@@@@@     @@ VSO grammar@(Mode III)@‚‚†@‚m‚n‚w‚h‚k‚n@

@@@@@@@@    @ @@  @@@@@@  15 January  2010   (revised :   16  Nov  2016)



NOXILO is easy and equal artificial language for everybody in the East and the West.  It has very simple grammar
without meaningless exceptions, and has SOV (Mode I), SVO (Mode II), and VSO (Mode III) triversible structure to
support equality.  Most people can talk or write NOXILO sentences in the same, at least close to, the word order
of their mother language such as Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Japanese, Russian, Swedish, etc.
@@@@

     @(Note)  Alphabet,  Pronunciation,  Accent,  Parts of speech, and Vocabulary for Mode III are the same
                    for Mode I and Mode II.  Greetings, except for SALAm, are the same as well.

     @@(Note) The nickname for NOXILO is eSAAnf ( = Sun).

 

1)  Main characteristics

œ  Very simple and precise grammar without meaningless exceptions.

œ  Triversible SOV (Mode I) and SVO (Mode II), and VSO (Mode III) word order to support equality.

 (Note)  Linguists (Tomlin, Ohio State, Tsunoda, et alii) report that the SOV type word order (Mode I) is
          @most frequently seen, and the SVO type (Mode II) comes next, and the VSO type (Mode III)
@@@@@@comes third, based on their sampling studies.

œ  Vocabulary consists of 500 Basic Words (BWs) and over 15930 International Standard Words (ISWs) as of Nov 2016.  
Total 16430 NOXILO words.

œ  BWs are core vocabulary that form NOXILO grammar.  ISW can be replaced with English, German, French, Japanese,
or any other natural languages.  ISWs have eradicalsf (mostly 2 or 3 consecutive letters on the head of each word) which
show a specific meaning such as automobile, bird, bad, good, color, fish, education, family, land, private, public, ship, etc.

œ  Pronunciation is very simple upon completing International Phonemic Rule.

 

2)  Most important basic words and greetings

@  Most important basic words

NOXILO greetings in Mode III for "Hello" (How are you ?) is "SALAM" (Hello, Good morning, or Good afternoon).
People who use Mode III should say "SALAM" before they start talking or writing to others.  By the same token,
the people who use Mode I should say FIINA first , and the Mode II users should say ALOO first.  
"YUP" [yu:p] is for "Yes", and "NAI" [nai] for "No" or "Not".


@  Greetings      @

 Good morning  HAU  [hau],   from Lakota (one of the native American nations)
 Good night  BOnSOWAA   [boNsowa:],  French
 Excuse me.  DAMIHI   [damihi],   Latin
 Here you are.  Here we go.  NA   [na],  Greek
 Congraturations  MABLUK   [mab(u)lu:k],   Arabic
 Thank you.  ASAnTE   [asaNte],   Swahili in Africa
 KAMSA    [kam(u)sa],   Korean
 Thank you very much.     MUQ  ASAnTE   [mu:ch(u) asaNte]
 MUQ  KAMSA    [mu:ch(u) kam(u)sa]
 Not at all.  PARAKAALO   [paraka:lo],   Greek
 Fine !  Nice !  Smart !  GUT   [gu:t(u)],   German
 ALIn   [aliN],   Quechua in South America
 Take care of yourself.  SMAKKLyANA   [sma_k(u)lyana],   Quechua
 Good bye.  KWAHELI   [k(u)waheli],   Swahili
 See you again.  ABIAnTO   [abiaNto],   French
 Welcome  WELKAM    [welkam],   English
 Sorry  IZVINII    [iz(u)vini:],   Russian
 SOORII   [so:ri:],   English
 I am sorry.  IZVINIITIE   [iz(u)viniitie],   Russian


 Come on !   Stick to it.  YEELA  [ye:la]
 Enjoy it.  or  Take it easy.  QAAMO  [cha:mo]
  Ex.@QAAMO America = Enjoy America.
 @  @ QAAMO exam = Enjoy exam.
 @@ @QAAMO coffee = Enjoy coffee.
 Good Luck.  GUTENAAS  [gu:te na:s]
 I wish the current situation
 is getting better.
 GUTEPOOL  [gu:te po:l]
 God save.  AHA  GATEE  [aha gate:]
 Universal 'will' will save.  AHUL  GATEE  [ahu:l gate:]
 Poor
 (poor my John ! )
 POONA  [po:na]
 Very poor  SOO  POONA  [so: po:na]
 Expressing my sympathy.  APSIAALE  [aspia:le]
 Offering my Condolence
 to you.
 KOnDOLAATI  [koNdola:ti]
 Let's go !    Launch !
 Shoot !    Go !
 XPAADA  [shpa:da]
 One, two, three !
 (In cooperative work,
 members release their full
 power at the moment in
 saying 'SAM' (three).
 WAn  NI  SAM  [waN ni sam]
 Ready ? Go !  REDII  DAn  [redi: daN]


 I see.  SEAn  [seaN]  
 Wait a minute.
 Just a minute.  Hold on.
 IDyUTE  [idyu:te]
 Can you wait a minute ?
 Can you hold ?   
 ?  IDyUTEBL  [esk idyu:tebl]
       or [e idyu:tebl] in conv.
 nnn ....
 I can't agree./I can' belive it.
 (No. of N shows the strength of
 doubtness; NNN or NNNN)
 NNN  [NNN]
 We met again !  SAIIn  [sai:N]
 Lups, Look, Alas,
 Ah (small surprise)
 LE / LELE  [le / lele]

<Note> In conversation,  '?' can be pronounced [e] instead of [esk].




