@@@@@ @@ VSO grammar@(Mode III)@@mnwhkn@
@@@@@@@@ @ @@ @@@@@@ 15 January 2010 (revised : 16 Nov 2016)
NOXILO is easy and equal artificial language for everybody in the East and the West. It has very simple grammar
without meaningless exceptions, and has SOV (Mode I), SVO (Mode II), and VSO (Mode III) triversible structure to
support equality. Most people can talk or write NOXILO sentences in the same, at least close to, the word order
of their mother language such as Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Japanese, Russian, Swedish, etc.@@@@
for Mode I and Mode II. Greetings, except for SALAm, are the same as well.
@@(Note) The nickname for NOXILO is eSAAnf ( = Sun).
1) Main characteristics
Very simple and precise grammar without meaningless exceptions.
Triversible SOV (Mode I) and SVO (Mode II), and VSO (Mode III) word order
to support equality.
(Note) Linguists (Tomlin, Ohio State, Tsunoda, et alii) report that the SOV type word order (Mode I) is
@most frequently seen, and the SVO type (Mode II) comes next, and the VSO type (Mode III)
@@@@@@comes third, based on their sampling studies.
Vocabulary consists of 500 Basic Words (BWs) and over 15930 International
Standard Words (ISWs) as of Nov 2016.
Total 16430 NOXILO words.
BWs are core vocabulary that form NOXILO grammar. ISW can be replaced with English, German, French, Japanese,
or any other natural languages. ISWs have eradicalsf (mostly 2 or 3 consecutive letters on the head of each word) which
show a specific meaning such as automobile, bird, bad, good, color, fish, education, family, land, private, public, ship, etc.
Pronunciation is very simple upon completing International Phonemic Rule.
2) Most important basic words and greetings
@ Most important basic words
NOXILO greetings in Mode III for "Hello" (How are you ?) is "SALAM" (Hello, Good morning, or Good afternoon).
People who use Mode III should say "SALAM" before they start talking or writing to others. By the same token,
the people who use Mode I should say FIINA first , and the Mode II users should say ALOO first.
"YUP" [yu:p] is for "Yes", and "NAI" [nai] for "No" or "Not".
@ Greetings @
|Good morning||HAU [hau], from Lakota (one of the native American nations)|
|Good night||BOnSOWAA [boNsowa:], French|
|Excuse me.||DAMIHI [damihi], Latin|
|Here you are. Here we go.||NA [na], Greek|
|Congraturations||MABLUK [mab(u)lu:k], Arabic|
|Thank you.|| ASAnTE [asaNte], Swahili in Africa
KAMSA [kam(u)sa], Korean
|Thank you very much.|| MUQ ASAnTE [mu:ch(u) asaNte]
MUQ KAMSA [mu:ch(u) kam(u)sa]
|Not at all.||PARAKAALO [paraka:lo], Greek|
|Fine ! Nice ! Smart !|| GUT [gu:t(u)], German
ALIn [aliN], Quechua in South America
|Take care of yourself.||SMAKKLyANA [sma_k(u)lyana], Quechua|
|Good bye.||KWAHELI [k(u)waheli], Swahili|
|See you again.||ABIAnTO [abiaNto], French|
|Welcome||WELKAM [welkam], English|
|Sorry|| IZVINII [iz(u)vini:], Russian
SOORII [so:ri:], English
|I am sorry.||IZVINIITIE [iz(u)viniitie], Russian|
|Come on ! Stick to it.||YEELA [ye:la]|
|Enjoy it. or Take it easy.|| QAAMO [cha:mo]
Ex.@QAAMO America = Enjoy America.
@ @ QAAMO exam = Enjoy exam.
@@ @QAAMO coffee = Enjoy coffee.
|Good Luck.||GUTENAAS [gu:te na:s]|
| I wish the current situation
is getting better.
|GUTEPOOL [gu:te po:l]|
|God save.||AHA GATEE [aha gate:]|
|Universal 'will' will save.||AHUL GATEE [ahu:l gate:]|
(poor my John ! )
|Very poor||SOO POONA [so: po:na]|
|Expressing my sympathy.||APSIAALE [aspia:le]|
| Offering my Condolence
| Let's go ! Launch !
Shoot ! Go !
| One, two, three !
(In cooperative work,
members release their full
power at the moment in
saying 'SAM' (three).
|WAn NI SAM [waN ni sam]|
|Ready ? Go !||REDII DAn [redi: daN]|
|I see.||SEAn [seaN]|
| Wait a minute.
