE  ME-O  APLOS.       ( I you love. )
M2:  SE  APLOS  ME-O.       ( I love you. )

    <Note>  'SE' means 'I',  'ME' means 'you',  and  'APLOS' means 'to love'.
@   @@@'-O' means that ME is an object.   'ME-O' is pronounced [meo].

If you prefer to use English words over International Standard Words (ISW), you can write as follows.

M1:  SE  ME-O  love.
M2:  SE  love  ME-O.

    <Note>  The use of SE and ME-O is necessary since they are both Basic Word.

š@SCV   (SVC  for  M2)

Ex.  That house is large.

M1:  BOI  BIIUS-W  AUB-E  (RI).       (That house large is.)
M2:  BOI  BIIUS-W  (RI)  AUB-E.       (That house is large.)

    <Note>  'BOI' means 'that',  and 'BIIUS' 'house',  and 'AUB' 'large'.    '-W' after BIIUS  

           shows that  'BIIUS' is subject.   '-E' after AUB shows that AUB is complement,  and the
           '-E' is often omitted in any simple sentenses.  'RI' means 'is' (present form of 'be' in English),
           and often omitted in  S + C + RI  (S + RI + C for M2) at present  tense.  
           Thus, the above examples can be shortened as follows.

M1:  BOI  BIIUS-W  AUB.         (That house large.)
M2:   BOI  BIIUS-W  AUB.        (That house large.)

 

If  you prefer English words to ISWs (BIIUS and AUB in the example),

 M1:  BOI  house-W  large.         (That house large.)
 M2:  BOI  house-W  large.         (That house large.) 

š@SOaObV   (SVOaOb  for  M2 )

Ex.  I  gave the person a book.

M1:  SE  FE-O  BEEK-O  APIS-T.        (I the person book gave.)
 
@@ @@  (Oa     Ob)
M2
:  SE  APIS-T  FE-O  BEEK-O.      (I gave the person book.)
                     
    (Oa     Ob)

     <Note>  'SE' means 'I', and 'FE'  'the person',  and  'BEEK'  'book',  and  'APIS'  'to givef.     

     '-O' means that BEEK is object, and '-T' (pronounced [ta] ) means that 'APIS' is at past  tense.
@There are no Articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO, and therefore 'a' is not translated. 
     Nouns have only one form, and they are not changed to indicate number or gender ;  the same
     form is used for all circumstances. 

š@SOCV   (SVOC  for  M2)

Ex.  You will find him guilty.

M1:  ME  MAFE-O  InPLEn-E  MUFA-R.        (You him guilty find-will.)
M2:  ME  MUFA-R  MAFE-O  InPLEn-E.        (You find-will him guilty. = You will find him guilty.)

     <Note>  'ME' means 'you'.  'MAFE' means 'he', and 'MAFE-O' means 'him'.  The '-O'  

            after  MAFE means that MAFE is object.   'InPLEn' means 'guilty', and '-E' after InPLEn means
            that InPLEn is complement.  MUFA' means 'to find',  and  '-R' (pronounced [re] ) after MUFA means
            that 'MUFA' is at future tense.

 

'-O' for Object and '-E' for Complement in SOCViSVOC for M2) type may be omitted if you use the
basic form of object and complement.  Thus, the above examples can be written by deleting -O and -E as follows.


M1:  ME  MAFE  InPLEn  MUFA-R.
M2:  ME  MUFA-R  MAFE  InPLEn.

Ex.  The person keeps his room clean.

M1:  FE  FEI  TOM-O  AOKL-E  UKEE.
M2:  FE  UKEE  FEI  TOM-O  AOKL-E.

     <Note>  'FE' means 'the person' (He or She),  and 'FEI' is possesive form of 'FE'.
          'TOM' means 'room',  and  'AOKL' means 'clean',  and  'UKEE' means 'to keep'.

The above examples can be written as follows by using 'TOM' instead of 'TOM-O', and AOKL instead of AOKL-E.

M1:  FE  FEI  TOM  AOKL  UKEE.
M2:  FE  UKEE  FEI  TOM  AOKL.

Ex.  The police caught that killer alive.

M1:  AnPOLIS-W  BOI  InPIAA-O  AUUL-E  TUK-T.        (Police that killer alive catch-ed.)
M2:  AnPOLIS-W  TUK-T  BOI  InPIAA-O  AUUL-E.        (Police catch-ed that killer alive.)

    <Note>  'AnPOLIS' means 'police',  'BOI' 'that',  'InPIAA' 'killer',  'AUUL' 'alive',  and 'TUK'

   means 'to catch'.   '-T' (pronounced [ta] ) means that 'TUK' is at past tense.  Ordinary pronoun such as AnPOLIS
         must  be accompanied by '-W' to show subject although Personal Pronoun such as SE (I) and ME (You) and
         Interrogative pronoun such as HA (what), HI (which), and HU (who) must not.

The above example can be written as follows by using 'InPIAA' instead of 'InPIAA-O'  and  'AUUL' instead of AUUL-E.

M1:  AnPOLIS-W  BOI  InPIAA  AUUL  TUK-T.

M2:  AnPOLIS-W  TUK-T  BOI  InPIAA  AUUL.


Ex.  I understood her nurse.

M1:  SE  DAFE-O  UKyUDA-E  INAnDAS-T.        (I her nurse understand-ed.)
M2:  SE  INAnDAS-T  DAFE-O  UKyUDA-E.        
(I understand-ed her nurse.)


    <Note>  'SE' means 'I',  'DAFE' 'she' (her),  'UKyUDA' 'nurse', and 'INAnDAS' 'to understand'.
         '-T' means that INAnDAS is at past tense.

The above example can be written as follows by using 'DAFE' instead of 'DAFE-O',
and 'UKyUDA' instead of UKyUDA-E.

M1:  SE  DAFE  UKyUDA  INAnDAS-T.
M2:  SE  INAnDAS-T  DAFE  UKyUDA.

    
<Note>  If you prefer English words to ISWs,  you can write as follows.  
          However, the use of Basic Words such as SE, DAFE, -T, and -R is necessary for any case.

@@@M1:  SE  DAFE  nurse  understand-T.
@@@M2:  SE  understand-T  DAFE  nurse.

      
<Note>  Pronunciation of understand-T is [anda:standta], not [anda:stud].   

   '-T' is always pronounced [ta].

Ex.  Parents made their daughter medical doctor.

M1:  ILynT-W  FEI  ILyTE-O  UKyMIST-E  BLE-T.      (Parent their daughter medical doctor
 make-ed.)
M2:  ILynT-W  BLE-T  FEI  ILyTE-O  UKyMIST-E.      (Parent make-ed their daughter
medical doctor.)

@@<Note>  'ILynT' means 'parents', and '-W' tells that ILynT is subject.  '-T' tells that the
             tense of BLE (= make in English) is past tense.  'FEI' means 'their', 'ILyTE' 'daughter',
             'UKyMIST' 'medical doctor' respectively.  In this particular sentence, a causative verb
             'BLE'
can be replaced with a verb 'EKAMS' ( = make/have).

The above example can be written by deleting '-O' and '-E' as follows.

M1:  ILynT-W  FEI  ILyTE  UKyMIST  BLE-T.
M2:  ILynT-W  BLE-T  FEI  ILyTE  UKyMIST

@@<Note>  'BLE' is causative verb such as 'make' in English.  You can write the above example

  as follows if you prefer to use English over NOXILO int'l word.   However, the use of  
             -W,  FEI,  BLE,  and  -T  is still mandatory because they are Basic Words.

           M1:  Parent-W  FEI  daughter  medical doctor  BLE-T.
           M2:  Parent-W  BLE-T  FEI  daughter  medical doctor.

In the following examples,  'OC' in  SOCV (SVOC in M2)  means S2 + V2 .
That is,  S(OC)V means  S1(S2V2)V1,  and  SV(OC) means  S1V1(S2V2).
For these particular types, the object (= S2) should be written by the basic form,  
and  '-O'  and  '-E'  can (should) be omitted.

Ex.  We heard her singing.

M1:  SEN  MAFE  sing-In  hear-T.
M2:  SEN  hear-T  MAFE  sing-In.

Ex.  We heard her singing a song.

M1:  SEN  MAFE  song-O  sing-In  hear-T.
M2:  SEN  hear-T  MAFE  sing-In  song-O.

    <Note>  '-O' after 'MAFE' can be omitted, but another '-O' after 'song' can not be omitted.
          There are no Articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO, and therefore 'a' is not translated.

Ex.  Teacher keeps the boy standing.

M1:  Teacher-W  boy  stand-In  keep.
M2:  Teacher-W  keep  boy  stand-In.

     <Note>  There are no articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO, and therefore 'the' is not translated.

Ex.  I had my hair cut.

M1:  SE  SEI  hair  cut-ZE  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  SEI  hair  cut-ZE.

     <Note>  'ZE' means passive voice.  'BLE' is causative verb.   'SEI' means 'my' (possesion).

Ex.  I had my TV repaired.

M1:  SE  SEI  TV  repair-ZE  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  SEI  TV  repair-ZE.