3)  The outline of the NOXILO grammar

There are 3 symmetrical (triversible) mode in NOXILO, which are Mode I (M1 for short), Mode II (M2), and Mode III (M3).

3-1.  Sentence pattern  (word order)

The sentence pattern of Mode I  is   SV,   SOV,   SCV,   S ( Oa Ob ) V,   S ( O C ) V,
where Oa is indirect object, and Ob direct object.

The sentence pattern of Mode II  is  SV,   SVO,
@SVC,   SV ( Oa Ob ),@SV ( O C ),
where Oa is indirect object, and Ob direct object.

The sentence pattern of Mode III is  VS,   VSO,@ VSC,   VS ( Oa Ob ),@ VS ( O C ),
where Oa is indirect object, and Ob direct object.


3-2.  Modification pattern  (word order of modification)


3.2.1.  Mode I  (M1)

There are 3 kinds of modifiers; modifing words ( MW ), modifing phrases ( MP ),  and modifing clauses ( MC ).  
The MW includes adjectives, adverbs, and verbals without object and/o
r complement.  The MP include adjective
phrases and adverb phrases, which are the combination
of nouns and modification agents, the combinations of
verbs and modification agents, and verbals with object or complement.  The MC include adjective clauses and
adverb clauses, which are the combination of clauses and clause leaders.

The order of the modifier (underlined below) and the modified word (modificand) for Mode I@are as follows;

MW + modified word (modificand)       @   Ex.  EILO  BIIUS  ( yellow house )
MP + modified word        
@@@   Ex.  Japan  AT  BIIUS  ( Japan in house )
MC + modified word 
@ @ Ex.  Japan  AT  RIZ  Ky  BIIUS  ( Japan in exist which house )

  <Note> 'BIIUS' means 'house'.   'RIZ' means 'to exist'.   'Ky' [kyu] means 'that/which/who' (relative pronoun
             in English) and also 'when/where' (relative adverb).  

3.2.2.  Mode II  (M2)  and  Mode III  (M3)

The word order of modification for Mode III is the same as the one for Mode II.  

There are 3 kinds of modifiers; the modifying word (MW), the modifying phrase (MP), and the modifying clause (MC).  
The MW includes adjective, adverb, and verbal without object and/or complement.  
The MP include adjective phrases
and adverb phrases, which are the combination of nouns and modification agents, the combinations of verbs and
modification agents, and verbals with object or complement.  The MC include adjective clauses and adverb clauses,
which are the combination of clauses and clause leaders.


The order of modifier (underlined) and modified word (modificand) for Mode II and III are as follows;

MW + modified word (modificand
   @  Ex.  EILO  BIIUS  ( yellow house )
modified word + MP       
@@@@         Ex.  BIIUS  ATL  Japan  ( house in Japan )
modified word + MC  
@  @@                     Ex.  BIIUS  Ky  RIZ  ATL  Japan  ( house which exists  in Japan )

 

3.2.3.  Comparison of Mode I and Mode II / III


          Mode I  (M1)                               EILO   BIIUS
          Mode II and III  (M2 and M3)          EILO   BIIUS
                                                        ( yellow  house )

          Mode I  (M1)                        Japan  AT   BIIUS
          Mode II and III  (M2 and M3)                    BIIUS   ATL  Japan
                                                                  ( house  in  Japan )

          Mode I  (M1)             Japan  AT  RIZ  Ky  BIIUS
          Mode II  and III  (M2 and M3)                   BIIUS  Ky  RIZ  ATL  Japan
                                                                  ( house which exists in Japan )

Letfs look at examples of sentencepatterns and modification patterns.

š@VS    (SV for M1 and  M2)

Ex.  I walk.

M3:  RyU  SE. 

For reference, the sentences for M1 ans M2 are as follows.

M1:  SE  RyU.
M2:  SE  RyU.

   
<Note> M3 stands for Mode III.  'SE' means 'I', and it's Basic Word.  'RyU' means 'to walk'
              and  it's NOXILO International Standard Word.

If you prefer to use English word over NOXILO International Standard Word (ISW), you can write as follows.

M3:  Walk SE. 

M1:  SE  walk.
M2:  SE  walk.

     <Note> The use of 'SE' is necessary because it's NOXILO Basic Word.

Ex.  We swim.