Just a minute. Hold on.
| Can you wait a minute ?
Can you hold ?
| ? IDyUTEBL [esk idyu:tebl]
or [e idyu:tebl] in conv.
| nnn ....
I can't agree./I can' belive it.
(No. of N shows the strength of
doubtness; NNN or NNNN)
|We met again !||SAIIn [sai:N]|
| Lups, Look, Alas,
Ah (small surprise)
|LE / LELE [le / lele]|
<Note> In conversation, '?' can be pronounced [e] instead of
3) The outline of the NOXILO grammar
There are 3 symmetrical (triversible) mode in NOXILO, which are Mode I (M1 for short), Mode II (M2), and Mode III (M3).
3-1. Sentence pattern (word order)
The sentence pattern of Mode I is SV, SOV, SCV, S ( Oa Ob ) V, S ( O C ) V,
where Oa is indirect object, and Ob direct object.
The sentence pattern of Mode II is SV, SVO,@SVC, SV ( Oa Ob ),@SV ( O C ),
where Oa is indirect object, and Ob direct object.
The sentence pattern of Mode III is VS, VSO,@ VSC, VS ( Oa Ob ),@ VS ( O C ),
where Oa is indirect object, and Ob direct object.
3-2. Modification pattern (word order of modification)
3.2.1. Mode I (M1)
There are 3 kinds of modifiers; modifing words ( MW ), modifing phrases ( MP ), and modifing clauses ( MC ).
The MW includes adjectives, adverbs, and verbals without object and/or complement. The MP include adjective
phrases and adverb phrases, which are the combination of nouns and modification agents, the combinations of
verbs and modification agents, and verbals with object or complement. The MC include adjective clauses and
adverb clauses, which are the combination of clauses and clause leaders.
The order of the modifier (underlined
below) and the modified word (modificand) for Mode I@are as follows;
modified word (modificand) @ Ex. EILO BIIUS ( yellow house )
MP + modified word @@@ Ex. Japan AT BIIUS ( Japan in house )
MC + modified word @ @ Ex. Japan AT RIZ Ky BIIUS ( Japan in exist which house )
<Note> 'BIIUS' means
'house'. 'RIZ' means 'to exist'. 'Ky' [kyu] means 'that/which/who' (relative pronoun
in English) and also 'when/where' (relative adverb).
3.2.2. Mode II (M2) and Mode III (M3)
The word order of modification for Mode III is the same as the one for Mode II.
There are 3 kinds of modifiers; the modifying word (MW), the modifying phrase (MP), and the modifying clause (MC).
The MW includes adjective, adverb, and verbal without object and/or complement. The MP include adjective phrases
and adverb phrases, which are the combination of nouns and modification agents, the combinations of verbs and
modification agents, and verbals with object or complement. The MC include adjective clauses and adverb clauses,
which are the combination of clauses and clause leaders.
The order of modifier (underlined) and modified word (modificand) for Mode II and III are as follows;
MW + modified word (modificand) @ Ex. EILO BIIUS ( yellow house )
modified word + MP @@@@ Ex. BIIUS ATL Japan ( house in Japan )
modified word + MC @ @@ Ex. BIIUS Ky RIZ ATL Japan ( house which exists in Japan )
3.2.3. Comparison of Mode I and Mode II / III
Mode I (M1) EILO BIIUS
Mode II and III (M2 and M3) EILO BIIUS
( yellow house )
Mode I (M1) Japan AT BIIUS
Mode II and III (M2 and M3) BIIUS ATL Japan
( house in Japan )
Mode I (M1) Japan AT RIZ Ky BIIUS
Mode II and III (M2 and M3) BIIUS Ky RIZ ATL Japan
( house which exists in Japan )
Letfs look at examples of sentencepatterns and modification patterns.
@VS (SV for M1 and M2)
Ex. I walk.
M3: RyU SE.
For reference, the sentences for M1 ans M2 are as follows.
M1: SE RyU.
M2: SE RyU.
<Note> M3 stands for Mode III. 'SE' means 'I', and it's Basic Word. 'RyU' means 'to walk'
and it's NOXILO International Standard Word.
If you prefer to use English word over
NOXILO International Standard Word (ISW), you can write as follows.
M3: Walk SE.
M1: SE walk.
M2: SE walk.
<Note> The use of 'SE' is necessary because it's NOXILO Basic Word.
Ex. We swim.
