”M—óŸcŒ}

”ZŠó˜I–Ô•Å

    (1st published 2003.@Rev. 19 Sep 2011)

 

”ZŠó˜IŒê¥ˆêŽí21¢‹I“IlHš ÛŒêŒ¾.‘´âiˆ×úWSAAnúW¡

 

úWŽåŒê+“®ŽŒ+•oŒêúW ‹yúWŽåŒê+•oŒê+“®ŽŒúW™_Ží‹åŒ^“s›¢‰—•W€‹åŒ^,•ÀŠŽ™_ŽÒŠÒ”\夠‘ŠŒÝŒðŠ·Žg—p¡

 

每ŒÂl‰ÂˆÈ‘I¢—pŽ©ŒÈŠŠìŸc“I‹åŒ^is˜ð˜b˜a椛,Œê–@Šù‹ï‰È›{«–”ŠÈšdˆÕ¶ˆ¬¡

 

WŒê–@Œ÷”\‰—ˆê铓IŠî–{ŽŒœb—L‘å–ñ550ŒÂ(‘´’†Åd—v“IŽŒœb—L50ŒÂ,d—v熜b—L100ŒÂ)¡

 

”ZŠó˜Iš Û•W€ŽŒœbŒ»Ý‹¤—L12200ŒÂ¡ŽŒœb›æ—L•”Žñ,ˆöŸ‰Â’ʉߕ”Žñ„‘ªo‘å’v“IŠÜˆÓ¡

 

”ZŠó˜Iš Û•W€ŽŒœb‰ÂˆÈ—p‘´‘¼Ž©‘RŒêŒ¾(—á”@Š¿ŒêA“úŒêA‰pŒêAúºŒêA–@ŒêAˆó’nŒêAŠØŒê“™)is’uŠ·¡

 

ᢖ¾ŽÒˆ×Š¿’mŒêŒ¾›{˜ð˜ðˆõ,lHŒêŒ¾›{˜ð˜ðˆõ(‰Á—˜•Ÿ“ò˜±‘å›{),Œ´“ú’†—FD‹¦˜ð˜ðˆõ.–Ú‘Oq‹–|桍‡ìl¡

”ZŠó˜IŒêᢖ¾ŽÒ, …“cî‘¾˜Y¡

 

 

Š¦õˆÈ‹yí—p“I•\’B

 

œŠ¦õ

‘ˆÀ HAU [hau] Œ¹Ž©fžh“ƒŒê (fžh“ƒˆ×”üš “y’˜•”—Ž”Vˆê)¡

晚ˆÀ BOnSOWAA  [bon suo Wā]Œ¹Ž©–@Œê¡

Ž¸”†ˆê‰º DAMIHI  [da mi hi] Œ¹Ž©f’šŒê¡

›”,¥™Þ  NA [na] Œ¹Ž©ŠóäcŒê¡

i’j–ç—p‰—•\’BúW›”,¥ú! úWˆ½úW›”,›ßãS“ž—¹喔úW

‹±Šì MABLUK [ma bu lū ke] Œ¹Ž©ˆ¢f”ŒŒê¡

”ä”@•\’BúWV”N‰õžÙúWŽž,—p‘æ1—Þ‹åŒê–@“I˜b,¥NOI SAAL AB MABLUK;—p‘æ2—ÞŽž,‘¥Ì¬MABLUK ABL NOI SAAL¡
’A¥
,•sŽg—pCüŒêŽ§’Zkˆ×MABLUK NOI SAAL–ç‰ÂˆÈ¡(”‡žé,‘æ1A2—Þ“IŒ`Ž®A‘Š“¯—¹)

ŽÓŽÓ ASAnTE  [a sang tei] Œ¹Ž©“Œ”ñŒê

”ñíŠ´ŽÓASAnTE,KAMSA  [kam sa]Œ¹Ž©’©‘NŒê¡

 i’j–ç‰ÂˆÈ—p“®ŽŒKAMSAS

•s‹qŸ† PARAKAALO  [pa ra kā lo] Œ¹Ž©ŠóäcŒê¡

D“I,铖ʓI GUT  [gū te] Œ¹Ž©úºŒê¡ALIn [a lin] ŠW‹u˜±Œê (ˆó‰ÁŒê)–ç‰Â¡

•Ûd SMAKKLyANA  [si ma ke lia na] Œ¹Ž©ŠW‹u˜±Œê¡

ÄŒ©(“Ad) KWAHELI [ke wa hei li] Œ¹Ž©“Œ”ñŒê¡

ÄŒ©(笈Ó) ABIAnTO [a biang to] Œ¹Ž©–@Œê¡

ŸcŒ} WELKAM  [weir com] Œ¹Ž©‰pŒê¡

›”•s‹N IZCINII  [yiz vi nī ] Œ¹Ž©‰âŒê¡–ç‰Â—pSOORII [suō ruī] (‰pŒê)¡

”ñí•øŸ] IZVINITIE  [yiz vi nī tiē ] Œ¹Ž©‰âŒê¡SOORII [suō ruī] (‰pŒê)–ç‰Â

‰Á–û YEELA [yēla]

•ú頁A‹Žó QAAMO  [chā muo]

QAAMO Japan(ˆ½NIHOn)•\Ž¦úWj你Ý“ú–{Šß“¾ŠJSúW¡‰Â›”˜Ò“ú–{“IŠOš —V‹q說¡

QAAMO IXEL [yi xie lu]•\Ž¦úW‹ŽólŽŽúW,ŠÜ—LúW•s—v‰ß‰—‹Ù’£úW”VˆÓ¡

QAAMO CEEKA  [xiē ka] •\Ž¦úWDD‹—p咖啡úW¡

NA CEEKA‘¥•\Ž¦úW”‡¥(你—v“I)咖啡“IˆÓŽv¡”c咖啡•úÝ桌ãŒã,‘ü說NAúW¿—púW–ç‰ÂˆÈ¡•s˜_—p‘æ1A2—Þ’†“I“ߎíŒ`Ž®“s‘Š“¯“I¡

j你D‰^ GUTENAAS  [gū tei nā si]

j()D‰^ GUTEPOOL  [gū tei pōl] (²脫¢‹«)  _•Û—C()

AHA GATEE [a ha ga tei] (M_“IlŠ說)