M3:  DyUMI SEN.

M1:  SEN  DyUMI.
M2:  SEN  DyUMI.

    <Note> 'SEN' means 'We',  and 'DyUMI' means 'to swim'.

If you prefer to use English words over International Standard Words (ISW),  you can write as follows.

M3:  Swim SEN.

M1:  SEN  swim.
M2:  SEN  swim.

    <Note> The use of 'SEN' is necessary because it is Basic Word.


š@VSO   (SOV for M1,  SVO  for  M2)

Ex.  I love you.

M3:  APLOS SE ME-O.

M1:  SE  ME-O  APLOS.       ( I you love. )
M2:  SE  APLOS  ME-O.       ( I love you. )

    <Note> 'SE' means 'I',  'ME' means 'you',  and  'APLOS' means 'to love'.
@   @@@'-O' means that ME is an object.   'ME-O' is pronounced [meo].

If you prefer to use English words over International Standard Words (ISW), you can write as follows.

M3:  Love SE ME-O.

M1:  SE  ME-O  love.
M2:  SE  love  ME-O.

    <Note> The use of SE and ME-O is necessary since they are both Basic Word.


š@VSC    (SCV for M1,  SVC  for  M2)

Ex.  That house is large.

M3:  (RI)  BOI  BIIUS-W  AUB-E.

M1:  BOI  BIIUS-W  AUB-E  (RI).       (That house large is.)
M2:  BOI  BIIUS-W  (RI)  AUB-E.       (That house is large.)

   <Note> 'BOI' means 'that',  and 'BIIUS' 'house',  and 'AUB' 'large'.  
             '-W' after BIIUS
shows that  'BIIUS' is subject.   '-E' after AUB shows that AUB is complement,  and
             the
'-E' is often omitted in simple VSC type sentences at present tense.  'RI' means 'is' (present form
             of 'be' in English), and often omitted in RI + S + C  (S+C+RI for M1, S+RI+C for M2) at present tense. 
             Thus, the above examples can be shortened as follows.

M3:   BOI  BIIUS-W  AUB.

M1:   BOI  BIIUS-W  AUB.        (That house large.)
M2:   BOI  BIIUS-W  AUB.        (That house large.)


If you prefer English words to ISWs (BIIUS and AUB),

M3:  BOI  house-W  large.

M1:  BOI  house-W  large.        (That house large.)
M2:  BOI  house-W  large.        (That house large.) 


š@VSOaOb    (SOaObV for M1,  SVOaOb  for  M2 )

Ex.  I  gave the person a book.

M3:  APIS-T  SE  FE-O  BEEK-O.

M1:  SE  FE-O  BEEK-O  APIS-T.        (I the person book gave.)
  
@@ @ (Oa     Ob)
M2
: SE  APIS-T  FE-O  BEEK-O.        (I gave the person book.)
                     
    (Oa     Ob)

   <Note> 'SE' means 'I', and 'FE'  'the person',  and  'BEEK'  'book',  and  'APIS'  'to give'.   

             '-O' means that BEEK is object, and '-T' (pronounced [ta] ) means that 'APIS' is at past tense.

š@VSOC   (SOCV for M1,  SVOC  for  M2)

Ex.  You will find him guilty.

M3:  MUFA-R  ME  MAFE-O  InPLEn-E.

M1:  ME  MAFE-O  InPLEn-E  MUFA-R.        (You him guilty find-will.)
M2:  ME  MUFA-R  MAFE-O  InPLEn-E.        (You find-will him guilty.)

    <Note>  'ME' means 'you'.  'MAFE' means 'he', and 'MAFE-O' means 'him'.  The '-O' after MAFE means 

                that MAFE is object.   'InPLEn' means 'guilty', and '-E' after InPLEn means that InPLEn is complement.
                MUFA' means 'to find',  and  '-R' (pronounced [re] ) after MUFA means that 'MUFA' is at future tense.
 
                '-O' for Object and '-E' for Complement in VSOC may be omitted if you use the basic form of
                object and complement.  Thus, the above examples can be written as follows.

M3:  MUFA-R  ME  MAFE  InPLEn.

M1:  ME  MAFE  InPLEn  MUFA-R.
M2:  ME  MUFA-R  MAFE  InPLEn.

Ex.  The person keeps his room clean.

M3:  UKEE  FE  FEI  TOM-O  AOKL-E.

M1:  FE  FEI  TOM-O  AOKL-E  UKEE.
M2:  FE  UKEE  FEI  TOM-O  AOKL-E.

     <Note> 'FE' means 'the person' (He or She),  and 'FEI' is possesive form of 'FE'.
        'TOM' means 'room',  and  'AOKL' means 'clean',  and  'UKEE' means 'to keep'.

The above examples can be written as follows by using 'TOM' instead of 'TOM-O', and AOKL instead of AOKL-E.

M3:  UKEE  FE  FEI  TOM  AOKL.

M1:  FE  FEI  TOM  AOKL  UKEE.
M2:  FE  UKEE  FEI  TOM  AOKL.