Ex.  I had him repair my TV.

M1:  SE  MAFE  SEI  TV-O  repair  BLE-T.   ............   S (O C) V
M2:  SE  BLE-T  MAFE  repair  SEI  TV-O.   ............   S V (O C)

     <Note>  C (verb) has an object 'SEI TV-O'.

Ex.  Sorry,  I kept you waiting.
@

M1:  IZVINII,  SE  ME  wait-In  BLE-T.
M2:  IZVINII,  SE  BLE-T  ME  wait-In.

     <Note>  'IZVINII' means 'sorry' as we learned earlier (Greetings).
@

Ex.  You should make yourself understood.
@

M1:  ME  MEL  understand-ZE  GIMI  BLE.
@
M2:  ME  GIMI  BLE  MEL  understand-ZE.
@

     <Note>  'MEL' means 'youself' (MENL yourselves, SEL myself, SENL ourselves, etc). 
           'GIMI' is auxiliary verb, and means 'should'.  Auxiliary verbs are always put before verb.
           All auxiliary verbs start with GI such as GIKA (may/permission), GIKI (had better do),

    GI (sure to do),  GIMA (can/capable/possible), GIMI (should/need/obligation),

    GIM (must/strong obligation),  GIME (may/probably).

Ex.   You should make her understand you (=yourself).

M1:  ME  DAFE  ME-O (MEL-O)  understand  GIMI  BLE.
M2:  ME  GIMI  BLE  DAFE  understand  ME-O (MEL-O).


<<  Addendum  >>

We take a look at the drawings of the basic structure of NOXILO grammar.  For the sentence pattern of SOV, SVO, and VSO
which are tied with the red line, the 'S' always comes before 'O', whereas in the sentence pattern OSV, OVS, and VOS which
are tied with blue line, 'O' comes before 'S'.  The author (MIZUTA Sentaro) supposes that there is none or very few Cartesian
in such society with O-first-language.  What do you think ? 

NOXILO covers the first 3 patterns of SOV, SVO, and VSO.  The VSO type is not explained in this webpage yet since
the no. of the speakers may be less than 3% of the world populations.  However, it (VSO) is to be added in the future
(hopefully by the end of year 2013).





   
@    @


The 'x' means any words to be modified. the 'a' means any words that modify x,  and a' means any phrases that modify x,  and  a'' means
any clauses that modify x.

In the following drawing,  the upper portion (triangle) shows the rule about elements, and the lower portion explains the rule concerning
the modification mode of NOXILO.

 
@ @ @@@@@@@            
  

 Note.  For VSO, the ax (example. red book) might be changed to xa (book red).   <16 Dec 2009>



4)   Parts  of  Speech

There are 12 parts of speech; Nouns, Pronouns, Auxiliary verb, Verbals, Adjectives, Adverb, Modification Agents, Composers,
Clause Leaders, Particles, and Naturalists as shown below.

 

 Parts  of  speech

                     @@   Examples of NOXILO International Standard Words

 Nouns

  APLO (love), AFKOR (cooperation), ILyS (son), InFOM (intelligence), EDKEI (education),
 EDyTT
(student),  BEEK (book), LOWT (water), SII (ocean), WIIB (bread), WIIT (wheat)

 Pronouns

 SE ( I ), SEN (We), ME (You), MEN (you), FE (The person), FEN (They), DAFE (He),  MAFE (She),
 TE (It), TEN (They), JE (one), JEN (ones), SEL (myself) 

 Verbs

 APIS (give), CU (sing),  INAnDAS (understand),  RI (is/are),  RIZ (exist),

 RyUR (run),  UYUS (take),  IYAA (would like to do),  IYUS (want/request),  IYAnS (want/require)

 Auxiliary verb

 GIMA (can), GIMI (should), GIM (must), GIME (may) 

 Verbals  n/i

 UYUS-M (verb-noun = gerund), UYUS-K (verb-adjective)

 Adjectives

 AOBI (beautiful), AUB (=DAA; large), AUWA (wide), EILO (yellow),  EIBLA (black),  
 UOS (=XAO; small)

 Adverbs

 YUP (Yes), NAI (No), AIBSOLI (absolutely), BAIZA (by the way), 

KALE (always)

ModoficationAgents
 (post-posision in M1)  n/i
 (pre-position in M2)

 AT (in),  ATL (for M2),  UT (to), UTL (for M2),  IZ (with),  IZL (for M2)

 Composers

 OnD (and),  OA (or),  OTT (but),  OZn (and then),  OENI (therefore)

 Clause Leaders
 (post-positioned in M1)  n/i

 (pre-positioned in M2)

 EEF (if),  EEFL (if),  Dy (whether),  Ky (who, which, when, where,  that),  My (that)

 Particles  n/i

 -W (subject),  -O (object),  -T (ed; past tense),  -R (will, shall; future tense),  -In (.....ing),

 Naturalists

 AA (Ah),  SOO (So)

(Note )  ' n/i ' stands for  'no identity'  in English.

 
@  Nouns

Nouns have only one form, and they are not changed to indicate number or gender.  The same form is used for all circumstances.  
Most NOXILO nouns consist of non-material nouns and material nouns.  Most non-material nouns start with vowel letter A, I, U, or E,
and most material nouns
start with Consonant letter such as B, C, K, S, Y, X.  Most nouns, material or non-material, have radical
(first 2 or 3 letters of the noun), which give us a semantic hint.  For example, a radical 'AP' represents 'love', and 'ED' means 'education'.

The material nouns include anything that we can touch, see, or hear, and that we can measure by various testing equipment in the
experiment room in our school.   Property or nature of materials  such as heat and wave are often started with a consonant letter
although they are not considered material itself.  Please remember there are no Articles ( a, an, the) in NOXILO.

Ex.  non-material nouns;  APLO (love), AFKOR (cooperation), EDKEI (education), EMyURE (party),  InFOM (intelligence),
       UXRAn
(insurance), UKyUM (medical treatment), UKyUMIST (medical doctor).

Ex.  material nouns;  BEA (hair), BEEK (book), BIIUS (house), HEES (earth), SAAn (Sun), SII (sea), YETI (tooth), YOO (car), etc.
 
     <Note> 'BEEK' could be 'a book',  'books',  'the book',  and/or  'the books' in NOXILO.


@  Personal and Impersonal Pronouns

Personal and Impersonal Pronouns have two forms, singular and plural.  Possesive form is made by adding eIf to its subjective form. 

The subjective forms (SE, ME, MAFE, c. SEN, FEN, MAFEN c..) of pronouns and interrogatives do not take e-Wf,  which is an
element particle to show a subject.  W is pronounced [wa].

Also, note that e-Ef[e]  changes to e-Qf[echu],  and e-Of[o]  changes to to e-Lf [ol]  in modification clauses, which
consist of adjective clauses and adverb clauses.   e-Wf, e-Ef, e-Qf, e-Of, and e-Lf are called element particles.

Further, these '-E' and '-Q' are very often omitted in any simple sentences, noun clauses or modification clauses.

Single forms in noun clause

     

      Subjective

      @   Possessive

   @Complementary 

       @ objective

1st

person

SE 

[se]     I

SEI 

[sei]    My

SE-E 

[see]     I

SE-O 

[seo]   me

2nd

person

ME 

[me]  You

MEI 

[mei]  Your

ME-E 

[meo]  You

ME-O 

[meo]  you

3rd

person

FE 

[fe]  The person

FEI 

[fei]  the person's  

FE-E 

[fee]  the person  

FE-O 

[feo]  the person

3rd

   MAFE

 [mafe] He

   DAFE

 [dafe]  She 

   MAFEI

 [mafei] His

   DAFEI

 [dafei]  Her

   MAFE-E

 [mafee] he

   DAFE-E

 [dafee]  she

   MAFE-O

 [mafeo] him

   DAFE-O

 [dafeo]  her

3rd

JE 

[je]  One

JEI 

[jei]  One's

JE-E 

[jee]  one

JE-O

[jeo]  one

3rd

TE 

[te]  It

TEI 

[tei]  Its

TE-E 

[tee]  it

TE-O 

[teo]  it

(Note) Noun clauses include subject clause, complement clause, and object clause.
@@@@@Element Particle '-W' is not necessary for the subjective form of pronouns and interrogatives.
           The '-E' and '-Q' which show complement are very often omitted in any simple sentences.


Plural forms in noun clause

Plural forms are made by adding N [n(u)] at the end of the single forms as follows.