˜ð”ím‹~ AHUL GATEE [a hūl ga tei] (‘ŠŠr‰—_,X‘ŠM‰F’ˆ“IˆÓŽu,ˆ½••Õ“Iˆ¤.úº“IlŠ說)

‰Âˆ¤ POONA  [pō na]

‘½›õ‰Âˆ¤ SOO POONA  [sō pō na]

“¯î APSIAALE  [a pe siā lei]

ßˆ£‡Ì KOnDOLAATI  [kong duo lā ti] (—Ll‹Ž¢›”¨辦‘’âX“IŽålˆ½ˆâ›¢Š說“I˜b)

‹Ž吧/˜ô吧 XPAADA [shu pā da]

ˆê“ñŽO (š^Œûåj) WAn NI SAM [wang ni sam] (É“žŽOŽž‘å‰Æˆêꎗp—Í)

—a”õcêŽ REDII DAn [rei dī dang] (æÎ跑“™Žž)

—¹‰ð/Œ´˜Ò”@Ÿ SEAn  [sei ang] (‘Šác‰—‰pŒê’†“II see)

âc“™ IDyUTE  [yi diū tei] (‘Šác‰—‰pŒê’†“Iwait a minute)

âc“™D嗎? ? IDyUTEBL [ei yi diū tei bo er] (Ý˜ð˜b’†,?“Iᢉ¹‰ÂˆÈk—ªˆ×ei)

D‘œ•s¥”‡žé NNN [en en en] (N‰z‘½‹^–⊴‰z‹­)

–”Œ©“ž你—¹ SAIIn [sa yīng] (ˆÈˆ×‘–“I•ûŒü•s“¯•”˜ðÄ碰“ž,Ÿ“‘z“žc.)

,哎™ÞcLE/LELE [lei/lei/lei]

 

(’) ˆÈã絕‘å•”•ª‰ÂˆÈì•›ŽŒšdàՎg—p,’A¥›”‰—úW‹±ŠìúWAúWŽÓŽÓúWAúW›”•s‹NúW“™,‘命Éî‹µ‰ºŠÒ¥說´‘^“ž’ꐥˆ×—¹r›õŽ–”äŠrD¡”‡ŽžŒó,œäŠY—pCüŽŒ(AB/ABL) ¡”‡Žíî‹µ‰º,‘æ1—Þ˜a‘æ2—Þ“IŒê˜¥‘Š”½“I¡Žg—pQAAM (•úé ,‹Žó)Žž,ÝQAAMO”VŒã›ã•oŒê‘¦‰Â,Å‹å––¥”Û‰Áã!—R椛ŽÒŽ©sŒˆ’è¡’A¥Žg—pAPSIAALEˆ½KOnDOLAATI“IŽžŒó,ˆê”Ê•s‰Á¡IDyUTEˆê”ʍݐe–§“Išì”º”VŠÔŽg—p¡”ä”@說˜VŽtu‰ÛŽž內—eˆêŽž—‰ð•s—¹,ˆ½Œê‘¬‰ß‰õŽž,œäŠY›”˜VŽt說PLIIME IDyUS (¿“™ˆê‰º)ˆ½LyPA IDyUTES (¿“™ˆê˜ð™Z)ˆ½LyPA IDyUS (¿âc“™),’A¥•ü—F”VŠÔ‘ü{說ãq“IIDyUTEAs—¹¡œ—¹IDyUTE”VŠO,–ç‰ÂˆÈ—pYO IDyUTES (“™‰äˆê‰º)”‡Ží–½—ß‹å¡YOI IDyUTES“IˆÓŽv¥úW“™‰ä!úWLE—p˜Ò•\Ž¦çj”÷“I‹Áæbˆ½ˆÓŠO,‹^–⊴Šr‹­“IŽžŒó‰ÂˆÈ‰ÁãHA (”ä”@LE HA [lei ha])

 

l  í—p“I•\’B

ˆÈ‰º¥Ý›”˜b’†“Á•Êí—p“I•\’B¡•sisŒê–@ã“I‰ðç×,Ž§ŠŽ’¼Ú‹LZ‹åŒ^“I•û–@”äŠrD¡

 

š ÅâX–e,ÅˆÏ›U“I¿‹úW¿您`úW(‘Šác‰—‰pŒê’†“I Would you please`)

? PLII ME`¡

 

椖@¥[ei si ku pu lī mei]¡“ž? PLII MEIˆ×Ž~‘æ1A2—Þ“s¥‘Š“¯“I¡Œã–ʐÚ㔑æ1ˆ½2—Þ“I’q‹å¡?›ìESKŽž,ˆÓŽv˜a椖@“s•sÌ¡

 

—á‹å: ”\¿您›••‰îÐM嗎?

‘æ1—Þ:  ? PLII ME EGREK TE-O NURI¡

[ei si ku pu lī mei ei gu lei ku tei o nū li]

 

‘æ2—Þ:  ? PLII ME NURI EGREK TE-O¡

 [ei si ku pu lī mei nū li ei gu lei ku tei o]

 

EGREK_TE¥EGREK(‰îÐ,„‘E)˜aBEETE(M)\¬“I‡¬ŽŒ¡Ýš Û•W€šdŽŒ’†,‰ÂˆÈÈ—ª•\Ž¦Ž†ˆ½‘“I•”ŽñBEE,Ž§›ˆ×EGREK_TE¡ÚŒ©‘æ13åjŽå•Å¡NURI¥úW›úW“IˆÓŽv¡

 

úW„‘EMúW˜aúW›úW—p“úŒêˆ½‰pŒê•\’B“I˜b,‘¥Ì¬

‘æ1—Þ: ? PLII ME„‘E狀-O‘‚­¡

‘æ2—Þ: ? PLII ME write recommendation-O.