M3: DyUMI SEN.
M1: SEN DyUMI.
M2: SEN DyUMI.
<Note> 'SEN' means 'We', and 'DyUMI' means 'to swim'.
If you prefer to use English words over International Standard Words (ISW), you can write as follows.
M3: Swim SEN.
M1: SEN swim.
M2: SEN swim.
<Note> The use of 'SEN' is necessary because it is Basic Word.
@VSO (SOV for M1, SVO for M2)
Ex. I love you.
M3: APLOS SE ME-O.
M1: SE ME-O APLOS. ( I you love. )
M2: SE APLOS ME-O. ( I love you. )
<Note> 'SE' means 'I', 'ME' means 'you', and 'APLOS' means 'to love'.
@ @@@'-O' means that ME is an object. 'ME-O' is pronounced [meo].
If you prefer to use English words over International Standard Words (ISW), you can write as follows.
M3: Love SE ME-O.
M1: SE ME-O love.
M2: SE love ME-O.
<Note> The use of SE and ME-O is necessary since they are both Basic Word.
@VSC (SCV for M1, SVC for M2)
Ex. That house is large.
M3: (RI) BOI BIIUS-W AUB-E.
M1: BOI BIIUS-W AUB-E (RI). (That house large is.)
M2: BOI BIIUS-W (RI) AUB-E. (That house is large.)
<Note> 'BOI' means 'that', and 'BIIUS' 'house', and 'AUB' 'large'.
'-W' after BIIUS shows that 'BIIUS' is subject. '-E' after AUB shows that AUB is complement, and
the'-E' is often omitted in simple VSC type sentences at present tense. 'RI' means 'is' (present form
of 'be' in English), and often omitted in RI + S + C (S+C+RI for M1, S+RI+C for M2) at present tense.
Thus, the above examples can be shortened as follows.
M3: BOI BIIUS-W AUB.
M1: BOI BIIUS-W AUB. (That house large.)
M2: BOI BIIUS-W AUB. (That house large.)
If you prefer English words to ISWs (BIIUS and AUB),
M3: BOI house-W large.
M1: BOI house-W large. (That house large.)
M2: BOI house-W large. (That house large.)
@VSOaOb (SOaObV for M1, SVOaOb for M2 )
Ex. I gave the person a book.
M3: APIS-T SE FE-O BEEK-O.
M1: SE FE-O BEEK-O APIS-T. (I the person book gave.)
@@ @ (Oa Ob)
M2: SE APIS-T FE-O BEEK-O. (I gave the person book.)
<Note> 'SE' means 'I', and 'FE' 'the person', and 'BEEK' 'book', and 'APIS' 'to give'.
'-O' means that BEEK is object, and '-T' (pronounced [ta] ) means that 'APIS' is at past tense.
@VSOC (SOCV for M1, SVOC for M2)
Ex. You will find him guilty.
M3: MUFA-R ME MAFE-O InPLEn-E.
M1: ME MAFE-O InPLEn-E MUFA-R. (You him guilty find-will.)
M2: ME MUFA-R MAFE-O InPLEn-E. (You find-will him guilty.)
<Note> 'ME' means 'you'. 'MAFE' means 'he', and 'MAFE-O' means 'him'. The '-O' after MAFE means
that MAFE is object. 'InPLEn' means 'guilty', and '-E' after InPLEn means that InPLEn is complement.
MUFA' means 'to find', and '-R' (pronounced [re] ) after MUFA means that 'MUFA' is at future tense.
'-O' for Object and '-E' for Complement in VSOC may be omitted if you use the basic form of
object and complement. Thus, the above examples can be written as follows.
M3: MUFA-R ME MAFE InPLEn.
M1: ME MAFE InPLEn MUFA-R.
M2: ME MUFA-R MAFE InPLEn.
Ex. The person keeps his room clean.
M3: UKEE FE FEI TOM-O AOKL-E.
M1: FE FEI TOM-O AOKL-E UKEE.
M2: FE UKEE FEI TOM-O AOKL-E.
<Note> 'FE' means 'the person' (He or She), and 'FEI' is possesive form of 'FE'.
'TOM' means 'room', and 'AOKL' means 'clean', and 'UKEE' means 'to keep'.
The above examples can be written as follows by using 'TOM' instead of 'TOM-O', and AOKL instead of AOKL-E.
M3: UKEE FE FEI TOM AOKL.
M1: FE FEI TOM AOKL UKEE.