 

        Subjective

         possesives

       complementary

          @objective

1st 

person

SEN@

[sen(u)]   We

SENI  

[seni]   Our

SEN-E 

[sen(u) e]   us

SEN-O

[sen(u)o]   us

2nd 

person

MEN

[men(u)]  You

MENI  

[meni]  Your 

MEN-E

[men(u) e]  you

MEN-O

[men(u) o]  you

3rd person

FEN

[fen(u)]  They

FENI  

[feni]  Their

FEN-E

 [fen(u) e]  they

FEN-O

[fen(u) o]   them

3rd

   MAFEN 
   [mafen(u)]  Men

   DAFEN
   [dafen(u)]  Women

   MAFENI    
   [mafeni]  Men's

   DAFENI  
   [dafeni]   Women's

   MAFEN-E
   [mafen(u) e]   men

   DAFEN-E
   [dafen(u) ]   women

   MAFEN-O
   [mafen(u) o]   men

   DAFEN-O
   [dafen(u) ]  women

3rd

JEN

 [jen(u)]  Ones

JENI  

[jeni]  One's

JEN-E

 [jen(u) e]  ones

JEN-O

 [jen(u) o]  ones

3rd

TEN

 [ten(u)]  They

TENI

 [teni]  Their

TEN-E

 [ten(u) e]  them 

TEN-O

 [ten(u) o]  them 

(Note)  Noun clauses become subject clauses, complement clauses or object clauses.
@@@@@ Element Particle '-W' is not necessary for subjective forms of pronouns.
            The '-E' and '-Q' which show elements are not necessary in any simple sentences.

 

@  Verbs

Verbs consist of bodily verbs and non-bodily verbs.  The former has unique own radical, but the latter usually inherit the radical
of original part of speech such as noun or adjective.

Sample of bodily verbs

Bodily verbs

@meaning

 Part of body to use

@Radical

BU  [bu:]

tear

eye

BU

ByUn  [byu:N]

smell

nose

ByU

CU  [tsu:]

sing

mouth

CU

DUG  [du:g]

throw

hand

DU

DyUMI  [dyu:mi]

swim

whole body

DyU

JUI  [ju:i]

sit on chair

foot

JU

KU  [ku:]

eat & drink

mouth

KU

MU  [mu:]

see/look

eye

MU

PUS  [pu:s]

send

hand

PU

QUS  [chu:s]

stand up

foot

QU

RU  [ru:]

talk/say

mouth

RU

RyU  [ryu:]

walk

foot

RyU

RyUR  [ryu:r]

run

foot

RyU

TUV  [tu:v]

have

hand

TU

TyU  [tyu:]

lean

upper or whole body

TyU

YU  [yu:]

read

eye

YU

 

Sample of non-bodily verbs

Non-bodily verbs   

meaning

 Original word

Radical of original word

APLIS (vt)

like

APLI

AP

APLOS (vt)

love

APLO

AP

BIIKOnS (vt)

construct

BIIKOn

BII

EDKEIS (vt)

educate

EDKEI

ED

EHyUZ (vi)

sleep

EHyU

EHy

IYUS (vt)

want

IYUS

IY

UDAKKS (vt)

attack

UDAKK

UD

 

œ   Tense

Verbs do not have different forms to indicate the number or gender of the subject of the sentence.  Past tense is indicated by
adding  -TA  or  -T (both pronounced [ta].  '-' should not be read.) immediately after the basic form ( = present form) of verbs.  
Future tense is indicated by adding  -RE  or  -R  (both pronounced [re] ).

Ex.  APLIS    [aplis]  (elikef in English) --- present tense

      APLIS-T  [aplista]  (liked) --- past tense

      APLIS-R  [aplisre]  (will like) --- future rtense

œ   Progressive  and  Passive

Ex.  APLIS-In    [aplisiN]  (liking)  ---  progressive form

APLIS-ZE    [aplisze]  (is liked) --- passive form

APLIS-TInZE  [aplistaiNze]  (was being liked)
--- past progressive & passive form

APLIS-RInZE  [aplisreiNze]  (will be liked) --- future progressive & passive form

  

The following table shows the possible combinations of tense, progressives, and voice, using a verb DU [du:], which is taken from
English verb  'do'.

                    Past

            @    Present

                  @ Future 

 Progressive

 DU-TIn  [du: taiN

 DU-In  [du: iN

 DU-RIn  [du: reiN

 Passive

 DU-TZE  [du: taze

 DU-ZE  [du: ze

 DU-RZE  [du: reze

Progressive-passive

 DU-TInZE  [du: taiNze

 DU-InZE  [du: iNze

 DU-RInZE  [du: reiNze

 

œ   @Causative Verbs;  BLE [ble] (to make or to have)  and  BLU [blu:] (polite causative).

(note) @These are partially explained in the SOCV (SVOC) pattern.

The basic pattern of the causative sentence is as follows.

M1:  S + ( O + C ) + BLE.
M2:  S + BLE + ( O + C ).

M1:  S + ( O + C ) + BLU.
M2:  S + BLU + ( O + C ).

It is important that 'O' is expressed in basic form (bare form),  and therefore 'O' never have -O at the end of 'O'.
From the standpoint of the meaning of the ( O + C ) above,  the ( O + C ) is equals to ( S2 + V2 ) as below.

M1:  S1 +  ( S2 + V2 )  + BLE.
M2:  S1 + BLE  +  ( S2 + V2 ).

Ex.  I  had my child go to school.

M1:  SE  SEI  BOQIL  AnXUL  UT  go  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  SEI  BOQIL  go  UTL  AnXUL.

     
<Note> 'BOQIL' means 'child'.   'BOQIL' is in basic form, and ,therefore, neither have

  -O  nor  -W  at the end of BOQIL.   'AnXUL' means 'school'.

If V2 (= C) has any object O2, the sentence pattern would be as follows.

M1:  S1 + ( S2 + O2 + V2 ) + BLE.
M2:  S1 + BLE + ( S2 + V2 + O2 ).

It is important that  S2 (= O)  neither have -W  nor  -O,  whereas O2 does have -O.

Ex.  We will have our parents buy a big dictionary.

M1:  SEN  SENI  ILynT  AUB  BEEDIK-O  UYB  BLU-R.
M2:  SEN  BLU-R  SENI  ILynT  UYB  AUB  BEEDIK-O.

      <Note>  'BLU' is more polite than BLE.   'SENI  ILynT' (our parents) neither have -O nor -W.
@@@@@@@ @'ILynT' means 'mother and father' (parents).  'AUB' means 'large',  BEEDIK dictionary,
@@@@@@@ @AUB large, UYB to buy.

If V2 (= C) has any two object O2a and O2b the sentence pattern would be as follows.

M1:  S1 + ( S2 + O2a + O2b + V2 ) + BLE.
M2:  S1 + BLE + ( S2 + V2 + O2a + O2b ).

Ex.   I had him give our dog fried-chicken.

M1:  SE  MAFE  SENI  dog-O  fried-chiken-O  give  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  MAFE  give  SENI  dog-O  fried-chiken-O.


The following sentence is also expressed by using 'BLE'.

Ex.   Parents made thier daughter medical doctor.

M1:  ILynT-W  FEI  ILyUTE  UKyUMIST  BLE-T.
M2:  ILynT-W  BLE-T  FEI  ILyUTE  UKyUMIST.


œ@@Plural@ actions

Simultaneous or parallel actions are described by simply arraying two verbs with ',' inbetween them, or connecting  two verbs
with OnD, which means is 'and' in English.  Actions that their timely order is less important can be described in this manner, too.

Ex.  We eat and drink.

M1:  SEN  KUI,  KUD.
M2:  SEN  KUI,  KUD.

M1:  SEN  KUI  OnD  KUD.
M2:  SEN  KUI  OnD  KUD.

     <Note> 'KUI' means 'to eat', and 'KUD'  'to drink'.

Ex.  We ate and drank.

M1:  SEN  KUI-T  OnD  KUD.
M2:  SEN  KUI-T  OnD  KUD.

     <Note> The '-T' ( the sign of 'past' ) is not necessary for the 2nd verb when the tense of 

 the both verbs is the same (past tense in this example).

œ@ Consecutive (sequential) actions

Two (or three) verbs are arrayed in a timely order with OZn.  The OZn [ozN] means  'then'  or  'and then'  in English.

Ex.  She went and slept there.

M1:  DAFE  go-T  OZn  BOIE  sleep.
M2:  DAFE  go-T  OZn  BOIE  sleep.

    <Note> 'BOIE' means 'there'.   Adverbs are put before verbs though they (adverbs, adverb

 phrases, adverb clauses) have a bit of degree of freedom in terms of the positions.  If you do not emphasize the timely order,
you can still use OnD instead of OZn.   Incidentally, the word corresponding 'Here' is 'TOIE'.

œ@ Cause  and  effect

Personal feelings (joy, angry, surprises, etc.) and their causes are expressed by a set of corresponding verb and 'UE'  ('UEL' for M2).   
The 'UE' ('UEL') are Modofication Agent (postposition for M1and preposition for M2), and they mean  'at',  'by',  or  'with'  in English.

Ex.  I  was surprised with it.

M1:  SE  TE  UE  IHSAZ-T.
M2:  SE  IHSAZ-T  UEL  TE.

    <Note> 'IHSAZ' means 'to surprise'.  IHSAZ often accompanies by Modification Agent
@

@@@@@UE (UEL for M2), which shows the reason for surprise.

Ex.  The person was surprised at seeing it.

M1:  FE  TE-O  MU-M  UE  IHSAZ-T.
M2:  FE  IHSAZ-T  UEL MU-M  TE-O.