 

š âX–eAˆÏ›U“I¿‹úW¿你`úW(Will you`)

PLII ME`¡

‘üŽù›’ã–Ê“Iu‰ß“I?PLII ME’†“I?‹Ž{‘¦‰Â¡æ¤–@¥[pu lī mei ] ¡

 

—á‹å: ¿你˜ìᶗ͐„D嗎?(ŽÔ—Ö蜍ݓD—¡—¹EEE)

‘æ1—Þ: PLII MEN YOO-O AASAn PUX¡

       [pu lī mei nu yōu ā sang pū shu]

‘æ2—Þ: PLII MEN AASAn PUX YOO-O¡

       [pu lī mei nu ā sang pū shu yōu]

(’) YOOˆÓˆ×úW‹DŽÔúW¡ˆöˆ×¥•oŒê,ŠˆÈ‰Áã-O¡AASAn“IˆÓŽvˆ×úWᶉ”\,ᶗÍúW(‘Šác‰—‰pŒê’†“Ias much as possible you can) ¡PUX [pū shu ]¥úW„úW“IˆÓŽv,PUS [pū si]¥úW‘—úW“IˆÓŽv,’ˆÓ•s—v搞¬¡PU¥•\Ž¦g铓®ì“I“®ŽŒ“I•”Žñ¡(ÚŒ©‘æ13Žå•Å)

 

š •’Ê“I¿‹úW¿˜ô`úW(Please do`)

LyPA do~

椖@¥[liu pa]

äo? PLII MEI˜aPLII ME“IâX–e,ˆÏ›U•s“¯,”‡¥Å•’Ê“I¿‹¡•s—pME¡–ç‰^—pÝ•sl—¶›”•û“Iî‹“Iê‡¡”‡¥‰î‰—–½—ß‹å˜aPLII ME”VŠÔ“I•\’B•ûŽ®,Žg—p”Íš¡”ñíœA¡ªŸ說˜bŽÒ“I•\î˜a說–@“I•s“¯,‰ÂˆÈÌ“¾˜aPLII MEˆêžéâX–e,ˆÏ›U¡

 

—á‹å: ¿›o˜Ò

‘æ1—Þ: LyPA NURI¡ [liu pa nū li]

‘æ2—Þ: LyPA NURI¡ [liu pa nū li]

(’) NURI¥úW›úW“IˆÓŽv¡NU¥•\Ž¦Žè•”“®ì“I“®ŽŒ•”Žñ¡

 

—á‹å:¿€Žž”c“ߌ‘—‰ß˜Ò¡

‘æ1—Þ: LyPA TE-O TAPROn PUS¡[liu pa tei o ta pu long pū si]

‘æ2—Þ: LyPA TAPROn PUS TE-O¡[liu pa ta pu long pū si tei o]

(’) TAPROn“IˆÓŽv¥úW‹yŽž,€ŽžúW,‘Šác‰—‰pŒê“Ipromptly¡‰pŒê’†“Isoon‘Šác“I¥TASUn[ta sī en] ¡™_ŽÒ“s¥š Û•W€šdŽŒ(•”ŽñTA•\Ž¦ŽžŠÔ)¡—LŽžŒó,Žg—p˜a•W€šdŽŒ‘Šác“I—FDšdŽŒSNAAT[si nā te](Œ¹Ž©‘׌ê)–ç‰ÂˆÈ(soon) ¡”c”‡‹å˜bÌ¬–½—ß‹å‘¥¥YO TE-O TAPROn PUS¡úW‹‹‰ä€Žž‘—˜ÒúW,—LˆêŽíŒRw—¡“I›”˜bˆ½ŽÒŒöŽi—¡ã‹‰›”‰º‹‰u˜b“IŒêŸ†(ác‘Re–§•ü—F–ç‰ÂˆÈ”‡žé說¡)

 

š ’ño幫•úW樉ä幫你`úW(Shall I do`)

YAL SE`¡

椖@¥[ya lu sei] ¡`“I•”•ª‘æ1—Þ˜a‘æ2—ތꏘ¥›”âi“I¡

—á‹å: 樉ä幫你”Æ•Ð吧

‘æ1—Þ: YAL SE MEI BEEFOS¡[ya lu sei mēi bēi fo si]

‘æ2—Þ: YAL SE MEI BEEFOS¡[ya lu sei mēi bēi fo si]

(’) BEEFOSˆÓŽv¥úW”Æ•ÐúW(ŠÜ—L•oŒê“I‹y•¨“®ŽŒ) ¡”@‰Ê”cúW”úW˜aúWÆ•ÐúW•ªŠJ›“I˜b¥”‡žé“I:

 

‘æ1—Þ: YAL SE MEI BEEFO-O UYUS¡[ya lu sei mēi bēi fo o wu yōu si]

‘æ2—Þ: YAL SE UYUS MEI BEEFO-O¡[ya lu sei wu yōu si mēi bēi fo o]

(’) MEI¥ME“IŠ—LŠi,ˆÓŽv¥úW你“IúW¡BEEFOˆÓˆ×úWÆ•ÐúW,ˆöˆ×¥•oŒêŠˆÈ—v‰Áã-O ¡UYUS¥úW”úW(‘Šác‰—‰pŒê“Itake)¡

 

š 籐¿úWˆê‹N˜ô`úW(Shall we do`)

XAL SEN`¡

椖@¥[xia lu sei nu] ¡`“I•”•ª,‘æ1A2—ސ¥›”âi“I¡

—á‹å: ˆê‹N‹Žãژð吧¡

‘æ1—Þ: XAL SEN EMyURE UT ITU¡[xia lu sei nu ei miū lei wu tu yi tū]

‘æ2—Þ: XAL SEN ITU UTL EMyURE¡[xia lu sei nu yi tū wu tu lu ei miū lei]

(’) EMyURE¥úWãژðúW“IˆÓŽv¡UT¥CüŽŒ,•\Ž¦úW‰`úW(‘Šác‰—‰pŒê“Ito) ¡‘æ2—ÞŽž,—v‰ÁLÌ¬UTL¡ITUˆÓŽv¥úW‹ŽúW

 

š úW‰äœäŠY˜ô`嗎úW(Am I supposed to`)

ASPO SE`

椖@¥[a sip o sei]¡

—á‹å: ‰äœäŠY›03?