M2: FE UKEE FEI TOM AOKL.
Ex. The police caught that killer alive.
M3: TUK-T AnPOLIS-W BOI InPIAA-O AUUL-E.
M1: AnPOLIS-W BOI InPIAA-O AUUL-E TUK-T. (Police that killer alive catch-ed.)
M2: AnPOLIS-W TUK-T BOI InPIAA-O AUUL-E. (Police catch-ed that killer alive.)
<Note> 'AnPOLIS' means 'police', 'BOI' 'that', 'InPIAA' 'killer', 'AUUL' 'alive', and 'TUK'means 'to catch'.
'-T' (pronounced [ta] ) means that 'TUK' is at past tense. Ordinary pronoun such as AnPOLIS must
be accompanied by '-W' to show subject although Personal Pronoun such as SE (I) and ME (You) and
Interrogative pronoun such as HA (what), HI (which), and HU (who) must not.
The above example can be written as follows by using 'InPIAA' instead of 'InPIAA-O' and 'AUUL' instead of AUUL-E.
M3: TUK-T AnPOLIS-W BOI InPIAA AUUL.
M1: AnPOLIS-W BOI InPIAA AUUL TUK-T.
M2: AnPOLIS-W TUK-T BOI InPIAA AUUL.
Ex. I understood her nurse.
M3: INAnDAS-T SE DAFE-O UKyUDA-E.
M1: SE DAFE-O UKyUDA-E INAnDAS-T. (I her nurse understand-ed.)
M2: SE INAnDAS-T DAFE-O UKyUDA-E. (I understand-ed her nurse.)
<Note> 'SE' means 'I', 'DAFE' 'she' (her), 'UKyUDA' 'nurse', and 'INAnDAS' 'to understand'.
'-T' means that INAnDAS is at past tense.
The above example can be written as follows by using 'DAFE' instead of 'DAFE-O', and 'UKyUDA' instead of UKyUDA-E.
M3: INAnDAS-T SE DAFE UKyUDA.
M1: SE DAFE UKyUDA INAnDAS-T.
M2: SE INAnDAS-T DAFE UKyUDA.
<Note> If you prefer English words to ISWs, you can write as follows. However, the use of Basic Words
such as SE, DAFE, -T, and -R is necessary for any case.
M3: understand-T SE DAFE nurse.
@ @@M1: SE DAFE nurse understand-T.
@ @@M2: SE understand-T DAFE nurse.
<Note> Pronunciation of understand-T is [anda:standta], not [anda:stud]. '-T' is always pronounced [ta].
Ex. Parents made their daughter medical doctor.
M3: BLE-T ILynT-W FEI ILyTE-O UKyMIST-E. (made parents their daughter medical doctor. )
M1: ILynT-W FEI ILyTE-O UKyMIST-E BLE-T. (Parent their daughter medical doctor made. )
M2: ILynT-W BLE-T FEI ILyTE-O UKyMIST-E. (Parent made their daughter medical doctor. )
@@<Note> 'ILynT' means 'parents', and '-W' shows that ILynT is subject. '-T' shows that the tense of
causative verb BLE (=make in English) is past tense. 'FEI' means 'their', 'ILyTE' 'daughter', and
'UKyMIST' 'medical doctor' respectively. 'BLE' is causative verb such as 'make' or 'have' in English.
The above example can be written as follows.
M3: BLE-T ILynT-W FEI ILyTE UKyMIST.
M1: ILynT-W FEI ILyTE UKyMIST BLE-T.
M2: ILynT-W BLE-T FEI ILyTE UKyMIST.
@@<Note> 'BLE' is causative verb such as 'make' in English. You can write the above example as follows
if you prefer to use English over NOXILO int'l word. However, the use of -W, FEI, BLE, and
-T is still mandatory because they are Basic Words.
M3: BLE-T parent-W FEI daughter medical doctor.
M1: Parent-W FEI daughter medical doctor BLE-T.
M2: Parent-W BLE-T FEI daughter medical doctor.
In the following examples, 'OC' in SOCV (SVOC in M2) means S2 + V2 . That is, S (OC) V means S1 (S2V2) V1,
and SV (OC) means S1V1 (S2V2). For these particular types, the object (= S2) should be written by the basic form,
and '-O' and '-E' can (should) be omitted.
Ex. We heard her singing.
M3: Hear-T SEN MAFE sing-In.
M1: SEN MAFE sing-In hear-T.
M2: SEN hear-T MAFE sing-In.