     <Note>  'MU' means 'to see'.   The 'Verb-M' is Verb-noun, which corresponds to a

 @@@@@@@gerund in English.   We will learn the Verb-noun later.  

The examples above are better than those below because they are shorter by a letter.

@@@@@M1:  FE  TE-O  MU-T  OZn  IHSAZ-T. 
@@@@@M2:  FE  MU-T  TE-O   OZn  IHSAZ-T.


œ   General verbs and Specific verbs

General verbs such as 'to like', 'to plan', 'to think', and 'to want' are usually accompanied with specific verbs such as 'to write'
and 'to buy' and 'to swim'.  In Noxilo, these two verbs are connected with '<' for M1
@and '>' for M2.   Both '<' and '>' are lightly
pronounced [N].  Please notice that the order of two verbs are just opposite for M1 and M2 as shown below.   If the tense of
both verbs is the same, the tense particle for the specific verb can be omitted.

M1:  specific verb  <  general verb           Ex.  swim  <  want
M2:  general verb  >  specific verb           Ex.  want  >  swim

Ex.  I  want to swim.

M1:  SE  swim  <  IYUS       Pronounce [se] [swim] [N] [iyu:s].
M2:  SE  IYUS  >  swim       Pronounce [se] [iyus] [N] [swim].

       <Note> 'SE' means 'I'.   'IYUS' means 'to want'.
                  Incidentally,  'IYAA' means 'would like to' (polite expression of IYUS), and
                 'IYAnS' means 'to require', which is usualy used upon legal base.

 

@  Auxiliary  verbs@

Auxuliary verbs modify verbs. They have only form, and never change to indicate tense or number.  They are placed immediately
before the verb.

 List  of  auxiliary verb

  Auxiliary verbs

               @ Meaning

              Remarks

 GIKA  [gika]

 may

 permission

 GIKI    [giki]

 had better do

 

 GIK      [gik(u)]

 will do, sure to do

 

 GIKE   [gike]

 be about to do

 

 GIKO  [giko]

 have done

 completion

 GILA   [gila]

 have ever done

 experience

 GILI    [gili]

 must

 probable with confidence

 GILU     [gilu]

 have done

 continuation

 GILE   [gile]

 glad to do

 

 GILO  [gilo]

 dare to do

 

 GIMA  [gima]

 can

 be able to do

 GIMI   [gimi]

 should

 obligation (I should go.)

 GIM    [gim(u)] 

 must

 strong obligation

 GIME  [gime]

 may

 presumption

 GIMO  [gimo]

 will/shall/would/should

 condotional

 GIUD   [giud]  would  modest/polite

 GIVA  [giva]

 unwillingly do

 

 GIVI   [givi]

 can't help doing

 

 GIVLI  [givli]

 (do) in the disguise of  

 

 GIVn   [givN]

 (do) in vain

 

 GITT  [gi_tu]

 wish (were--,  would do,
 had done--,  would have done)

 wish the contrary-to-fact

 

Usage of Auxiliary verb


GILA  go-T   [gila go:ta] ...... has ever gone
NAI  GILA  go-T   [nai gila go:ta] ...... no experience that one went
GILA  NAI  go-T   [gila nai go:ta] ...... experience that one didn't go
NAI  GILA  NAI  go-T   [nai gila nai go:ta] ...... no experience that one didn't go

GIME  go
NAI  GIME  go
GIME  NAI  go
NAI  GIME  NAI  go

GIMA  go
NAI  GIMA  go
GIMA  NAI  go
NAI  GIMA  NAI  go

GIME  GIMA  go
GIME  GIMA  NAI  go
GIME  NAI  GIMA  go
NAI  GIME  GIMA  go

(Note)  GIME  GIMA can be written as  GIME-MA, and is read as [gimema].


Ex.  She may be able to go.

M1:  DAFE  GIME-MA  go.
M2:  DAFE  GIME-MA  go.

Ex.  They have been married for 30 years.

M1:  FEN  30  SAAL  KAn  GIL  marry.
M2:  FEN  GIL  marry  30  SAAL  KAn.

     
<Note> 'KAn' means 'for' (time period), which can be replaced with 'URP' (URPL for M2).

Ex.  I  have ever gone to Istanbul.


M1:  SE  Istanbul  UT  GILA go-T.
M2:  SE  GILA go-T UTL  Istanbul.

Ex.  I  have been in Istanbul.

M1:  SE  Istanbul  AT  GILA  RIZ-T.
M2:  SE  GILA  RIZ-T  ATL  Istanbul.


GITT  [gi_tu]   

GITT is used to show that the both actions in a if-clause (conditional clause) and a main clause (conclusionary clause) are untrue.

Ex.  If that had been true, I would have written a letter back to her.

M1:  TE  true  RI-T  EEF,  SE  DAFE-O  letter-O  GITT  write-T.
M2:  EEFL  TE  RI-T  true,  SE  GITT  write-T  DAFE-O  letter-O.

       <Note> 'TE' means 'it' or 'that'.   'DAFE-O' means 'her'.   'EEF' (EEFL for M2) means 'if'.
@@@@@@@@@'TE' was not true, consequently I did not write a letter to her.

Ex.   If that were true, I would write a letter to her.

M1:  TE  true  RI  EEF,  SE  DAFE-O  letter-O  GITT  write.
M2:  EEFL  TE  RI  true,  SE  GITT  write  DAFE-O  letter-O.

       <Note> That is not true, so I won't write a letter to her.

Ex.   If that were to be true, I would write a letter to her.

M1:  TE  true  RI-R  EEF,  SE  DAFE-O  letter-O  GITT  write-R.
M2:  EEFL  TE  RI-R  true,  SE  GITT  write-R  DAFE-O  letter-O.

       <Note> That will never be true, so I won't write a letter to her.

(Note)  In NOXILO, if-clauses (conditional clause) are managed by Clause Leader 'EEF' (= if ) for M1 and 'EEFL' (= if ) for M2.  
NOXILO's conditional clauses without GITT do not show 'true' or 'false' of the contents of the conditional clauses.   
However, when the GITT is used in main (conclusionary) clauses, the contents of the if-clause and main clause with GITT are
both completely false;  thus GITT plays the similar role as  'if + past'  and  'if + past perfect'  in English.



@  Verbals

There are 2 kinds of verbals; verb-noun  and verb-adjective.  These are made by adding particular letter (-M,  -D,  or  -K) to
the end of verbs.  Verb-nouns (verb-M or verb-D) work as verb and noun at the same time.  The English counterpart for verb-nouns
would be gerund.  By the same token, Verb-adjectives work as verb and adjective.  The functions of verb-adjectives (verb-K)
resemble participles or relative pronouns in English.

œ  Verb-nouns

Verb-nouns are made by adding  -M  or  -D  at the end of the verb.  Verb-M corresponds to 'that + (S) + V + (O)',  and  
Verb-D  to 'whether + (S) + V + (O)' in English.  Verb-nouns work as a verb and a noun at the same time.  
That is,  a verb-noun, as a verb, can take object/complement, and also it, as a noun, becomes subject, object, or complement.  
Further, verb-nouns get together with Modification Agents to become an adjective phrase or an adverb phrase, which modify
nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, or whole sentence.

@@@(Note)  Modification Agents in Mode II corresponds to 'Prepositions' in English.


Verb-M

             Past

       @ Present

            @Future

 Basic

 -TM   [tam]

 -M [m]

 -RM [rem]

 Progressive

 -TInM [taiNm]

 -InM [iNm]

 -RInM [reiNm]

 Passive 

 -TZEM [tazem]

 -ZEM [zem]

 -RZEM [rezem]

Progressive-passive

 -TInZE[taiNzem

 -InZEM [iNzem

 -RInZEM [reiNzem


Ex.  Seeing is believing.

M1:  MU-M-W  ELBILS-M  (RI).
@@@@pronounced [mu:mwa elbilsm (ri)]
M2:  MU-M-W  (RI)  ELBILS-M.

  <Note> 'MU' means 'to see',  and  ELBILS 'to believe'.   'RI' can be omitted.


Verb-D  (= whether)

              Past

         @Present

             @Future

 Basic

 -TD [tad]

 -D [d]

 -RD [red]

 Progressive

 -TInD [taiNd]

 -InD [iNd]

 -RInD [reiNd]

 Passive 

 -TZED [tazed]

 -ZED [zed]

 -RZED [rezed]

 Progressive-passive

 -TInZED [taiNzed]

 -InZED [iNzed

 -RInZED [reiNzed


Ex.  The point is whether you will go.

M1:  Point-W  ME  ITU-RD  (RI).
M2:  Point-W  (RI)  ME  ITU-RD.

      <Note> 'ITU' means 'to go'.


œ@ Verb-adjectives

A verb-adjective is formed by adding  -K  or  -KE  to the end of the verb.


Verb-K   (attributive use)

The functions of the verb-K resemble that of participles, to-infinitives, and/or relative pronouns in English.
@
The Verb-K modifies nouns.  The following is a verb-adjective table using a verb  IMS ('to ask' in English).