Ex.  The police caught that killer alive.

M3:  TUK-T  AnPOLIS-W  BOI  InPIAA-O  AUUL-E.

M1:  AnPOLIS-W  BOI  InPIAA-O  AUUL-E  TUK-T.        (Police that killer alive catch-ed.)
M2:  AnPOLIS-W  TUK-T  BOI  InPIAA-O  AUUL-E.        (Police catch-ed that killer alive.)

    <Note> 'AnPOLIS' means 'police',  'BOI' 'that',  'InPIAA' 'killer',  'AUUL' 'alive',  and 'TUK'means 'to catch'.  
              '-T' (pronounced [ta] ) means that 'TUK' is at past tense.  Ordinary pronoun such as AnPOLIS must  
              be accompanied by '-W' to show subject although Personal Pronoun such as SE (I) and ME (You) and
              Interrogative pronoun such as HA (what), HI (which), and HU (who) must not.

The above example can be written as follows by using 'InPIAA' instead of 'InPIAA-O'  and  'AUUL' instead of AUUL-E.

M3:   TUK-T  AnPOLIS-W  BOI  InPIAA  AUUL.

M1:  AnPOLIS-W  BOI  InPIAA  AUUL  TUK-T.

M2:  AnPOLIS-W  TUK-T  BOI  InPIAA  AUUL.

Ex.  I understood her nurse.

M3:  INAnDAS-T  SE  DAFE-O  UKyUDA-E.

M1:  SE  DAFE-O  UKyUDA-E  INAnDAS-T.        (I her nurse understand-ed.)
M2:  SE  INAnDAS-T  DAFE-O  UKyUDA-E.        
(I understand-ed her nurse.)

    <Note>  'SE' means 'I',  'DAFE' 'she' (her),  'UKyUDA' 'nurse', and 'INAnDAS' 'to understand'.
      '-T' means that INAnDAS is at past tense.

The above example can be written as follows by using 'DAFE' instead of 'DAFE-O', and 'UKyUDA' instead of UKyUDA-E.

M3:  INAnDAS-T  SE  DAFE  UKyUDA.

M1:  SE  DAFE  UKyUDA  INAnDAS-T.
M2:  SE  INAnDAS-T  DAFE  UKyUDA.

    
<Note> If you prefer English words to ISWs,  you can write as follows.  However, the use of Basic Words
               such as SE, DAFE, -T, and -R is necessary for any case.

           M3:  understand-T  SE  DAFE  nurse.
@ @@M1:  SE  DAFE  nurse  understand-T.
@ @@M2:  SE  understand-T  DAFE  nurse.

      
<Note> Pronunciation of understand-T is [anda:standta], not [anda:stud].  '-T' is always pronounced [ta].

Ex.  Parents made their daughter medical doctor.

M3:  BLE-T  ILynT-W  FEI  ILyTE-O  UKyMIST-E.       (made parents their daughter medical doctor. )

M1:  ILynT-W  FEI  ILyTE-O  UKyMIST-E  BLE-T.      (Parent their daughter medical doctor made. )
M2:  ILynT-W  BLE-T  FEI  ILyTE-O  UKyMIST-E.      (Parent made their daughter
medical doctor. )

@@<Note> 'ILynT' means 'parents', and '-W' shows that ILynT is subject.  '-T' shows that the tense of
                 causative verb BLE (=make in English) is past tense.  'FEI' means 'their', 'ILyTE' 'daughter', and
                 'UKyMIST' 'medical doctor' respectively.  'BLE' is causative verb such as 'make' or 'have' in English.


The above example can be written as follows.

M3:  BLE-T  ILynT-W  FEI  ILyTE  UKyMIST.

M1:  ILynT-W  FEI  ILyTE  UKyMIST  BLE-T.
M2:  ILynT-W  BLE-T  FEI  ILyTE  UKyMIST

@@<Note> 'BLE' is causative verb such as 'make' in English.  You can write the above example as follows
                 if you prefer to use English over NOXILO int'l word.   However, the use of  -W,  FEI,  BLE,  and 
                 -T  is still mandatory because they are Basic Words.

           M3:  BLE-T  parent-W  FEI  daughter  medical doctor.
           M1:  Parent-W  FEI  daughter  medical doctor  BLE-T.
           M2:  Parent-W  BLE-T  FEI  daughter  medical doctor.

In the following examples,  'OC' in  SOCV (SVOC in M2)  means S2 + V2 .  That is,  S (OC) V means  S1 (S2V2) V1,  
and  SV (OC)  means  S1V1 (S2V2).   For these particular types, the object (= S2) should be written by the basic form,  
and  '-O'  and  '-E'  can (should) be omitted.

Ex.  We heard her singing.

M3:  Hear-T  SEN  MAFE  sing-In.

M1:  SEN  MAFE  sing-In  hear-T.
M2:  SEN  hear-T  MAFE  sing-In.