Ex. We heard her singing a song.
M3: Hear-T SEN MAFE song-O sing-In.
M1: SEN MAFE song-O sing-In hear-T.
M2: SEN hear-T MAFE sing-In song-O.
<Note> '-O' after 'MAFE' can be omitted, but another '-O' after 'song' can not be omitted.
There are no Articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO, and therefore 'a' is not translated.
Ex. Teacher keeps the boy standing.
M3: Keep Teacher-W boy stand-In.
M1: Teacher-W boy stand-In keep.
M2: Teacher-W keep boy stand-In.
<Note> There are no articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO, and therefore 'the' is not translated.
Ex. I had my hair cut.
M3: BLE-T SE SEI hair cut-ZE.
M1: SE SEI hair cut-ZE BLE-T.
M2: SE BLE-T SEI hair cut-ZE.
<Note> 'ZE' means passive voice. 'BLE' is causative verb. 'SEI' means 'my' (possesion).
Ex. I had my TV repaired.
M3: BLE-T SE SEI TV repair-ZE.
M1: SE SEI TV repair-ZE BLE-T.
M2: SE BLE-T SEI TV repair-ZE.
Ex. I had him repair my TV.
M3: BLE-T SE MAFE SEI TV-O repair.
M1: SE MAFE SEI TV-O repair BLE-T. ............ S (O C) V
M2: SE BLE-T MAFE repair SEI TV-O. ............ S V (O C)
<Note> C (verb) has an object 'SEI TV-O'.
Ex. Sorry, I kept you waiting.@
M3: IZVINII, BLE-T SE ME wait-In.
M1: IZVINII, SE ME wait-In BLE-T.
M2: IZVINII, SE BLE-T ME wait-In.
<Note> 'IZVINII' means 'sorry' as we learned earlier (Greetings).@
Ex. You should make yourself understood.@
M3: GIMI BLE ME MEL understand-ZE.
M1: ME MEL understand-ZE GIMI BLE.
M2: ME GIMI BLE MEL understand-ZE.
<Note> 'MEL' means 'youself' (MENL yourselves, SEL myself, SENL ourselves, etc).
'GIMI' is auxiliary verb, and means 'should'. Auxiliary verbs are always put before verb.
All auxiliary verbs start with GI such as GIKA (may/permission), GIKI (had better do), GI (sure to do),
GIMA (can/capable/possible), GIMI (should/need/obligation), GIM (must/strong obligation),
Ex. You should make her understand you (=yourself).
M3: GIMI BLE ME DAFE understand ME-O (MEL-O).
M1: ME DAFE ME-O (MEL-O) understand GIMI BLE.
M2: ME GIMI BLE DAFE understand ME-O (MEL-O).
<< Addendum >>
We take a look at the drawings of the basic structure of NOXILO grammar. For the sentence pattern of SOV, SVO, and VSO
which are tied with the red line, the 'S' always comes before 'O', whereas in the sentence pattern OSV, OVS, and VOS which
are tied with blue line, 'O' comes before 'S'. The author (MIZUTA Sentaro) supposes that there is none or very few Cartesian
in such society with O-first-language. What do you think ? NOXILO covers the first 3 patterns of SOV, SVO, and VSO.
The 'x' means any words to be modified. the 'a' means any words that modify x, and a' means any phrases that modify x,
and a'' means any clauses that modify x.
In the following drawing, the upper portion (triangle) shows the rule about elements, and the lower portion explains the
rule concerning the modification mode of NOXILO.
@ @ @@@@@
Note. For VSO, the ax (example. red book) might be changed to xa (book red). <16 Dec 2009>
There are 12 parts of speech; Nouns, Pronouns, Auxiliary verb, Verbals, Adjectives, Adverb, Modification Agents,
Composers, Clause Leaders, Particles, and Naturalists as shown below.