(’) “ú–{‰‘´‘¼éŽs›“d˜bŽží—p“I–â‘è¡

‘æ1—Þ: ASPO SE 03-O UMROS¡[a si po sei shū nia sa mu o wu mu ro si]

‘æ2—Þ: ASPO SE UMROS 03-O¡[a si po sei wu mu ro si shū nia samu o]

(’) UMROS¥úWUúW“IˆÓŽv¡ˆÓŽväo‰pŒê’†“IAm I supposed to dial 03?‘Š“¯¡

 

š úW你˜ô`”äŠrD喔(âX–e“I™®)úW(You might do)

MAIT ME`¡

椖@¥[ma yi tu mei]¡

—á‹å: 你›æ’˜ŽP‹Ž”äŠrD喔¡

‘æ1—Þ: MAIT ME BOOBLA-O TUV¡[ma yi tu mei bō bu la o tū bu(v)]

‘æ2—Þ: MAIT ME TUV BOOBLA-O¡[ma yi tu mei tū bu(v) bō bu la o]

(’) BOOBLA¥úWŽPúW“IˆÓŽv¡TUV¥úW\,›æúW(have) ¡TU¥•\Ž¦Žè•”“®ì“I“®ŽŒ“I•”Žñ¡

 

š úW你”@‰Ê˜ô`“I˜bAD—¹(Œš‹c,ŒÛ™­)úW(Why donft  you do`)

WADO ME`¡

椖@¥ [wa do mei]¡

—á‹å: ”@‰Ê你õŽæ—¹\¿šd“I˜bAD—¹¡

‘æ1—Þ: WADO ME EGLAI_Kyn-O IYUS¡

       [wa do mei ei gu lai ki yun o I yōu si]

‘æ2—Þ: WADO ME IYUS EGLAI_Kyn-O¡

       [wa do mei i yōu si ei gu lai ki yun o ]

(’) EGLAI_Kyn¥úW\¿‘úW(application form)“IˆÓŽv¡IYUSˆÓŽv¥úWõŽæúW(request)¡

 

š ’ñ‹cúW`œƒ›õžé?úW(How about`)

ESTI`¡

椖@¥ [ei si ti]¡

—á‹å: Š…咖啡œƒ›õžé?¡

‘æ1—Þ: ESTI CEEKA¡[ei si ti cēi ka]

‘æ2—Þ: ESTI CEEKA¡[ei si ti cēi ka]

(’) ‘Šác‰—‰pŒê’†“IHow about coffee? CEEKA¥úW咖啡úW“IˆÓŽv¡”@‰Ê—v說’ƒ“I˜b,¥CEEI [i yi]¡ESTIŒã–Ê“IÚ㔜k’·(’ñoˆÓŒ©A‘z–@“™)“IŽžŒó,ÌìESTII`[ei si tī ] ¡

 

 

1)    ”ZŠó˜IŒê“IŠî–{Œ` (žéŽ®)

 

l  \‹å“I¬•ªˆÈ‹y”r—ñ•ûŽ®(Œê–@)

 

\‹å“I¬•ªŽwŽåŒêA“®ŽŒA•âŒêA•oŒê(ŽóŽŒ)¡—L±ŽžŒó,ŽåŒêA•âŒêA•oŒê•ª•Ê¥ŽåŒêŒêßA•âŒêŒêßA•oŒêŒêß¡

Ý‰º–Ê‘æ1—Þ˜a‘æ2—Þ“I說–¾’†,ŽåŒê”VŒã“I¬•ª“IŒê˜³D‘Š”½(Šô‰½›”âi)¡ˆöŽ§,‘üŽù‹@ŠB’n‰üÌ\‹å¬•ª“IˆÊ’u¡

 

‘æ1—Þ“I‹åŽq˜a‘æ2—Þ“I‹åŽqA‰ÂˆÈŒÝ‘Šçz˜b—¹¡

 

‘æ1—Þ:  SV,  SCV,  SOV,  S(OaOb)V,  S(OC)V

‘æ2—Þ:  SV,  SVC,  SVO,  SV,(OaOb),  SV(OC)

 

’:  SŽåŒê, V“®ŽŒ, C•âŒê, O•oŒê

 

ˆÈ‰ºˆ× 5 Ží‹åŒ^“I—á‹å:

 

š  SV  (‘ü—L”‡ˆê‹åŒ^“Iˆê—Þ說–@˜a“ñ—Þ說–@“IŒê˜‘Š“¯)

—á‹å: ‰ä‘–˜H¡

‘æ1—Þ: SE RyU¡(ᢉ¹sēi liū)

‘æ2—Þ:SE RyU¡(ᢉ¹sēi liū)

 

š  SCV  (‘æ“ñ—Þ說–@“IŒê˜ˆ×SVC)

—á‹å: “ß“–[Žqœk‘å¡

‘æ1—Þ: BOI BIIUS-W AUB RI¡(ᢉ¹:boi bi`u su a u bu li)

‘æ2—Þ: BOI BIIUS-W RI AUB¡(ᢉ¹:boi bi`u su li a u bu)

 

š  SOV  (‘æ“ñ—Þ說–@“IŒê˜ˆ×SVO)

—á‹å: ‰äˆ¤你¡

‘æ1—Þ: SE ME-O APLOS¡(ᢉ¹:sei mei a bu ruo si)

‘æ2—Þ: SE APLOS ME-O¡(ᢉ¹:sei a bu ruo si mei o)

 

š  ‚ri‚n‚‚n‚‚jV  (‘æ“ñ—Þ說–@“IŒê˜ˆ×@‚r‚ui‚n‚‚n‚‚j

—á‹å: ‰ä”c‰»›{‘ŽØ‹‹—¹‘¼¡

‘æ1—Þ: SE FE-O EQMII BEEK-O APIS-T¡

(ᢉ¹: sei fe o ei qiu mi bei ku o a pi si ta)

‘æ2—Þ: SE APIS-T FE-O EQMII BEEK-O¡

(ᢉ¹: sei a pi si ta fe o ei qiu mi bei ku o)

 

另ŠO,”‡‹å˜b–ç‰ÂˆÈ”‡žé•\Ž¦:

‘æ1—Þ: SE FE UT EQMII BEEK-O APIS-T¡

‘æ2—Þ: SE APIS-T EQMII BEEK-O UTL FE.