           Past 

       @Present  

        @@@Future 

 Basic

 IMS-TK
 [ims tak]

 IMS-K
 [ims ku]

 IMS-RK
 [ims rek]

 Progressive

 IMS-TInK
 [ims taiNk]

 IMS-InK
 [ims iNk]

 IMS-RInK
 [ims reiNk]

 Passive

 IMS-TZEK
 [ims tazek]

 IMS-ZEK
 [ims zek]

 IMS-RZEK
 [ims rezek]

 Progressive-passive

 IMS-TInZEK
 [ims taiNzek

 IMS-InZEK
 [ims iNzek

 IMS-RInZEK
 [ims reiNzek


Ex.
@The person who will ask a question is about to stand up.

M1:  IMKE-O
@IMS-K  REn-W  GIKE  stand-up.
M2:  REn-W  IMS-K
@IMKE-O  GIKE  stand-up.

  <Note> 'IMKE' means 'question'.   IMS means to ask, and REn person.
@@@@@  'GIKE' is auxiliary verb, and it means 'be about to'.

Ex.
@The person who did not ask left.

M1:  NAI  IMS-TK  REn-W  leave-T.
M2:  NAI  IMS-TK  REn-W  leave-T.

Ex.
@The person who is asked is the officer of the U.S. Army.

M1:  IMS-ZEK  REn-W  U.S.  Army  UB  officer  (RI).
M2:  IMS-ZEK  REn-W  (RI)  officer  UBL  U.S.  Army.

  
@@<Note> 'IMS' means 'to ask', and 'IMS-ZEK' means 'one that is asked'.  'ZE' is passive form of verbs. @
         'UB' (UBL for M2) is modification agent, and it means 'of'.  
@@@@'U.S. Army UB officer' can be written 'U.S. Army'Z officer'  or  simply 'U.S. Army officer'.

Ex.  The person who swam, raise your hand !

M1:  YO  Swim-TK  JE  hand-O  EOPS.
M2:  YO  Swim-TK  JE  EOPS  hand-O.

@@@<Note> 'Swim-TK' is read [swimtak].   'JE' is Personal Pronoun, and means 'one' in English.
       
@@  'EOPS' means 'to raise'.    Imperative sentence start with 'YO'.


Verb-KE   (predicative use)

Verb-KE is used as a complement in SCV (SVC for M2) and SOCV (SVOC for M2) type sentences.

The following is a verb-adjective table using a verb  IGyUZ (vi.  'be/get injured' in English).

          Past              Present             Future     
 Basic  IGyUZ-TKE
 [igyu:z take]
 IGyUZ-KE
 [igyu:z ke]
 IGyUZ-RKE
 [igyu:z reke]
 Progressive  IGyUZ-TInKE
 [igyu:z taiNke]
 IGyUZ-InKE
 [igyu:z iNke]
 IGyUZ-RInKE
 [igyu:z reiNke]
 Passive  IGyUZ-TZEKE
 [igyu:z tazeke]
 IGyUZ-ZEKE
 [igyu:z zeke]
 IGyUZ-RZEKE
 [igyu:z rezeke]
 Progressive-passive   IGyUZ-TInZEKE
 [igyu:z taiNzeke] 
 IGyUZ-InZEKE
 [igyu:z iNzeke] 
 IGyUZ-RInZEKE
 [igyu:z reiNzeke] 


Ex.  Oh !  the oldman is injured.

M1:  OO !  BOLDn-W  IGyUZ-TKE  (RI)B
M2:  OO !  BOLDn-W  (RI)  IGyUZ-TKE.  

@<Note> OO = Oh/Ah.   BOLDn = oldman.   IGyUZ = get injured.



@  Interrogatives

There are four types of Interrogative Sentences in NOXILO, as shown below.

Type 1:  One that only requests a YUP ('Yes' in English)  or NAI ('No' in English)
Type 2:  One that seeks an explanation.
Type 3:  Tag questions
Type 4:  Rhetorical questions (Irony).

Interrogative Sentences in NOXILO have the following  features.

œ  Type 1 and Type 2 have  '?'  or  'ESK'  at the beginning of the sentence.
œ  Type 2 includes the Interrogatives shown in the left column in table below, and,
     unlike English,  the Interrogatives are placed where the missing answers would heve been  originally.
œ  Type 3 (Tag questions) have  ETOn  at the end of the sentence.
œ  Type 4 (Rhetorical) have  ENA  in the beginning of the sentence.  Also, this type of
@ interrogative sentence sometimes contains Interrogatives such as  HyA ('why' in English)  and  HyE ('how').

œ  The word order of Interrogative Sentences is the same as Affirmative Sentences;  the word@order does not change for any
reason in NOXILO except for the reversion between M1 and M2.
œ@In conversation, the '?' (or 'ESK') can simply be pronounced [e] instead of [esk].

 

 Interrogatives

  Pronunciation

    @Classifications

          @   @Meaning

HA
HAS
HANA

[ha]
[has]
[hana]

Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative verb
Interrogative adjective

what

HI
HIS
HINA
HILI

[hi]
[his]
[hina]
[hili]

Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative verb
Interrogative adjective
Interrogative adverb

which

HU

[hu:]

Interrogative pronoun

Who

HE
HENA
HELI

[he]
[hena]
[heli]

Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative adjective
Interrogative adverb

when

HO
HONA
HOLI

[ho]
[hona]
[holi]

Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative adjective
Interrogative adverb

where

HyA
HyAA

[hya]
[hya:]

Interrogative partcle
Interrogative adverb

why

Hy
HyNA
HyLI

[hy(u)]
[hy(u)na]
[hy(u)li]

Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative adjective
Interrogative adverb

How much (degree)

HyE
HyELI

[hye]
[hyeli]

Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative adverb

How (method)

ESK  or   ?

[esk],
[e] for conversation

Interrogative adverb

to be placed at the beginning
of interrogative sentences.

ETOn

[etoN]

Interrogative adverb

Tag questions

ENA

[ena]

Interrogative adverb

Rhetorical questions (Irony)

 


Here, we see some examples of type 1 and type 2.


œ   Type 1

Ex.  Did you have a lunch ?

M1 :  ?  ME  lunch-O  KU-T.
M2 :  ?  ME  KU-T  lunch-O.

@@<Note>  KU means 'to eat and drink'.   A possible answer to the above question would be as  follows.

          M1,  M2:   YUP  or

          M1,  M2:   YUP, SE KU-T.   or   YUP, SE DU-T.

or

M1,  M2:   NAI  or

M1,  M2:   NAI, SE NAI KU-T.  or  NAI, SE NAI DU-T.

œ   Type 2

The obvious difference between NOXILO Interrogative Sentences and the English equivalent is the position of the Interrogatives.  
As mentioned before, the Interrogatives of NOXILO should be put in the position where the missing answer-word was originally
occupied.  In addition, the word order never changes and remains the same as the word order of affirmative sentences.  
In conversation, '?' (or ESK) can be pronounced [e] instead of [esk].

Ex.   What is the problem?

M1 :  ?  HA  problem  (RI).
M2 :  ?  HA  (RI)  problem.

    <Note> The '-E' that complements the word 'problem' is not needed because the sentence is simple. RI can be omitted
                 because it's a 'S be C' (SC be for M1) type sentence in present tense.

Ex.   What did you eat ?

M1 :  ?  ME  HA-O  KUI-T.
M2 :  ?  ME  KUI-T  HA-O.

    
<Note> KUI means 'to eat', and KUD 'to drink', and KU 'to eat and drink' (= have).
         
@    KUI can be replaced with KU in this example.

Ex.   What are these parts for ?

M1 :  ?  TE  HAI  part  (RI).
M2 :  ?  TE  (RI)  HAI  part.

     <Note>  HAI is possesive form of HA, which isn't seen in English.  

     <Note>  Possible answer would be

             M1:  TE engine UB parts (RI).
                M2:  TE (RI) parts UBL engine.

 

The following is the list of interrogatives used in the type 2, 3, and 4.

Interro
Prono.
Subject



possess.



compleme.



object

Interro.
Verb

Interro.
Adjective

Interro.
Adverb

Interro.
Particle

Clause
Leaders
(for ref)

English
(for ref)

HA
What

HAI
what

HA-E
What

HA-O
What

HAS
do what

HANA
What

what

HI
Which

HII
which

HI-E
Which

HI-O
Which

HIS
do which

HINA
Which

HILI
Which

which

HU
Who

HUI
whom

HU-E
Whom

HU-O
Whom

who

HE
When

HEI
when

HE-E
When

HE-O
When

HENA
when
@

HELI
When

EEA

when

HO
Where

HOI
where

HO-E
Where

HO-O
Where

HONA
where

HOLI
Where

AAT

where

HyAA
Why

HyA
why

IID

why

Hy
How much

HyI
How much

Hy-E
How much

Hy-O
How much

HyNA
How much

HyLI
How much

how
(degree)

HyE
How

HyEI
How

HyE-E
How

HyE-O
How

HyELI
How

how
(method)




@  Adjectives

Adjectives are similar to their English counterparts.  They are placed before nouns or pronouns, and therefore an expression
such as AOBI DAFE (= beautiful She) is possible in NOXILO.  Adjectives never change their form to any case.  In NOXILO,
there are no articles such as eaf, eanf, and ethef in English.  Here, learners are advised to memorize the following special
adjectives.