Ex.  We heard her singing a song.

M3:  Hear-T  SEN  MAFE  song-O  sing-In.

M1:  SEN  MAFE  song-O  sing-In  hear-T.
M2:  SEN  hear-T  MAFE  sing-In  song-O.

    <Note> '-O' after 'MAFE' can be omitted, but another '-O' after 'song' can not be omitted.
              There are no Articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO, and therefore 'a' is not translated.

Ex.  Teacher keeps the boy standing.

M3:  Keep  Teacher-W  boy  stand-In.

M1:  Teacher-W  boy  stand-In  keep.
M2:  Teacher-W  keep  boy  stand-In.

     <Note> There are no articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO, and therefore 'the' is not translated.

Ex.  I had my hair cut.

M3:  BLE-T  SE  SEI  hair  cut-ZE.

M1:  SE  SEI  hair  cut-ZE  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  SEI  hair  cut-ZE.

     <Note> 'ZE' means passive voice.  'BLE' is causative verb.   'SEI' means 'my' (possesion).

Ex.  I had my TV repaired.

M3:  BLE-T  SE  SEI  TV  repair-ZE.

M1:  SE  SEI  TV  repair-ZE  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  SEI  TV  repair-ZE.

Ex.  I had him repair my TV.

M3:  BLE-T  SE  MAFE  SEI  TV-O  repair.

M1:  SE  MAFE  SEI  TV-O  repair  BLE-T.   ............   S (O C) V
M2:  SE  BLE-T  MAFE  repair  SEI  TV-O.   ............   S V (O C)

     <Note> C (verb) has an object 'SEI TV-O'.

Ex.  Sorry,  I kept you waiting.
@

M3:  IZVINII,  BLE-T  SE  ME  wait-In.

M1:  IZVINII,  SE  ME  wait-In  BLE-T.
M2:  IZVINII,  SE  BLE-T  ME  wait-In.

     <Note>  'IZVINII' means 'sorry' as we learned earlier (Greetings).
@

Ex.  You should make yourself understood.
@

M3:  GIMI  BLE  ME  MEL  understand-ZE

M1:  ME  MEL  understand-ZE  GIMI  BLE.

M2:  ME  GIMI  BLE  MEL  understand-ZE.

     <Note> 'MEL' means 'youself' (MENL yourselves, SEL myself, SENL ourselves, etc). 
               'GIMI' is auxiliary verb, and means 'should'.  Auxiliary verbs are always put before verb.
               All auxiliary verbs start with GI such as GIKA (may/permission), GIKI (had better do), GI (sure to do),  
               GIMA (can/capable/possible), GIMI (should/need/obligation), GIM (must/strong obligation),  
               GIME (may/probably).

Ex.   You should make her understand you (=yourself).

M3:  GIMI  BLE  ME  DAFE  understand  ME-O (MEL-O).

M1:  ME  DAFE  ME-O (MEL-O)  understand  GIMI  BLE.
M2:  ME  GIMI  BLE  DAFE  understand  ME-O (MEL-O).


<<  Addendum  >>
We take a look at the drawings of the basic structure of NOXILO grammar.  For the sentence pattern of SOV, SVO, and VSO
which are tied with the red line, the 'S' always comes before 'O', whereas in the sentence pattern OSV, OVS, and VOS which
are tied with blue line, 'O' comes before 'S'.  The author (MIZUTA Sentaro) supposes that there is none or very few Cartesian
in such society with O-first-language.  What do you think ?  NOXILO covers the first 3 patterns of SOV, SVO, and VSO.  




   
    @



The 'x' means any words to be modified. the 'a' means any words that modify x,  and a' means any phrases that modify x,  
and  a'' means any clauses that modify x.

In the following drawing,  the upper portion (triangle) shows the rule about elements, and the lower portion explains the
rule concerning the modification mode of NOXILO.

 
@ @ @@@@@             


 Note.  For VSO, the ax (example. red book) might be changed to xa (book red).   <16 Dec 2009>




‚Sj@‚o‚‚’‚”‚“@‚‚†@‚“‚‚…‚…‚ƒ‚ˆ@

There are 12 parts of speech; Nouns, Pronouns, Auxiliary verb, Verbals, Adjectives, Adverb, Modification Agents,
Composers, Clause Leaders, Particles, and Naturalists as shown below.