 

š  S (OC) V  (‘æ“ñ—Þ說–@“IŒê˜ˆ×SV(OC))

Cˆ×Œ`—eŽŒ“Iî‹µ

—á‹å: ‘¼”c“ߊԖ[ŠÔˆÛŽ’nœkŠ£ŸÄ¡

‘æ1—Þ: MAFE BOI room-O clean-E keep¡

‘æ2—Þ: MAFE keep BOI room-O clean-E¡

›’úWBOI roomúW‰üˆ×Œ´Œ`(‘¦›’úWBOI room-OúW’†“IúW-OúW‹Žœ)“I˜b,‰ÂˆÈ”@‰ºŠŽ¦”cúW-EúW–çÈ—ª¡

 

‘æ1—Þ: MAFE BOI room clean keep¡

‘æ2—Þ: MAFE keep BOI room clean¡

 

Cˆ×–¼ŽŒ“Iî‹µ

—á‹å: •ƒ•ê樛€˜ì“I—™Z‹Žìçΐ¶¡

‘æ1—Þ: Parent-W FEI daughter-O medical doctor-E BLE¡

‘æ2—Þ: Parent-W BLE FEI daughter-O medical doctor-E¡

 

›’úWdaughterúW‰üˆ×Œ´Œ`“I˜b,‰ÂˆÈ”@‰ºŠŽ¦›’úW-OúWúW-EúW–çÈ—ª¡FEI•\Ž¦úW‘¼˜ì“IúW¡

‘æ1—Þ: Parent-W FEI daughter medical doctor BLE¡

‘æ2—Þ: Parent-W BLE FEI daughter medical doctor¡

 

Cˆ×“®ŽŒ“Iî‹µ

—á‹å: ‰ä˜ìãã她¥‰Ì¡

‘æ1—Þ: SEN DAFE sing-In hear¡

‘æ2—Þ: SEN hear DAFE sing-In¡

(’) In¥•\Ž¦isŽž“Iis•ŽŒ¡

 

—á‹å: ˜VŽt樛{¶˜ì⋋N˜Ò¡

‘æ1—Þ: Teacher-W student stand-In keep¡

‘æ2—Þ: Teacher-W keep student stand-In¡

(’) Žg—pŽg–𓮎ŒBLE–ç‰ÂˆÈ

‘æ1—Þ: Teacher-W student stand-In BLE¡

‘æ2—Þ: Teacher-W BLE student stand-In¡

 

-In¥•\Ž¦isŽž“Iis•ŽŒ¡

 

l  CüŽŒACü’ZŒêŠ¿Cü‹åß“IˆÊ’u

ˆê”ÊŽ§Œ¾,˜ï—RŠî–{¬•ª\¬“I‹åŽqœk­,‘命É‹åŽq“s¥’ʉߏCüŽŒACü’ZŒêŠ¿Cü‹åß›”Šî–{¬•ªisCüŒã\¬“I¡”‡±CüŽŒACü’ZŒêŠ¿Cü‹åß“IˆÊ’u”@‰º:

(’) Šcü•”•ªˆ×CüŽŒACü’ZŒêŠ¿Cü‹åß

 

Ÿ CüŽŒ“IˆÊ’uEEE‘æ1—Þ˜a‘æ2—Þ’†‹Ï’u‰—”íCüŽŒ”V‘O¡(‘O’uCü)

‘æ1—Þ: CüŽŒ{”íCüŽŒ   (—á) ”’F“I–[Žq

‘æ2—Þ: CüŽŒ{”íCüŽŒ   (—á) white house

 

Ÿ Cü’ZŒê“IˆÊ’uEEE‘æ1—Þ’u‰—”íCüŽŒ”V‘O, ‘æ2—Þ’†’u‰—”íCüŽŒ”VŒã

‘æ1—Þ: Cü’ZŒê{”íCüŽŒ   (—á) ãj›æIZᴎq (ü—Lãj›æ“Iᴎq)

‘æ2—Þ: ”íCüŽŒ{Cü’ZŒê   (—á) box IZL ribbon (box with ribbon)

 

Ÿ Cü‹åß“IˆÊ’uEEE‘æ1—Þ’†’u‰—”íCüŽŒ”V‘O,‘æ2—Þ’†’u‰—”íCüŽŒ”VŒã

‘æ1—Þ: Cü‹åß{”íCüŽŒ

‘æ2—Þ: ”íCüŽŒ{Cü‹åß

 

Cü‹åß¥ŽwŒ`—eŽŒ«“I‹åßˆ½•›ŽŒ«“I‹åß¡

 

‘æ1—Þ: Personal computer-L EDSTAS-In ky REn.(³Ý›{K“däI“Il)

‘æ2—Þ: REn Ky EDSTAS-In Personal computer-L

 

(’) EDSTASˆÓˆ×›{K¡ˆ×èûŽ¦‘´ˆ×•W€ŽŒœb(š Û•W€ŽŒœb)“Á—pŽÎ铕\Ž¦¡

                  EDSTAS–ç‰ÂˆÈ—p‰pŒê’†“IúWstudyúWˆ½’†•¶“IúW›{KúW(ˆ½ŽÒ‘´‘¼”C‰½ŒêŒ¾)˜Ò‘ã‘Ö¡

 

 

2)    ”ZŠó˜IŒê“IŽŒ—Þ

”ZŠó˜IŒê“IŽŒ—Þ•ªˆ×:–¼ŽŒA‘ã–¼ŽŒA“®ŽŒA•“®ŽŒAy“®ŽŒAŒ`—eŽŒA•›ŽŒA‰îŽŒA˜AŽŒAžŠ—ŽŒA•ŽŒA‹[ãߎŒ¡

(’) ‹^–⎌‰ÂŸd—Þ‰—Œ`—eŽŒA•›ŽŒA•ŽŒ’†,’Aˆ×—¹•Ö‰—說–¾,‘½›’‘´Ÿd—Þ‰—y‹^–⎌z¡

 

 

3)    –¼ŽŒ

ˆê”Ê–¼ŽŒ“s—L•”Žñ,œn•”Žñ‰ÂˆÈ„Ðo‘´‘å’v“IŠÜˆÓ¡另ŠO,•¨Ž¿–¼ŽŒŽñ‰¹ßˆ×èî•ê,”ñ•¨Ž¿–¼ŽŒŽñ‰¹ßˆ×ãߕê(a,i,u,e) ¡šd•¡É“¯Œ`¡Ý‘z—v•\’B–¾ŠmÉ—Ê“Iî‹µŽž,‰ÂÝ–¼ŽŒ‘O“Y‰ÁÉ—ÊŽŒ¡Ý‘z—v•\’B–¼ŽŒˆ×•¡É“Iî‹µŽž,‰ÂÝ–¼ŽŒ‘O“Y‰ÁPLU(pu lu,•¡É“I)Aˆ½SOM(so mu,ŠôŒÂ)Aˆ½MUQ(mū qū,œk‘½A‘½É“I) ¡ŽŒŒêŸ“—L«•Êã“I™½•ª¡–³Žù“Y‰ÁŠ¥ŽŒ¡