Adjectives

Pronunciation

  Meaning

TO

[to]

this

BOI

[boi]

that

SOM

[som]

some

MUQ

[mu:ch]

many/much

PLU

[plu:]

plural

SGL

[sgl]

single

OOL

[o:l]

all

NAI

[nai]

no/not

General adjectives are the most common adjectives that show a specific state or@conditions such as  'red',  'kind',  'last', 
'abstract',  'fast',  'following',  etc.  Any general adjectives of the ISW have, like nouns and bodily verbs, a special characteristic
spelling called 'radical',  which is shown in details in the Webpage 7 in English version.  Some examples are as follows.

Radicals & it's meaning      General adjectives with the radical

AI     base, logic .................... AIDRn (direct),  AInD (independent),  AIPO (possible),  AIRI (real),  AITR (true)
AO    good, neutral .............. AOBI (beautiful),  AOG (good),  AOIn (intellectual),  AOPAA (proper),  AORDI (ready for)
UE    feature, density ......... UEKA (curvy),  UERA (round),  UEPO (pointed),  UEST (straight),  UESKyA (scattered)
UII    bad  ................................. UIIBA (bad),  UIIG (ugly),  UIIF (false),  UIIDE (dangerous),  UIIMA (mad),  UIIPA (imperfect)
EI     color ..............................  EIBLA (black),  EILO (yellow),  EIMA (magenta/red),  EIPI (pink),  EIS (blue),  EITA (white)

Please note that the derived adjectives inherit the 'radical of the original word' rather than the radicals mentioned above,
and most derived adjectives often have NA or a BL, a suffix at the end of the word.  

Examples of derived adjective:

Derived adjectives                            Original words     

AFAAVNA  (of welfare) ............................ AFAAV  (noun.  service/welfare)
IYPENA  (of hope/hopeful) ....................  IYPE  (noun.  hope)
IHMINA  (of wonder) ..................................  IHMI  (noun.  wonder)
PEnXINA  (poisoneous) ............................  PEnXI  (noun.  poison)
KUBL  (edible) ............................................... KU  (bodily verb.  to eat and drink)


Comparison

The following adverbs are placed before adjectives to soften (weaken) or strengthen the meaning of adjectives.

LEST  cc  mostly weaken the meaning of adjectives (or adverbs)

LEE   cc  weaken

FAA   cc  strengthen

FAST  cc  mostly strengthen

Modification Agent eANf (ANL for M2) is often used to make comparisons.  AN (ANL) means ecompared with ---f.

Ex.  He was more kind compared to her.

M1:  MAFE DAFE AN FAA kind RI-T.

M2:  MAFE RI-T FAA kind ANL DAFE.

    <Note> MAFE means eHef, and DAFE means eShef.

 

@  Adverbs

Adverbs are similar to their English counterparts, and modifying verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and sentences as a whole.  Adverbs
never change their form, and do not have any characteristic spelling, but derived adverbs have an eLIf ending as a derivative affix.

Example of derived adverbs:

AOBILI  (beautifully)  ---  from AOBI  (adj. beautiful)

AINESALI  (necessarily)  ---  from AINESA  (adj. necessary)

IAAKLI  (kindly)  ---  from IAAK  (adj. kind/gentle)

The following is the sample of frequently used non derived adverbs.

Adverbs

Pronunciation

  Meaning

YUP

[yu:p]

Yes

YUPn

[yu:pN]

Yes, of course

SEAn

[seaN]

I see.

NAI

[nai]

no

NAIn

[naiN]

never

NOA

[noa]

nor

TOA

[toa]

here

BOIE

[boie]

there

BOIT

[boit]

that time/then

SAI/SAILI

[sai/Sali]

again (re-)

TASUn

[tasu:N]

soon

TAFn

[tafN]

often

TASAM

[tasam]

sometimes

WAGO

[wago]

ago

XAOn

[shaoN]

only

YAK

[yak]

about

ZAO

[zao]

very

 


@  Modification Agents

There are 2 types of modification agents (MAs);  the MAs that work with nouns (pronouns, gerunds),  and the MAs that work
with verbs.  Both types form modification phrase (either adjective phrase or adverb phrase),  and modify other words such as
nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs or verb.  

Any MAs in Mode I are put after noun, pronoun, gerund, or verb, so it is called 'postpositions', whereas the MA in Mode II are put
before noun, pronoun, gerund, or verb, so it is called 'prepositions'.  That is, the English counterpart of MAs in Mode II would be
'prepositions'. 

Mode I :   Noun (pronoun, gerund, or verb)  +  MA 
Mode II :   MA  +  Noun (pronoun, gerund, or verb)

Unlike English, the nouns, pronouns, or gerunds which are paired with the MAs are always in subject mode instead of object mode
as  'with I'  in NOXILO instead of  'with me'  in English.

Adding a letter 'L' at the end of MAs for Mode I, you have the MAs for Mode II.  That is, the MAs in Mode II always have L-ending,
and, naturally one letter (L) longer than the corresponding MAs in Mode I. 

œ@MAs that work with nouns (pronouns, gerunds)  - - -  25 out of some 80 MAs in total.

Mode I

Mode II

 meaning

AB

ABL

about/concerning

AE

AEL

except for

AF

AFL

after

AN

ANL

compared to

AT

ATL

at (place)

AY

AYL

by (means)

IC

ICL

until

IL

ILL

like, as (resemblance)

IM

IML

from (origin)

IN

INL

in (place/location)

IO

IOL

for (for the sake of)

IZ

IZL

with (together)

UA

UAL

to (ex. Itfs good to him.)

UB

UBL

of  (belong)

UL

ULL

unlike (no-resemblance)

UN

UNL

on (contacting)

UO

UOL

before

UT

UTL

to (toward)

UZ

UZL

besides (in addition to)

EA

EAL

at (time)

ED

EDL

for/seeking for

EF

EFL

If

EG

EGL

iff (only if)

EN ENL even if

EO

EOL

for/to (corresponding/comparison)

EU

EUL

in accordance with

(Note) EF/EFL, EG/EGL, and EN/ENL can work with verbs, adjectives, and
adverbs as well as nouns (pronouns, gerunds) so that you can easily make
hypothesis or cencession. ...... Version 3.0   (1 October 2016)


Examples :

                @   Mode I

      Japanese

              @  Mode II

        @English

@plan  AB
 iMA is post-positionedj
 Œv‰ζ about   ABL  plan
 iMA is pre-posi.j
@about  plan

  Pari  UT 
 (MA is post-positioned) 

 ƒpƒŠ@to

  UTL  Pari
 (MA is pre-posi.) 

  to  Pari

  7am  IM 
 (MA is post-positioned)

  7am  from

  IML  7am
 (MA is pre-posi.)

  from  7am

  SE  IZ
 (MA is post-positioned)

 Ž„  with

  IZL  SE
 (MA is pre-posi.)

  with  me 

<Note>  SE means ' I '.   Both  SE-O  IZ  and  IZL  SE-O  are wrong because  SE-O  is an object mode.


œ   MAs that work with verbs  (only 6 MAs)

Mode  I

Mode II

meaning

BI

BIL

to show degree of situation using particular event

CI

CIL

to show proper or improper of particular action

DI

DIL

to do (for goal/aim/purpose)

‚e‚h FIL  if (do)
‚f‚h GIL  iff (do),  exclusive if 
‚i‚h  JIL in (doing),  while,  as

Examples:  

BI   (BIL  for  M2) @ @@ (so) --- as to do@

BI  (BIL) show the particular condition or situation with the informative action (event).

Ex.  The American lady was so kind as to nurture many orphans.

M1:  American lady-W  2  orphan-L  nurture  BI  kind  RI-T.
M2:  American lady-W  RI-T  kind  BIL  nurture  2  orphan-L.

Ex.  My son was so folish as to leave his car unlocked.

M1:  SEI  son-W  MAFEI  car (-O)  unlocked (-E)  leave  BI  foolish  RI-T.
M2:  SEI  son-W  RI-T  foolish  BIL  leave  MAFEI  car (-O)  unlocked (-E).

     <Note>  '-O' means that 'car' is object,  and -E means 'unlocked' is complement.
                Both '-O' and '-E' can be deleted.

Ex.  Are you so sad as to cry ?

M1:  ?  ME  cry  BI  sad  RI.
M2:  ?  ME  RI  sad  BIL  cry.

Ex.  Is it incident as to cry ?     ( = Is it really sad incident as to cry ? )

M1:  ? TE  cry  BI  incident  RI.
M2:  ? TE  RI  incident  BIL  cry.

    <Note> '?' is pronounced [esk], but can be pronounced [e] in conversation.
               Noun 'incident' is modified by 'cry BI' (M1) and by 'BIL cry' (M2).

               The 'incident' is modificand.