|@@o@@ ||@Examples of NOXILO International Standard Words|
|Nouns|| APLO (love), AFKOR (cooperation), ILyS (son), InFOM (intelligence), EDKEI
EDyTT (student), BEEK (book), LOWT (water), SII (ocean), WIIB (bread), WIIT (wheat)
|Pronouns|| SE ( I ), SEN (We), ME (You), MEN (you), FE (The person), FEN (They),
MAFE (She), TE (It), TEN (They), JE (one), JEN (ones), SEL (myself)
|Verbs|| APIS (give), CU (sing), INAnDAS (understand), RI (is/are),
RIZ (exist), RyUR (run),
UYUS (take), IYAA (want)
|Auxiliary verb||GIMA (can), GIMI (should), GIM (must), GIME (may)|
|Verbals n/i||UYUS-AI (to do; verb-adjective), UYUS-M (taking; verb-noun = gerund),|
|Adjectives|| AOBI (beautiful), AUB (=DAA; large), AUWA (wide), EILO (yellow), EIBLA (black),
UOS (=XAO; small)
|Adverbs||YUP (Yes), NAI (No), AIBSOLI (absolutely)|
| Modification Agents
(post-posision in M1) n/i
(pre-position in M2)
| AT (in), ATL (in for M2), IM (from), IML (from for M2),
UT (to), UTL (to for M2),
IZ(with), IZL (with for M2)
|Composers||OnD (and), OA (or), OTT (but), OZn (and then)|
| Clause Leaders
(post positioned in M1) n/i
(pre positioned in M2)
|EEF (if), EEFL (if), Dy (whether), Ky (who, which, when, where, that), My (that)|
|Particles n/i||-W (n/r), -O (n/r), -T (ed; past tense), -R (will, shall; future tense), -In (.....ing),|
|Naturalists||AA (Ah), SOO (So)|
(Note 1) ' n/i ' stands for 'no identity' in English.
Nouns have only one form, and they are not changed to indicate number or gender. The same form is used for all
circumstances. NOXILO nouns consist of non-material nouns and material nouns. Most non-material nouns
start with vowel letter A, I, U, or E, and most material nouns start with Consonant letter such as B, C, ....Y, X.
The material nouns include anything that we can touch, see, or hear, and that we can measure by various testing
equipment in the experiment room in school. Property or nature of materials such as heat and wave are often
started with a consonant letter although they are not considered material itself. Please remember there are no
Articles ( a, an, the ) in NOXILO.
Ex. non-material nouns; APLO (love), AFKOR (cooperation), EDKEI (education), EMyURE (party),
InFOM (intelligence), UXRAn (insurance), UKyUM (medical treatment), UKyUMIST (medical doctor).
material nouns; BEA (hair), BEEK (book), BIIUS (house), HEES (earth), SAAn (Sun), SII (sea),
YETI (tooth), YOO (car), etc.
<Note> BEEK could be 'a book', 'books', 'the book', and/or 'the books' in NOXILO.
Personal and Impersonal Pronouns
Personal and Impersonal Pronouns change their form depending on number and gender.
Ex. SE ( I ), ME ( You ), FE ( the person ), MAFE ( He ), DAFE ( She ), JE (One), TE ( It ), etc.
Plural forms are made by adding N [n(u)] at the end of the single forms as follows.
Ex. SEN ( We ), MEN ( You ), FEN (the persons), MAFEN (They), DAFEN (They), JEN (Ones), TEN (They )
Possesive form is made by adding 'I' to its subject form. For more details, see the next Homepage 2.
Ex. SEI (my), MEI (your), FEI (the person's), MAFEI (his), DAFEI (her), JEI (someone's), TEI (its),
SENI (our), MENI (your), FENI (their), MAFENI (their), DAFENI (their), JENI (Their), TENI (Their), etc.
@Tense, voice, and progressive.
Verbs do not have different forms to indicate the number or gender of the subject of sentence.
Past tense is indicated by adding '-TA' ( or '-T' ) immediately after the present form of verbs, and future
tense is indicated by adding '-RE' ( or '-R' ).@ Both -TA and -T are pronounced [ta], and -RE and -R are
pronounced [re]. The ' - ' should not be read out.
Ex. APLIS @ [aplis] ( 'like' in English), APLIS-T [aplista] (liked), APLIS-R [aplisre] (will like)
Progressive tense is indicated by adding '-In' after the basic form of verbs, and Passive voice by '-ZE'.
Ex. APLIS-In [aplisiN] ( liking )
APLIS-ZE [aplisze] ( is liked )
APLIS-TInZE [aplistaiNze] ( was being liked )
APLIS-RInZE [aplisreiNze] ( will being liked )
There are two Causative Verbs; BLE [ble] (to make or to have) and BLU [blu:] ( polite causative ).
These will be explained in detail in Ch-9 in Homepage 3.
@General verbs and specific verbs
General verbs such as 'to like', 'to plan', 'to think', and 'to want' are usually accompanied with specific verbs such as
'to write' and 'to buy' and 'to swim'. In Noxilo, these two verbs are connected with '<' for M1 and '>' for M2 and M3.