 

ªŸê‡,Ý–¼ŽŒ‘O“Y‰ÁŽwŽ¦Œ`—eŽŒTO(tō,”‡ŒÂ)Aˆ½BOI(bōyī,“ߌÂ)¡

ác–¼ŽŒÝ‹å’†ìˆ×ŽåŒêoŒ»Žž,ŽùÝ–¼ŽŒ“IŽŒ”ö“Y‰Á-W¡ác–¼ŽŒÝ‹å’†ìˆ×•oŒêoŒ»Žž,ŽùÝ–¼ŽŒ“IŽŒ”ö“Y‰Á-O¡

 

’A¥,ác–¼ŽŒÝCü‹åß(Œ`—eŽŒ‹åßˆ½•›ŽŒ‹åß)’†ìˆ×•oŒêoŒ»Žž,ŽùÝŽŒ”ö“Y‰Á-L¡ác–¼ŽŒÝ‹å’†ìˆ×•âŒêoŒ»Žž,ŽùÝ–¼ŽŒ“IŽŒ”ö“Y‰Á-E¡’A¥,ác–¼ŽŒÝCü‹åß’†ìˆ×•âŒêoŒ»Žž,ŽùÝŽŒ”ö“Y‰Á-Q¡ÝSCV˜aSVCŒ^‹åŽq,”@‰ÊŽž‘Ԉ׌»ÝŽž,•ÀŠŽ•¶ˆÓ‘Š›”ŠÈŒ‰ˆÕ懂“Iî‹µ‰º,‰ÂˆÈÈ—ª-E˜a-Q¡

 

ˆÈ‰ºˆ×ÉŽš“I椖@:

ÉŽš

拼›

椖@(拼‰¹)

Ì—pŒêŒ¾

0

XUNyA

xiū niā

ž•¶

1

Wan

wang

‰pŒê

2

NI

Ҝΐ

3

SAM

sā mu

’©‘NŒê

4

SII

si yi

‘׌ê

5

LIMA

lī ma

”n˜Ò¼˜±Œê

6

ZEKS

zēi ku si

úºŒê

7

SABAA

sā bā`ā

ˆ¢f”ŒŒê

8

WIT

Wī tō

–@Œê

9

KOO

–É™²Œê

10

TIO

tī o

“TŒê

100

STO

sī to

‰âŒê

1000

MILA

mi lā

‹`‘å—˜Œê

10000

Man

māng

Ҝΐ

‰­

OK

o ku

ŠØŒêE’©‘NŒê

’›

TERA

tei la

ŠóäcŒê

‹ž

Jin

Jing

’†•¶

 

(’) ŽŠ¡ˆ×Ž~,9“sÌ—p‰pŒê“INine˜Ò•\Ž¦,’A¥”‡äo”Û’èŒêNAI“I‹­’²Œ`NAIn‘Šd•¡,ŒÌ‰ü—p–É™²Œê“IKOO˜Ò•\Ž¦¡(2004.02.25)

(’) ŽŠ¡ˆ×Ž~,1“s—p’†•¶“IúW1úW˜Ò•\Ž¦,’A—R‰——eˆÕ¬ŸÀ,ŒÌ‰ü—p‰pŒê“IOne˜Ò•\Ž¦B(2005.04.16)

 

5.3植ìIī ma tēn sa mu

20.19植ì nīI o tēn wang kō

2/3植ìnī fuēn sa mu

Žžc.XI xi (ŽæŽ©ŠØŒê)

•ªcNAATI nā ti(ŽæŽ©‘׌ê)

•bcMyO miāo(ŽæŽ©’†•¶)

ŠÔckan kāng(ŽæŽ©“úŒê)

ãŒß7êy20•ª›ì:7 XI 20 NAATI 植ì:sā bā`ā xi nī o nā ti

‰ºŒß3êy35•ª ›ì:15 XI 35 NATTI 植ì: sā mu xi sa mu ti o lī ma na ti

2¬Žž10•ª40•b ›ì:2 XI Kan 10 NATTI 40 Myo 植ì:nī xi kang tī na ti si yi tī o miao

 

 

4)    ‘ã–¼ŽŒ

‘ã–¼ŽŒ’†Åd—v“I¥lâi‘ã–¼ŽŒ˜aŽwŽ¦‘ã–¼ŽŒB—R‰—ŽwŽ¦‘ã–¼ŽŒˆê‹¤‘ü—L™_ŒÂ,ˆöŸæ‹LZ”‡™_ŒÂ吧,

›€˜ì•ª•Ê¥TO (to,”‡) ˜aBOI (bo yi,“ß)B

(’) TO (to,”‡) ˜aBOI (bo yi,“ß) Šù¥ŽwŽ¦‘ã–¼ŽŒ,“¯Žž–琥ŽwŽ¦Œ`—eŽŒB

Ú‰º˜Ò,˜Ò‹L‰¯lâi‘ã–¼ŽŒ B

 

šdÉŒ`

lâi‘ã–¼ŽŒ

ŽåŠi

Š—LŠi

•âŒê

•oŠi

‘æˆêlâi(‰ä)

SE

sēi

SEI

Sēi yī

SE-E sēi`ēi

(SE-Q sēi`ēi qiū)

SE-O sēi o

(SE-L sēi o lu)

‘æ“ñlâi()

ME

MEI

ME-E (ME-Q)

ME-O (ME-L)

‘æŽOlâi

    (“ߐl)

     (‘¼)

     ()

FE

 

DAFE

 

MAFE

FEI

 

DAFEI

 

MAFEI

FE-E (FE-Q)

 

DAFE-E(DAFE-Q)

 

MAFE-E(MAFE-Q)

FE-O(FE-L)

 

DAFE-O(DAFE-L)

 

MAFE-O(MAFE-L)

‘æŽOlâi

     (’N)

JE

JEI

JE-E(JE-Q)

JE-Q(JE-L)

‘æŽOlâi

    (“ߌÂ)

TE

TEI

TE-E(TE-Q)