Ex.   It was a terrorism as to have killed 500 people.    ( = It was so horrible terrorism as to have killed 500 people.)

M1:  TE  500  REn-O  kill  BI  terrorism RI-T.
M2:  TE  RI-T  terrorism  BIL  kill  500  REn-O.

   
<Note> kill-T is improper because the tense of the terrorism and killing is the same.
               Noun 'terrorism' is modified by '500 REn-O kill BI' (M1) and by 'BIL kill 500 REn-O'
(M2).


CI   (CIL  for  M2)

CI  (CIL )  is used to evaluate of feasibility, proper, or improper of any particular purpose or action.

Ex.  This problem is hard to solve.

M1:  TO  problem-W  solve  CI  hard  (RI).
M2:  TO  problem-W  (RI)  hard  CIL  solve.

Ex.  Gustaf is too young to marry Karin.

M1:  Gustaf-W  Karin-L  marry  CI  too  young  (RI).
M2:  Gustaf-W  (RI)  too  young  CIL  marry  Karin-L.


Ex.  Nice to meet !  

M1:  Meet  CI  nice.
M2:  Nice  CIL  meet.

Ex.  I am glad to see you. 

M1:  SE  ME-O  see  CI  glad  (RI).
M2:  SE  (RI)  gald  CIL  see  ME-O.

 

DI    (DIL  for  M2)  - - - -@for / in order to do

DI  (DIL)  resembles  'to-infinitive' in English, which connects the purpose and the means (or action).

Ex.  This is a tool to cut trees.

M1:  TO-W  tree-L  cut  DI  tool  (RI).
M2:  TO-W  (RI)  tool  DIL  cut  tree-L.

  
@<Note> 'TO' means 'This'.   Any objects in modifying phrases and modifying clauses have

@ '-L'  at their end  although the object in main (noun) clauses have '-O' at the end.  

'-L' is pronounced [ol],  and '-O' is pronounced [o].

Ex.   It is time to go to school.


M1:  School  UT  go  DI  SAMAE  (RI).
M2:  (RI)  SAMAE  DIL  go  UTL  school.

  <Note> There is no vacant subject 'It' in NOXILO.   'SAMAE' means 'time point' only , whereas
@@@@@ TAIM means either 'time period' or 'time point'.


FI @ (FIL  for  M2)  - - -  if

Ex.  If swim, you'd better take your swim suit.

M1:@Swim  FIA ME  swim-suit-O  GIKI  take. 
M2:  FIL  swim,  ME  GIKI  take  suim-suit-O.

    @<Note> 'GIKI' means 'had better do'.


GI @ (GIL  for  M2)  - - -  iff   ( = only if )

This is so-called exclusive if, and is used in Logic.


JI @ (JIL  for  M2)  - - -  in doing,  while,  as

Ex. 
 Mrs. Lawson passed away peacefully in her sleep.

M1:  DS,  Lawson-W  AOPILI  EHyUZ  JI  passe-away-TB
M2:  DS,  Lawson-W  passed-away-T  JIL  AOPALI  EHyUZ.

M1:@AOPILI  EHyUZ  JIA DS,  Lawson-W@IBDEZ-TB
M2:@JIL  AOPILI  EHyUZ,  DS,  Lawson-W  IBDEZ-TD

      <Note> 'AOPALI' means 'peacefully'.  'EHyUZ' means 'to sleep'.  
                'IBDEZ-T' means 'passd away', which is written pass-away-T in NOXILO.

Knowing a composer OnJ, the above sentence can be written as follows.

M1:  DS, Lawson-W  AOPILI  EHyUZ  OnJ  pass-away-TB
M2:  DS, Lawson-W  AOPILI  EHyUZ  OnJ  pass-away-T.

   <Note> W'll learn a composer 'OnJ' very soon.

 

@  Composers

Composers play role in forming logic.  English counterpart for Composers is Conjunctions such as 'and',  'or', 'therefore', 'because',  etc.  
Please note the Conjunctions such as 'that', 'if', and 'although' are not included; these are categorized into Clause Leaders in NOXILO.
All composers except of 'NOA' start at 'O'.

 Composers

@      Meaning

                                      remarks (example)

 OnD

 and

white car OnD house --> Car is white but house may not.

 OnP

 - do-

white car OnP house --> 'white' modifies both car and house.

 OnS

 - do -

white car OnS house --> 'white' modifies car only.

 OA

 or (probably inclusive)

tea or coffee --> tea or coffee or maybe both.

 OAP

 - do -

hot tea OAP coffee --> 'hot' modifies both tea and coffee.

 OAS

 - do -

hot tea OAS coffee --> 'hot' modifies tea only.

 OI

 or (strictly exclusive)

tea OI coffee --> tea or coffee (Taking both is not allowed)

 OIP

 - do -

hot tea OIP coffee --> 'hot' modifies both tea and coffee.

 OIS

 - do -

hot tea OIS coffee --> 'hot' modifies tea only.

 OU

 or (strictly inclusive)

tea OU coffee --> tea or coffee or both (Both is good, too.)

 OUP

 - do -

hot tea OUP coffee --> 'hot' modifies both tea and coffee.

 OUS

 - do -

hot tea OUS coffee --> 'hot' modifies tea only.

 NOA

 nor

NAIDE ** NOA -- ( = neither ** nor -- ).

 OENI

 Therefore

 OERA

 ,whereas

Younger brother is very kind, whereas older brother is greedy.

 OKyLI  [okyri]

 consequently

 ONEVI

 nevertheless,
 however

ONEVI is placed at the top of independent sentence.
It can be placed between two sentences and tie them as well.
@
ONEVI is more formal than OTT.

 On

 per

 120 Japanese Yen per one U.S. Dolar

 OnJ  do1 while do2 (ing)  two actions are overlapped.

 OOZ

 because

 ORIE

in addition, further

 OST

 Va OST Vb

Plural actions start at the same time.
at least plural actions overlap for a cetain period of time.

 O2ST [onist]

 Vc O2ST Vd

Plural actions start at the same time (t1), and end at the
same time (t2).

 OTO

 symmetry

beauty and love, strength and truth, east wing and west wing

 OTT

 but,  however

OTT is placed at the top of independent sentence.
It can be placed between two sentences and tie them as well.

 OV

 versus

Red Sox OV Yankees game
Washington OV Mosquva

 OZK

 and for that case

He didn't attend,  and for that case

 OZn

 and then

immediately,  soon

 OZUn

 and then

Afterwards


  <Note> UUS (UUSL for M2; 'though' or 'although') is not Composer, but Clause Leader, and

 is always used with subordinate sentence.

@<Note>  Let's see some sister words of 'OOZ' .

@ @@ @OOZ         (Composer)    - - - - - -   because
@@@@@ID (IDL)  @(Modification Agent)  - - -  because of
@@@@@IID (IIDL)   (Clause Leader)  - - - - -  because
@@@@@HyALI       (Prerogative Adverb)  - - - why

 

@  Clause Leaders

English counterparts for Clause Leaders ( CL ) are 'if', 'that', 'which', 'who', 'although', etc.   CLs are put last of the sentence
in Mode I,  and therefore it is called post-clause-leaders.  However, CLs are put first of the sentence in Mode II, and it is called
pre-clause-leaders.  The pre-clause-leader is the same as Conjunctions in English.   CLs does not include 'and' and 'or', which
are categorized into Composers in NOXILO.

Position of Clause Leaders (CL) :

M1:   clause  +  CL
M2:   CL  +  clause

     <Note> Clauses are consist of noun clauses, adjective clauses, and adverb clauses.

Examples.  They  know  that  I  love  you.   

<Note> that = My (pronounced [my(u)] not [mai] ).

M1:  FEN  SE  ME-O  love  My  know.
M2:  FEN  know  My  SE  love  ME-O.

     <Note> FEN (plural form of FE) means 'They'.   SE means 'I'.   ME-O means 'you'. 
               My (prnounced my(u) ) is CL that lead noun clauses (underlined) only.

œ  Clause Leaders that lead noun clauses.

There are only two CLs to lead noun clauses;  My and Dy.
My is pronounced [my(u)], and means 'that' in English.   Dy [dy(u)] means 'Whether' or 'If'.

My
  [my(u)]  =  that

As we learned earlier, 'My' means 'that' in English.  The noun clauses which are lead by 'My' become either subject clause,
object clause, or complement clause.  You can write My-O (by adding -O) for 'My' which leads object clause, and My-E
for 'My' which lead complement clause.  We usually do not write My-W except for sentence analysis.

Ex.  That you studied NOXILO hard is important.      

M1:  ME  NOXILO-O  hard  study-T  My  important  RI.
@@@(Note)  Noun clauses are underlined.@
M2:  My  ME  hard  study-T  NOXILO-O  (ZA)  RI  important.

     <Note> There is no 'It is -- that' structure in NOXILO.
@@@ZA is a punctuation particle for M2, and it is placed at the end of clause in the sentence.
@@@PA (punctuation particle for M1) is not needed for the above example.  Adverb (one word)
@@@should be placed before verb in NOXILO, therefore the adverb 'hard' comes before 'study'.