 @@‚o‚‚’‚”@‚‚†@‚“‚‚…‚…‚ƒ‚ˆ                @Examples of NOXILO International Standard Words
 Nouns  APLO (love), AFKOR (cooperation), ILyS (son), InFOM (intelligence), EDKEI (education),
 EDyTT (student), BEEK (book), LOWT (water), SII (ocean), WIIB (bread), WIIT (wheat)
 Pronouns  SE ( I ), SEN (We), ME (You), MEN (you), FE (The person), FEN (They), DAFE (He),
 MAFE (She), TE (It), TEN (They), JE (one), JEN (ones), SEL (myself) 
 Verbs  APIS (give), CU (sing),  INAnDAS (understand), RI (is/are), RIZ (exist), RyUR (run),
 UYUS (take), IYAA (want)
 Auxiliary verb  GIMA (can), GIMI (should), GIM (must), GIME (may) 
 Verbals  n/i  UYUS-AI (to do; verb-adjective), UYUS-M (taking; verb-noun = gerund),
 Adjectives  AOBI (beautiful), AUB (=DAA; large), AUWA (wide), EILO (yellow), EIBLA (black),
 UOS (=XAO; small)
 Adverbs  YUP (Yes), NAI (No), AIBSOLI (absolutely)
 Modification Agents
  (post-posision in M1) n/i
  (pre-position in M2)
 AT (in),  ATL (in for M2),  IM (from), IML (from for M2),  UT (to), UTL (to for M2),
 IZ(with),  IZL (with for M2)
 Composers  OnD (and),  OA (or),  OTT (but),  OZn (and then)
 Clause Leaders
  (post positioned in M1) n/i
  (pre positioned in M2)
 EEF (if),  EEFL (if),  Dy (whether),  Ky (who, which, when, where, that),  My (that)
 Particles  n/i  -W (n/r),  -O (n/r),  -T (ed; past tense),  -R (will, shall; future tense), -In (.....ing),
 Naturalists  AA (Ah),  SOO (So)

(Note 1)  ' n/i ' stands for  'no identity'  in English.


š  Nouns

Nouns have only one form, and they are not changed to indicate number or gender.  The same form is used for all
circumstances.  NOXILO nouns consist of non-material nouns and material nouns.  Most non-material nouns
start with vowel letter A, I, U, or E, and most material nouns start with Consonant letter such as B, C, ....Y, X
The material nouns include anything that we can touch, see, or hear, and that we can measure by various testing
equipment in the experiment room in school.   Property or nature of materials such as heat and wave are often
started with a consonant letter although they are not considered material itself.  Please remember there are no
Articles ( a, an, the ) in NOXILO.

Ex.  non-material nouns;  APLO (love), AFKOR (cooperation), EDKEI (education), EMyURE (party),
       InFOM (intelligence), UXRAn (insurance), UKyUM (medical treatment), UKyUMIST (medical doctor).

      material nouns;  BEA (hair), BEEK (book), BIIUS (house), HEES (earth), SAAn (Sun), SII (sea),
       YETI (tooth), YOO (car), etc.

          <Note> BEEK could be 'a book',  'books',  'the book',  and/or  'the books' in NOXILO.


š  Personal and Impersonal Pronouns

Personal and Impersonal Pronouns change their form depending on number and gender.

Ex.  SE ( I ),  ME ( You ),  FE ( the person ),  MAFE ( He ),  DAFE ( She ),  JE (One),   TE ( It ),  etc.

Plural forms are made by adding N [n(u)] at the end of the single forms as follows.

Ex.  SEN ( We ),  MEN ( You ),  FEN (the persons),  MAFEN (They),  DAFEN (They),  JEN (Ones),  TEN (They )

Possesive form is made by adding  'I'  to its subject form.  For more details, see the next Homepage 2.

Ex.  SEI (my),  MEI (your),  FEI (the person's),  MAFEI (his),  DAFEI (her),  JEI (someone's),  TEI (its),
       SENI (our),  MENI (your),  FENI (their),  MAFENI (their),  DAFENI (their),  JENI (Their),  TENI (Their),  etc.


š Verbs

œ@Tense, voice, and progressive.

Verbs do not have different forms to indicate the number or gender of the subject of sentence.

Past tense is indicated by adding  '-TA' ( or  '-T' ) immediately after the present form of verbs,  and future
tense is indicated by adding  '-RE' ( or  '-R' ).@ Both  -TA  and  -T are pronounced [ta],  and -RE and -R are
pronounced [re].    The ' - ' should not be read out.

Ex.  APLIS  @ [aplis] ( 'like' in English),   APLIS-T  [aplista] (liked),   APLIS-R  [aplisre] (will like)

Progressive tense is indicated by adding  '-In'  after the basic form of verbs, and Passive voice by '-ZE'.

Ex.   APLIS-In         [aplisiN]  ( liking )
        APLIS-ZE       [aplisze]  ( is liked )
        APLIS-TInZE   [aplistaiNze]  ( was being liked )
        APLIS-RInZE   [aplisreiNze]  ( will being liked )

There are two Causative Verbs;  BLE  [ble] (to make or to have)  and  BLU  [blu:] ( polite causative ).
These will be explained in detail in Ch-9 in Homepage 3.


œ@General verbs and specific verbs

General verbs such as 'to like', 'to plan', 'to think', and 'to want' are usually accompanied with specific verbs such as
'to write' and 'to buy' and 'to swim'.  In Noxilo, these two verbs are connected with  '<'  for M1 and  '>'  for M2 and M3.
Both '<' and '>' are lightly pronounced [N].   Please notice that the order of two verbs are just opposite for M1 and
M2/M3 as shown below.   If the tense of both verbs is the same, the tense particle for the specific verb can be omitted.