TE-O(TE-L)

¦ŽÎ铎š•\Ž¦“IŽ‹æ¤‰¹,‰º“¯

 

(’) Ý”ZŠó˜IŒê’†,–¼ŽŒ’ʏ퐥šd•¡É“¯Œ`,’Alâi‘ã–¼ŽŒ‘¥{™½•ªšd•¡ÉB

(’) •\’†(  )—¡“I¥,ÝCü‹åß’†,‘¦Œ`—eŽŒßˆ½•›ŽŒß’†,Žg—p“IŒ`Ž®B

(’) -E,-Q,-O,-L“I椖@•ª•Ê¥ēi,qiū,o luB-•sᢉ¹B

 

•¡ÉŒ` ‘ü{ÝšdÉŒ`E ēi

”VŒã‰ÁãN nu‘¦‰ÂB

lâi‘ã–¼ŽŒ

ŽåŠi

Š—LŠi

•âŒê

•oŠi

‘æˆêlâi

(‰ä˜ì)

SEN

sēi nu

SEI

Sēi ni

SEN-E sēi mu ēi

(SEN-Q sēi mu ēi qiū)

SEN-O sēi nu o

(SEN-L sēi nu o lu)

‘æ“ñlâi

(你˜ì)

MEN

MENI

MEN-E (MEN-Q)

MEN-O( MEN-L)

‘æŽOlâi“ߍ±l˜ì

 (‘¼˜ì)

 (她˜ì)

FEN

 

DAFEN

 

MAFEN

FENI

 

DAFENI

 

MAFEIN

FEN-E  (FE-Q)

 

DAFEN-E (DAFE-Q)

 

MAFEN-E (MAFE-Q)

FEN-O(FEN-L)

 

DAFEN-O(DAFEN-L)

 

MAFEN-O(MAFEN-L)

‘æŽOlâi

 (’N˜ì)

JEN

JENI

JEN-E(JE-Q)

JEN-O (JEN-L)

‘æŽOlâi

 (“ߍ±)

TEN

TENI

TEN-E(TE-Q)

TEN-O (TEN-L)

 

 

5) ‹^–⎌

‹^–⎌¥‹^–â‘ã–¼ŽŒA‹^–â“®ŽŒA‹^–âŒ`—eŽŒA‹^–â•›ŽŒA‹^–⏕ŽŒ“™“Iã`âi(–³Žù›’”‡±•ª—Þˆêˆê‹LZ)B

‹^–â‹å—L™_Ží:‰Â—púW¥úWˆ½úW”ÛúW‰ñ“š“Iˆê”Ê‹^–â‹å,ˆÈ‹y—v‹›”•û說–¼“I“ÁŽê‹^–â‹åB–³˜_哪ˆêŽíî‹µ,“s—vÝ‹åŽñ‰Áã?ēi sī kuBˆê”Ê‹^–â‹å‘üŽùÝ‹åŽñ‰ÁãúW?úW‘¦‰Â,’AŽá¥“ÁŽê‹^–â‹å,‘¥Žù—v—p‰º—ñ‹^–⎌‘ÖŠ·úW‘z’m“¹“IŽ–•¨úW,ˆ½¥Ý•\Ž¦úW‘z’m“¹“IŽ–•¨úW“IŽŒ‹å‘O‰Áã‰º—ñ‹^–⎌B

 

Ý›”˜bŽž,‘¥›’‹å––‰¹’²âcâcã—gBŸŠO,Ý›”˜bŽž›’‹åŽñ“IúW?úWᢉ¹ìēi–ç‰ÂˆÈB(ˆöˆ×ēi sī ku‘¾’·—¹)

‹^–â‘ã–¼ŽŒ

(ŽåŒê)

 

(Š—LŒ`)

 

(•âŒê)

 

(•oŒê)

 

‹^–â“®ŽŒ

 

‹^–âŒ`—eŽŒ

 

‹^–â•›ŽŒ

 

‹^–⏕ŽŒ

 

žŠ—ŽŒ

 

English

HA

r›õ

HAI

what

HA-E

What

HA-O

What

HAS do what

HANA

What

 

 

 

What

HI

哪ŒÂ

HII

Which

HI--E

Which

HI--O

Which

HIS do

which

HINA

Which

HILI

Which

 

 

Which

HU

’N

HUI

Whom

HU-E

Whom

HU-O

Whom

 

 

 

 

 

Who

HE

‰½Žž

HEI

When

HE-E

When

HE-O

When

 

HENA

‰½Žž“I

HELI

Ý‰½Žž

 

EED

When

HO

‰½’n

HOI

where

HO-E

where

HO-O

where

 

HONA

‰½’n“I

HOLI

Ý‰½’n

 

AAT

where

 

 

 

 

 

 

HyAA

Why(ˆ×‰½)

HyA

why

IID

Why(——R)

Hy

r›õ’ö“x

HyI

How much

Hy-E

How much

Hy-O

How much

 

HyNA

r›õ’ö“x

HyLI

r›õ’ö“x

 

 

 

How

(’ö“x)

HyE

”@‰½

HyEI

how

 

HyE-E

how

 

HyE-O

how

 

 

 

HyELI

”@‰½

 

 

 

How

(•û–@)

(’) lâi‘ã–¼ŽŒ˜a‹^–⎌ìŽåŒê—pŽž–ç•s—p‰Á—v‘fŽŒ-WB

(’) HANA ha na“IŽg—p”Íš¡œkœABHyA hia‰ÂˆÈ¸Šm’næm–â–^ˆêêy“IŒ´ˆö,¥ŒÂœkD—p“I‹^–⏕ŽŒB‘z—vCü®ŒÂ‹åŽqŽž,•s—pHyA,Ž§¥Ý‹åŽñ‰ÁãHyAA hiā`āBHyE hi ēi¥—p˜Òæm–â•û–@“I,ˆÓŽvˆ×úW”@‰½úWúW’ʉ߉½ŽíŽè’iúWB

 

 

6) “®ŽŒ (Žž‘ԁAisŽž‘ԁA”í“®‘Ô)

 

Œ»ˆÈ‘ã“®ŽŒDU (‘Šác‰—‰pŒê’†“Ido)ˆ×—á,›”ŽžAisŽ®A‘Ԑis‰ðçׁB

 