Both '<' and '>' are lightly pronounced [N]. Please notice that the order of two verbs are just opposite for M1 and
M2/M3 as shown below. If the tense of both verbs is the same, the tense particle for the specific verb can be omitted.
M3 : general verb > specific verb Ex. want > swim
M1: specific verb < general verb Ex. swim < want
M2: same as M3.
Ex. I want to swim.
M3: IYUS > swim SE.
M1: SE swim < IYUS. Pronounce [se] [swim] [N] [iyu:s].
M2: SE IYUS > swim. Pronounce [se] [iyus] [N] [swim].
<Note> 'SE' means 'I'. 'IYUS' means 'to want'.
Incidentally, 'IYAA' means 'would like to' (polite expression of IYUS), and 'IYAnS' means 'to require',
which is usualy used upon legalbase. 'YAAJ' is the same as 'IYUS', but 'YAAJ' won't be used as often
as 'IYUS' because the origin of 'YAAJ' is a Friendship Word.
Ex. The person wanted to buy this camera.
M3: IYUS-T > UYB FE TO camera-O. Pronounce [fe] [iyu:sta] [N] [uyb] [to] [kamera o]
M1: FE TO camera-O UYB < IYUS-T. Pronounce [fe] [to] [kamera o] [uyb] [N] [iyu:sta]
M2: FE IYUS-T > UYB TO camera-O. Pronounce [fe] [iyu:sta] [N] [uyb] [to] [kamera o]
<Note> 'FE' means 'the person'. 'IYUS' means 'to want'. 'UYB' means 'to buy'. 'TO' means 'this'.
Ex. They thought to start a new business.
M3: INOGS-T > start FEN IUNI business-O.
M1: FEN IUNI business-O start < INOGS-T.
M2: FEN INOGS-T > start IUNI business-O.
<Note> 'FEN' means 'They', and is plural form of FE. 'INOGS' [inogs] means 'to think'.
'IUNI' means 'new'.
There are 3 different kinds of verbals; verb-noun and verb-adjective. These are made by adding particular
particles ( affix ) to the end of verbs. Verb-nouns work as verb and noun at the same time.
The English counterpart for verb-nouns would be Gerund. By the same token, verb-adjectives work as verb
and adjective. The functions of verb-adjective more or less resemble 'to-infinitives' or 'Participles' of English.
Adjectives are similar to their English counterparts. Adjectives never change their form. In NOXILO, there are
no articles such as 'a', 'an', and 'the' in English. Adjectives are placed immediately before nouns and pronouns.
Here, lerners are advised to momorize two demonstrative adjectives 'TO' (pronounced [to] not [tu:], 'this' in English),
and BOI ([boi], 'that').
Adverbs are similar to their English counterparts. Like adjectives, adverbs never change their form.
Adverbs are usually placed before verbs, and adjectives.
l Agents ( MA ) are 2-, 3-, or 4-letter-word with either A, I, U, or E beginning . MA always work with
Noun, Pronoun, or Gerund, and the MA form modification phrase (adjective phrase or adverb ) to modify
other words. There are some 90 MAs. Adding a letter 'L' at the end of MA in Mode I, you have the MA in Mode II
and Mode III. That is, MAs in Mode III have always L-ending and are one letter (L) longer than corresponding MA
in Mode I. MAs in Mode I are put after Noun, Pronoun, or Gerund, so it is called 'postpositions'.
However, MAs in Mode II and Mode III are put before Noun, Pronoun, or Gerund, so it is called 'prepositions'.
That is, the English counterpart of MAs in Mode II is Prepositions. However, unlike English, the Nouns, Pronouns,
or Gerunds which are paired with the MAs are always in subjective mode instead of objective mode as 'with I'
instead of 'with me'.
|Modif. Agents||Mode III||Mode I||Mode II (same as Mode III)|
|to Pari||UTL Pari||Pari UT||UTL Pari|
|from 7||IML 7||7 IM||IML 7|
|with me||IZL SE|| SE IZ
(Note) SE means ' I '. 'SE-O IZ' and 'IZL SE-O' are wrong because SE-O is an objective form;
they should be 'SE IZ' and 'IZL SE'.
Composers play role in forming logic. English counterpart for Composers is Conjunctions such as 'and', 'or',
'therefore', 'because', etc. Please note the Conjunctions such as 'that', 'if', and 'although' are not included;
these are categolized into Clause Leaders in NOXILO.