M3 :   general verb  >  specific verb           Ex.  want  >  swim

M1:    specific verb  <  general verb           Ex.  swim  <  want
M2:    same as M3.

Ex.  I  want to swim.

M3:  IYUS  >  swim  SE.

M1:  SE  swim  <  IYUS.       Pronounce [se] [swim] [N] [iyu:s].
M2:  SE  IYUS  >  swim.       Pronounce [se] [iyus] [N] [swim].

       <Note> 'SE' means 'I'.   'IYUS' means 'to want'.
                  Incidentally,  'IYAA' means 'would like to' (polite expression of IYUS), and 'IYAnS' means 'to require',
                  which is usualy used upon legalbase.  'YAAJ' is the same as 'IYUS', but 'YAAJ' won't be used as often
                  as 'IYUS' because the origin of 'YAAJ' is a Friendship Word.

Ex.  The person wanted to buy this camera.

M3:  IYUS-T  >  UYB  FE  TO  camera-O.         Pronounce [fe] [iyu:sta] [N] [uyb] [to] [kamera o]

M1:  FE  TO  camera-O  UYB  <  IYUS-T.         Pronounce [fe] [to] [kamera o] [uyb] [N] [iyu:sta]
M2:  FE  IYUS-T  >  UYB  TO  camera-O.         Pronounce [fe] [iyu:sta] [N] [uyb] [to] [kamera o]

        <Note> 'FE' means 'the person'.   'IYUS' means 'to want'.   'UYB' means 'to buy'.   'TO' means 'this'.

Ex.  They thought to start a new business.

M3:  INOGS-T  >  start  FEN  IUNI  business-O.

M1:  FEN  IUNI  business-O  start  <  INOGS-T.
M2:  FEN  INOGS-T  >  start  IUNI  business-O.

       <Note> 'FEN' means 'They', and is plural form of FE.   'INOGS' [inogs] means 'to think'.
                 'IUNI' means 'new'. 



š@Verbals

There are 3 different kinds of verbals; verb-noun and verb-adjective.  These are made by adding particular
particles ( affix ) to the end of verbs.  Verb-nouns work as verb and noun at the same time.
The English counterpart for verb-nouns would be Gerund.  By the same token, verb-adjectives work as verb
and adjective. The functions of verb-adjective more or less resemble 'to-infinitives'  or  'Participles' of English.


š  Adjectives

Adjectives are similar to their English counterparts.  Adjectives never change their form.  In NOXILO, there are
no articles such as 'a', 'an', and 'the' in English.  Adjectives are placed immediately before nouns and pronouns.
Here, lerners are advised to momorize two demonstrative adjectives 'TO' (pronounced [to] not [tu:],  'this' in English),
and  BOI ([boi], 'that').


š  Adverbs

Adverbs are similar to their English counterparts.  Like adjectives, adverbs never change their form.
Adverbs are usually placed before verbs, and adjectives.


š  Modification Agents

‚l‚‚„‚‰‚†‚‰‚ƒ‚‚”‚‰‚‚Ž Agents ( MA ) are 2-, 3-, or 4-letter-word with either A, I, U, or E beginning .  MA always work with
Noun, Pronoun, or Gerund, and the MA form modification phrase (adjective phrase or adverb ‚‚ˆ‚’‚‚“‚…) to modify
other words.  There are some 90 MAs.  Adding a letter 'L' at the end of MA in Mode I,  you have the MA in Mode II
and Mode III.  That is, MAs in Mode III have always L-ending and are one letter (L) longer than corresponding MA
in Mode I.   MAs in Mode I are put after Noun, Pronoun, or Gerund, so it is called 'postpositions'.

However, MAs in Mode II and Mode III are put before Noun, Pronoun, or Gerund, so it is called 'prepositions'.  
That is, the English counterpart of MAs in Mode II is Prepositions.   However, unlike English, the Nouns, Pronouns,
or Gerunds which are paired with the MAs are always in subjective mode instead of objective mode as 'with I'
instead of 'with me'.

 Modif. Agents    Mode III     Mode I   Mode II (same as Mode III)
   to Pari   UTL  Pari     Pari  UT      UTL  Pari  
   from 7   IML  7   7  IM    IML  7
   with me    IZL  SE   SE  IZ
   IZL  SE

(Note)  SE means ' I '.   'SE-O IZ'  and  'IZL SE-O'  are wrong because SE-O is an objective form;
  they should be  'SE  IZ'  and  'IZL  SE'.


š  Composer

Composers play role in forming logic.  English counterpart for Composers is Conjunctions such as 'and',  'or',
'therefore', 'because',  etc.  Please note the Conjunctions such as 'that', 'if', and 'although' are not included;
these are categolized into Clause Leaders in NOXILO.