‰ß‹Ž

Œ»Ý

–¢˜Ò

isŽ®

DU-TIn

dō tā yin

˜ô‰ß–^Ž–

DU-In

dō yin

³Ý˜ô–^Ž–

DU-RIn

dō lēi yin

›’˜ð˜ô–^Ž–

”í“®‘Ô

eDU-TZE

dō tā zēi

‰ß‹Ž”í˜ô‰ß–^Ž–

DU-ZE

dō tā zēi

”í˜ô–^Ž–

DU-RZE

dō lēi zēi

›’˜ð”í˜ô–^Ž–

is”í“®‘Ô

DU-TinZE

dō tā yin zēi

‰ß‹Ž³”í˜ô–^Ž–

DU-InZE

dō yin zēi

³Ý”í˜ô–^Ž–

DU-RInZE

dō lēi yin zēi

›’˜Ò³Ý”í˜ô–^Ž–

 

Žg–𓮎Œ—L™_ŒÂ,•ª•Êˆ×BLE bu lēi(”íXX—v‹˜ôEEE) ˜aBLU bu lu(—v‹XX˜ôEEE) BLEEN lēi`ēiˆÓˆ×úW³”Fác‘O“I狀‘Ô,•ú”CŽ©—¬úW,•s‹û‰—Žg–𓮎Œ(˜a‰pŒê’†“Ileaveˆ½let‘Š‹ß) B

 

 

7) •“®ŽŒ

’u‰—“®ŽŒ‘O,—p˜ÒCü“®ŽŒB‘Šác‰—‰pŒê’†“Ican,may,must“™,’A¥”ZŠó˜IŒê’†“I•“®ŽŒ“IŽí—Þ”ä‰pŒê’†âc‘½B

•“®ŽŒ

椖@

ˆÓŽv

›”œä“I‰pŒê

GIKA

gi ka

‰ÂˆÈ˜ôc...

May

GIKA

gi ki

˜ôc”äŠrD

Had better do

GI

Gi

˜ôc(‘ÅŽZ,ŒˆS)

Sure to do,will

GIKE

gi kei

‘¦›’—v˜ôc.

Be about to do

GIKO

gi ko

˜ôŠ®c(IŽ~)

Have done

GILA

gi la

˜ô‰ßc(ãSé„)

Have ever done

GILI

gi li

ˆê’è,€¥

Must

GIL

gi lu,gi[I]

ˆê’¼Ý˜ôc(Žã”)

Have done

GILE

gi lei

‚‹»’n˜ôc.

Glad to do

GILO

gi lo

‰ºŒˆS˜ôc..

Dare to do

GIMA

gi ma

”\˜ôc..

Can

GIMI

gi mi

œäŠY˜ôc.

Should

GIM

gi mu

•K{˜ôc.

Must

GIME

gi mei

—L‰Â”\c.

May

GIMO

gi mo

—œäc..

Should

GIVA

gi [va]

•sîŠè’n˜ôc.

Unwillingly do

GIVI

gi[vi]

•s“¾•s˜ôc.

Canft help doing

GITT

gi to

œäác³Ý˜ô/˜ô‰ßc.

 

 

 

8) €“®ŽŒ

€“®ŽŒ (vervals)¥Šî‰—“®ŽŒŽ§\¬“IˆêŽíŽŒ—ށB•ªˆ×“®–¼ŽŒA“®Œ`—eŽŒA“®•›ŽŒŽOŽíB˜a‰pŒê“I“®–¼ŽŒ (-ing) A萌W‘㎌ (that)A•ªŽŒ (-ed,-ing) A•s’莌 (to do)‘ŠŽ—B

 

8-1A“®–¼ŽŒ ----

“®ŽŒ-M:“®ŽŒ“I–¼ŽŒŒ`Ž®A“®ŽŒ-D:¥”Û—v˜ôc.A¥•s¥c

Ý“®ŽŒŽŒ”ö‰ÁãúW-MúWˆ½úW-DúW‰Â\¬“®–¼ŽŒB“®–¼ŽŒŒ“‹ï“®ŽŒ˜a–¼ŽŒ“IŒ÷”\Bìˆ×“®ŽŒ‰ÂCü•oŒê,˜ôˆ×–¼ŽŒ‰ÂˆÈ[ácŽåŒêA•âŒêA•oŒêB

—á:ŠáŒ©ˆ×œß¡

說–@1: ŠÅ-M-W ‘ŠM-M(RI)¡

說–@2: ŠÅ-M-W(RI)‘ŠM-M¡

 úWWúW•\Ž¦úWŠÅ-MúW¥ŽåŒêBúWRI`úWˆÓˆ×c¥c.A–çA¥‰pŒê’†“IisBÝ”‡žéŒ‹\ŠÈšd“I‹åŽq’†, úWRI`úW‰ÂˆÈÈ—ª¡úW(RI)úW•\Ž¦‰ÂˆÈÈ—ªB

 

8-2A“®Œ`—eŽŒ ------

“®ŽŒ-K:“ߌA“®ŽŒ-AI:ˆ×—¹c.–Ú“I“IA“®ŽŒ-BI:c(’ö“x)“I“®ŽŒ-K˜a‰pŒê’†“I萌W–¼ŽŒ‘ŠŽ—B“®ŽŒ-AI˜a‰pŒê“Ito-do•s’莮‘ŠŽ—¡“®•M-BIäo‰pŒê“Ias‘ŠŽ—B“®Œ`—eŽŒŒ“‹ï“®ŽŒ˜aŒ`—eŽŒ“IŒ÷”\Bìˆ×“®ŽŒ‰ÂCü•oŒê,ìˆ×Œ`—eŽŒ‰ÂCü–¼ŽŒ˜aŒ`—eŽŒB

—á:Œ»Ý,’ñ–â“Il⋗¹‹N˜Ò

說–@1: Œ»Ý,’ñ–â-K REn-W⋋N˜Ò¡

說–@2: Now ask-K person-W stand up.

 

—á:”‡¥—p‰—žû查ŒŒ‰t“I‹@ŠíB

說–@1: TO-W ŒŒ‰t-Lžû查-AI‹@Ší(RI)

說–@2: TO-W (RI) instrument test-AI blood-LB

 

—á:”‡•s¥r›õ值“¾šL“IŽ–îB

說–@1: ? BOI-W