Dy   [dy(u)]  =  whether  (if)

Ex.  Whether (if) the man is alive is important.
@=  It is important if the man is alive (or not).

M1:  FE  alive  (RI)  Dy  important  RI.
M2:  Dy  FE  (RI)  alive  RI  important.

@@@<Note> There is no 'It is --- if' structure in NOXILO.   There are no articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO.

 

œ@Clause Leaders that lead adjective clauses.

There are more than 10 CLs that lead adjective clause.   We study 2 ( Ky and XU) of them here.

Ky  
[ky(u)]  =  that, who, which

'Ky' is very useful CL since it connects any adjective clause (modifying clause) and noun (modified word = modificand).   
The location of 'Ky' is the same as that of other CLs as learned earlier.

M1:   Adjective clause  +  Ky  +  noun (pronoun/gerund)
M2:   noun (pronoun/gerund)  +  Ky  +  adjective clause

      (Note)  Adjective clauses are underlined for better understanding.


Let's see some examples.

Ex.  The man who is studying PC is her father.

M1:  PC-L  study-In  Ky  FE  DAFEI  father  RI.
@@@@<Note> FE is modificand and postcedent.
M2:  FE  Ky  study-In  PC-L  RI  DAFEI  father.
@@ @ <Note> FE is modificand and antecedent. 

     <Note> FE means the one, which can be replaced with REn (person).   Any object in modifying clause (adjective clause
               and adverb clause) has an element particle '-L' instead of '-O'. 
               The '-L' is pronounced [ol],  and '-O' pronounced [o].   FE is modified word (= modificand).

Ex.  The class that I chose was cancelled.

M1:  SE  chose-T  Ky  class-W  cancel-TZE.
@@@@ <Note> class is modificand and postcedent.
M2:  Class-W  Ky  SE  chose-T  (ZA)  cancel-TZE.   <Note> Class is modificand and antecedent.


XU
  [shu:]  =  what   (Ky + postcedent for M1 / antecedent + Ky  for M2)

Ex.  What I want is a knife and fork.

M1:  SE   IYUS  XU-W  knife  OnD  fork  (RI).
M2:  XU-W  SE   IYUS  (RI)  knife  OnD  fork.

@@@<Note> SE :  I,      IYUS : to want,     OnD : and

Ex.  You answerd what I wanted to know.  

M1:  ME  (PA)  SE  know  <   IYUS  XU-O  answer-T.
M2:  ME  answer-T  XU-O  SE   IYUS  >  know.

@@@<Note> ME : You,    SE: I,     'IYUS > know' : want to know


œ@Clause Leaders that lead adverb clauses.

There are over 50 CLs to lead adverb clauses.  Many of them are derived from Modification Agents, and therefore the CLs for M2
inherit L-ending.   A 13 out of some 50 are original CLs, and naturally there is no defference in spelling of CLs between M1 and M2.   
We first see three important rules (A, B, and C) before going to 18-3-1.

A)
   Japanese, Korean, Hindi, etc. (M1type language) and Arabic (M3) are typical 'conditional-clause-first and main-clause-at-last'
language, and therefore translation of their languages into NOXILO would follow the same clause order.   In English (M2 type language),
the word order is mostly opposite; that is, 'main-clause-first and conditional clause-last'.   However, adverb clauses are often placed
first for emphasizing purpose in English.   Although the English sentence with this clause order could be translated into NOXILO in
the same clause order, the purpose of emphasizing adverb clause is not translated.   If emphasizing an averb clause is necessary,
the adverb clause must have VII on head or be sandwiched by VII and -VII.

The following is a typical clause order in NOXILO.

Example :   I will visit Musee-du-Louvre before I die.

 M1 

  SE  die  UUO  SE  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit-R.
 (adverb clause)   (main clause= noun clause)

 M2

 SE  visit-R  Musee-du-Louvre-O  UUOL  SE  die.
 (main clause = noun clause)  
@     (adverb clause)  

   <Note> UUO  (UUOL for M2)  means 'before'.

When a CL stays between main clause and adverb clause,  a  ','  is not necessary as above sentences. However,  
when the CL is placed at the head (M2) or last (M1) of sentence,  a ',' must be placed between main clause and adverb clause.   
See below.

Example:  I visit Musee-du-Louvre-O before I die.

M1:  SE  die  UUO  SE  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit. ....... right  (',' is not necessary bcs UUO is placed inbetween clauses.)
@@ (adverb clause)  (main clause) @ @         @@@@@@@<note> Most M1 and M3 people would like this clause order.

M1:  SE  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit,  SE  die  UUO. ......  right  (because ',' is placed between main and adverb clauses.)
@@  @@ (main clause)@ @                (adverb clause)@@@  <note> Most M1 and M3 people won't like this clause order.

M1:  SE  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit  SE  die  UUO.  ........ 
wrong  (bcs ',' is dropped between main and adverb clauses.)
   
@@@@(main clause) @ @    @@@@@(adverb clause)@@@  <note> Most M1 and M3 people won't like this clause order.



M2:  SE  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O  UUOL  SE  die. ....... right  (',' is not necessary bcs UUOL is placed inbetween two clauses.)
           (main clause)     
@@@@@@@ (adverb clause)

M2:  UUOL  SE  die,   SE  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O. ....... right  (because ',' is placed between adverb and main clauses.)
@@  (adverb clause)    (main clause)

M2:  UUOL  SE  die   SE  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O.  ......  
wrong  (bcs ',' is dropped between adverb and main clauses.)
@@@(adverb clause)    (main clause)


B)
   A  ','  should be placed between adverb clause and imperative clause (main clause) anyhow.  See below.

Ex.   Visit Musee-du-Louvre before you die.

M1:  ME  die  UUO,  YO  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit.
@@@(adverb clause)  (main clause = imperative)

M2:  YO  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O,  UUOL ME  die.
@@@@(main clause = imperative)  @@@(adverb clause)

The following is acceptable though the clause order for M1 is not typical.

M1:  YO  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit,  ME  die  UUO.
M2:  YO  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O,  UUOL  ME  die.

The following is acceptable although the clause order for M2 is not typical.

M1:  ME  die  UUO,  YO  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit.
M2:  UUOL  ME  die,  YO  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O.

The above explanations stand for a set of adverb clause and
interrogative clause (main clause), too.

Ex.   Where did you go after you visited Shanghai Expo 2010 ?

M1:  ME Shanghai-Expo-2010-O  visit-T  AAF,   ?  ME  HE-O  go-T.
@@@ (adverb clause)@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@ (main clause = interrogative)

M2:  ?  ME  go-T  HE-O,  AAFL  ME  visit-T  Shanghai-Expo-2010-O.
@@@(main clause=interr.)@(adverb clause)

M1:  ?  ME  HE-O  go-T,  ME Shanghai-Expo-2010-O  visit-T  AAF.
M2:  ?  ME  go-T  HE-O,  AAFL  ME  visit-T  Shanghai-Expo-2010-O.

M1:  ME  Shanghai-Expo-2010-O  visit-T  AAF,  ?  ME  HE-O  go-T.
M2:  AAFL  ME  visit-T  Shanghai-Expo-2010-O,  ?  ME  go-T  HE-O,  .


C)
   Please keep in mind there is no rule that the first clause is emphasized in NOXILO.  Any word, phrase, or
clause to be emphasized must have 'VI'  (for a word) or 'VII'  (for phrase and clause) before these.  
In case the range to be emphasized is not clear, the range (phrase or clause) in particular should be sandwiched by VII and -VII,
which are enhancement particles.   'VI' is pronounced [vi],  and 'VII' [vi:].  

See examples below.

VI paper (M1 & M2)  ........... word (paper) is emphasized by a VI.
@   <Note> 'VI' is for a word only.@

VII school AT -VII  (for M1) .......... phrase (school AT) is emphasized by VI and -VII.
VII
ATL school -VII  (for M2) .........  phrase (ATL school) is emphasized by VII and -VII. 

VII SE go-T EEF -VII  (for M1) ........  clause (SE go-T EEF -VII) is emphasized by VII and -VII.
VII EEFL SE go-T -VII  (for M2) ........ clause (EEFL SE go-T) is emphasized by VII and -VII. 

@@@<Note>  '-VII' (a closing VII) can be omitted if there is no risk of confusion.

Samples of CLs to lead (show) adverb clauses.

 ClauseLeaders 
 M1 / M2

           meaning

AAB / AABL

concerning that ---

AAC / AACL

instead of that

AAE / AAEL

except that

AAF / AAFL

after

AAG / AAGL

against that

AAI /AAIL

by the time (time limit) 

AAN / AANL

compared with that

AAS / AASL

since (time point)

AAT / AATL

at (place)

AAU / AAUL

by

IIC / IICL

until

IID / IIDL

since (reason)

IIE / IIEL  *

as -- as concerned

IIF / IIFL  *

as for that --

IIL / IILL

as, like

IIM / IIML

from that

IIN / IINL

in,@inside --

IIRP / IIRPL

back of that

IIY / IIYL