Ex. OnD ( [ond]  'and' ),  OA ( [oa],  'or' ),  OENI ( [oeni],  'therefore' ),   OOZ ( [o:z]  'because' ), 
      OTT ([o_t(u)]  'but' ),  etc.


š  Clause Leaders

English counterparts for Clause Leaders ( CL ) are 'if', 'that', 'which', 'who', 'although', etc.   CLs are put last
of the sentence in Mode I, and therefore it is called post-clause-leaders.  However, CLs are put first of the
sentence in Mode II, and it is called pre-clause-leaders.  The pre-clause-leader is the same as Conjunctions
in English.   CLs does not include 'and' and 'or', which are categolized into Composers in NOXILO.

   Clause Leaders
       (English)
          Mode III              Mode I   Mode II (same as Mode III)
  that I love you   My  APLOS  SE  ME-O   SE  ME-O  APLOS  My   My  SE  APLOS  ME-O
  whom we invited   Ky  ELVIS-T  SEN   SEN  ELVIS-T  Ky   Ky  SEN  ELVIS-T
  although I like you     UUS  APLIS  SE ME-O     SE  ME-O  APLIS  UUS     UUS  SE  APLIS  ME-O  

(Note) 'APLOS' means 'love', and 'APLIS' means 'like'.   'My' means 'that' (Conjunction).  
  'Ky' (= who, which, that, where, when) is Clause Leader which leads adjective clause. 
  'UUS' (=although) is CL that leads adverb clause.   'ELVIS' means 'invite'.


š  Particles

There are many kinds of Particles.   We learn Element Particles and Tense Particles so far.

Element Particles  '-WA'  or  '-W' ( both pronounced [wa] ) is put at the end of all subject i except for
personal pronoun and interrogative pronoun j.   '-O' ( pronounced [o] ) is put at the end of all objects in
noun clauses, and '-OL'  or  '-L' ( both pronounced [ol(u)] ) in modification clauses ( that is, Adjective
clauses and Adverb Clauses ).   'E' ( pronounced [e] ) is put at the end of Complement in Noun clauses, and
'-EQ' or 'Q' ( both pronounced [ech(u)] ) in modification clauses.  Putting '-W',  '-O'  and  '-L'  is mandatry,
but 'E' and 'Q' are put only in long and complicated sentences.  'L'  and  'Q' would be better than 'OL' and  'EQ'
because the formers are shorter by one letter.

 Element Particles@
 
in Noun Clauses  
 Element Particles
 
in Adje. and Adv Clauses
 location of Element Particles 
         -W [wa] @@@@ -W [wa]  end of subject
         -O [o] @@@@ -L  [ol(u)]  end of object
         -E [e]          -Q [ech(u)]  end of complementary

(Note) Noun Clauses become Subject clause, Object Clause, or Complementary clause. 
           Adjective and Adverb clauses modify other words and sentences.

Ex.   This is a book.

M3:  RI  TO-W  BEEK-E.     (pronounced  [ri towa beeke])

M1:  TO-W  BEEK-E.  RI. 
M2:  TO-W  RI  BEEK-E. 

'TO' means 'this'.  'BEEK' means 'book'.   '-E' can be omitted as follows because the above sentence is very simple
VSC (SCV for M1 and SVC for M2) type.  In NOXILO, article 'a' and 'the' is not translated;  in case translation of
article is necessary, you simply add word such as WAn (=one), SGL (single), SOM (some), PLU (prulal), or
MUQ (many/much).   Ex. WAn BEEK (a book, one book).

M3:  RI  TO-W  BEEK.     (pronounced  [ri towa beek])

M1:  TO-W  BEEK  RI. 
M2:  TO-W  RI  BEEK. 

As explained earlier, copula verb RI (is/are in English) in VSC (SCV for M1and AVC for M2) type  sentence can
be omitted to make the sentence even simpler.  Thus, the above sentences can eventually written as follows.

M3:  TO-W  BEEK.     (pronounced  [towa beek])

M1:  TO-W  BEEK. 
M2:  TO-W  BEEK. 

   <Note> All sentences become identical !


Tense Particles  -TA  or  -T ( both pronounced [ta] ) is put at the end of verbs, and show the past tense.
RE  or  R ( both pronounced [re] ) is put at the end of verbs to show the future tense.  T and  R  are better than
TA  and  RE  because the formers are bit shorter.  There is no Tense Particles to show the present tense.

Tense Particles      Past   Present     Future 
     -T,    -R     -T  [ ta]      -R  [ re]

Ex.

     Verb      Past       Present      Future
      take       took      take  will, shall take
     UYUS
     [uyu:s]  @
   UYUS-T
   [uyu:sta]  
    UYUS
    [uy:s]
  UYUS-R
  [uyu:sre]

   <Note> 'UYUS' means 'to take'.


š Naturalist

Naturalists include Onomatopoeias and Interjections.

Ex. Ah,  Oh,  So, Ouch,  Bang,  knock,  Rin Rin,  Cook-a-doodle-doo,  etc.