Ex. OnD ( [ond] 'and' ), OA ( [oa], 'or' ), OENI ( [oeni], 'therefore' ), OOZ ( [o:z] 'because' ),
OTT ([o_t(u)] 'but' ), etc.
English counterparts for Clause Leaders ( CL ) are 'if', 'that', 'which', 'who', 'although', etc. CLs are put last
of the sentence in Mode I, and therefore it is called post-clause-leaders. However, CLs are put first of the
sentence in Mode II, and it is called pre-clause-leaders. The pre-clause-leader is the same as Conjunctions
in English. CLs does not include 'and' and 'or', which are categolized into Composers in NOXILO.
| Clause Leaders
|Mode III||Mode I||Mode II (same as Mode III)|
|that I love you||My APLOS SE ME-O||SE ME-O APLOS My||My SE APLOS ME-O|
|whom we invited||Ky ELVIS-T SEN||SEN ELVIS-T Ky||Ky SEN ELVIS-T|
|although I like you||UUS APLIS SE ME-O||SE ME-O APLIS UUS||UUS SE APLIS ME-O|
(Note) 'APLOS' means 'love', and 'APLIS' means 'like'. 'My' means
'Ky' (= who, which, that, where, when) is Clause Leader which leads adjective clause.
'UUS' (=although) is CL that leads adverb clause. 'ELVIS' means 'invite'.
There are many kinds of Particles. We learn Element Particles and Tense Particles so far.
Element Particles '-WA' or '-W' ( both pronounced [wa] ) is put at the end of all subject i except for
personal pronoun and interrogative pronoun j. '-O' ( pronounced [o] ) is put at the end of all objects in
noun clauses, and '-OL' or '-L' ( both pronounced [ol(u)] ) in modification clauses ( that is, Adjective
clauses and Adverb Clauses ). 'E' ( pronounced [e] ) is put at the end of Complement in Noun clauses, and
'-EQ' or 'Q' ( both pronounced [ech(u)] ) in modification clauses. Putting '-W', '-O' and '-L' is mandatry,
but 'E' and 'Q' are put only in long and complicated sentences. 'L' and 'Q' would be better than 'OL' and 'EQ'
because the formers are shorter by one letter.
| Element Particles@
in Noun Clauses
| Element Particles
in Adje. and Adv Clauses
|location of Element Particles|
|-W [wa]||@@@@ -W [wa]||end of subject|
|-O [o]||@@@@ -L [ol(u)]||end of object|
|-E [e]||-Q [ech(u)]||end of complementary|
(Note) Noun Clauses become Subject clause, Object Clause, or Complementary clause.
Adjective and Adverb clauses modify other words and sentences.
Ex. This is a book.
M3: RI TO-W BEEK-E. (pronounced [ri towa beeke])
M1: TO-W BEEK-E. RI.
M2: TO-W RI BEEK-E.
'TO' means 'this'. 'BEEK' means 'book'. '-E' can be omitted as follows because the above sentence is very simple
VSC (SCV for M1 and SVC for M2) type. In NOXILO, article 'a' and 'the' is not translated; in case translation of
article is necessary, you simply add word such as WAn (=one), SGL (single), SOM (some), PLU (prulal), or
MUQ (many/much). Ex. WAn BEEK (a book, one book).
M3: RI TO-W BEEK. (pronounced [ri towa beek])
M1: TO-W BEEK RI.
M2: TO-W RI BEEK.
As explained earlier, copula verb RI (is/are in English) in VSC (SCV for M1and AVC for M2) type sentence can
be omitted to make the sentence even simpler. Thus, the above sentences can eventually written as follows.
M3: TO-W BEEK. (pronounced [towa beek])
M1: TO-W BEEK.
M2: TO-W BEEK.
<Note> All sentences become identical !
Tense Particles -TA or -T ( both pronounced [ta] ) is put at the end of verbs, and show the past tense.
RE or R ( both pronounced [re] ) is put at the end of verbs to show the future tense. T and R are better than
TA and RE because the formers are bit shorter. There is no Tense Particles to show the present tense.
|-T, -R||-T [ ta]||-R [ re]|
|take||took||take||will, shall take|
<Note> 'UYUS' means 'to take'.
Naturalists include Onomatopoeias and Interjections.
Ex. Ah, Oh, So, Ouch, Bang, knock, Rin Rin, Cook-a-doodle-doo, etc.