NOXILO  Webpage  1   

                      30  May  2001   (latest corrections :   20  August  2019)


      
                      <Note> Internet Explorer 6 or higher is recommended to enjoy this webpage
                                            since it carries some foreign scripts (French, Greek, Japanese .... ).
                           The nickname of NOXILO has been determined 'SAAn' (= Sun).



NOXILO Version 3.0 (pronounced  'noshilo')  is an international auxiliary language for everybody.  The following
is a brief translation of the 1st part of the NOXILO textbook and webpages in the Japanese language written by
MIZUTA Sentaro ©
1996, ........ , 2018.



= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
Table of contents of the webpage 1
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Ch. 1   Introduction

Ch. 2   Alphabet,  Pronunciation,  and  Accent

   2-1)  Alphabet
   2-2)  Pronunciation of letters
   2-3)  Pronunciation of words
   2-4)  Accent

Ch. 3   Vocabulary

Ch. 4   Greetings

Ch. 5   Outline of the NOXILO grammar

   5-1) Mode

      5-1-1.  Mode I   (M1 for short)
      5-1-2.  Mode II  (M2 for short)

   5-2)  Mode comparison  M1  with  M2

      5-2-1.  Sentence pattern
       5-2-2.  Modification pattern

   5-3)   Parts of Speech



    Webpage 2 will include the classification of sentences, nouns, and personal pronouns.




*************************
Ch. 1  Introduction
*************************


NOXILO (pronounced 'NOSHILO') is a truly equal and easy-to-use international auxilliary
language, which was made in Japan for Asians, Europeans, Africans, and North/South
Americans. Unlike most other international auxilliary languages, NOXILO allows most
users (American, Brazilian, Chinese, French, German, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Malaysian,
Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, etc.) to write and speak in the word order of their
native tongue or at least in a similar word order. The following questions and answers
will give you a brief idea of what NOXILO is.

 Where did the name of 'NOXILO' come from,and what does 'NOXILO' mean ?

NOXILO is an abbreviation for NOI XIIJE LOGOS. 'NOI' means 'new', and it is taken from
the German word 'NEU'.  'XIIJE' means 'world', and it's from the Chinese word '世界'.
'LOGOS' means 'language', and it's from the Greek word 'ΛΟΓΟΣ'.  Thus, NOXILO
stands for 'New World Language'. The nickname for NOXILO is SAAn, which means Sun.


 What are the characteristics of NOXILO ?

There are main characteristics in NOXILO.

First is equality.  NOXILO is designed to fit most of the Eastern and Western natural
languages. With NOXILO, most people can write and speak in the word order of their
mother tongue or at least in a similar word order.

   (Note)  Linguists (Tomlin, Ohio State, Tsunoda, et alii) report that the SOV type word order (Mode I )
    is most frequently seen (40 to 50 %),  and the SVO type (Mode II ) comes next (35 to 45%),  based on
     their sampling studies.  The author figures that well over 90% of world population are familiar with one or
     both types of word order,  and continues to work on the extention of the NOXILO grammar to the VSO
     type (Mode III).


Second, the NOXILO grammar is incredibly simple and universal. It does not have any
kind of arbitrary exceptions or irregular rules. Students who get accustomed to NOXILO
will even be able to master any popular natural languages in a shorter period of time
than their friends who did not study NOXILO beforehand because NOXILO is a kind of Great
Common Denominator of all natural languages, and therefore what the students have to do
is simply to alter some of the NOXILO grammar and add the original rules of the natural
language to NOXILO.



Third, NOXILO vocabulary consists of 19000 words in total as of August 2019; Basic Words
(BW, about 500 words such as I, We, You, She, from, to, by, and, or, but, because, after,
who, when, can, must, etc.) and International Standard Words (ISW, some 18500 words).

Basic Words are very important part of NOXILO grammar and necessary to use.
However, the use of Int'l Standard Word is
not necessary; NOXILO users can replace ISWs
with any corresponding words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs) of their native
language such as English, French, Chinese, Japanese, etc., so that they can freely write
any professional papers concerning business, education, science, sports, and so on.  

Most ISWs have 'radical' (a kind of 'root' in English) on the head part of word, and
therefore, NOXILO users can reasonably estimate the meaning of any unfamiliar ISWs.  
For example, a radical 'AP' means love, giving, care, and so on.  Knowing this, NOXILO
users are able to estimate, more or less, the meaning of ISW such as APLO (love), APLOS
(to love), API (giving), APIS (to give), and APAAQ (virtue).  In using English, noun
should be in singular form (dictionary form like 'book' instead of 'books'), and verbs
in plural form (dictionary form like 'read' instead of 'reads').

Fourthly, NOXILO words never change their form.  NOXILO grammar is formed by
(1) word order, and (2) addition of proper letter pieces to word body, mostly to the end
of words. That is to say, NOXILO is an agglutinative language.

Fifthly, each alphabet letter corresponds to a particular sound (one of 5 vowels and
23 consonants) which complies with the specifications by the International Phonetic
Association
. The pronunciation is super simple, and does not vary from word to word.


 How much time does it take for students to master NOXILO ?

Acquisition time depends on the student's mother language and educational background.
The author figures that the basic word order of most of the student's native tongues
are categorized into one of the following two
.

Mode I   :  Subject + Object + Verb (Hindi, Japanese, Korean, Tamil, Turkish, etc.) or
Mode II  :  Subject + Verb + Object (English, French, Malay, Spanish, Russian, etc.)

If it is the case, and if they are junior or senior high school graduates who completed
one year of English lessons (or a foreign language for English speakers), most students
will understand the NOXILO grammar only in a few weeks of medium intensive study.





************************************************************
Ch. 2   Alphabet,  Pronunciation,  and  Accent 
************************************************************


2-1)  Alphabet

NOXILO has its own Alphabet consisting of 26 Capital letters and 26 small letters ( 52 in total ).
Of it,  26 Capital letters and two small letters are used for daily communications.  Small letters
except for the two are mainly used as symbols in Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics, and so on.
The 26 Capital letters can be substituted with the Roman Alphabet A to Z, and the two small
letters with y and n as shown below.

NOXILO order :  A I U E O H K G S Z C X J Q T D N F V P B M L R Y W      y  n
Roman order   :  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z      y  n


The following is a new (since 10th of July 2013) contrasive table of Roman and NOXILO letters.
The last 5 items are the symbol for element particles (-W, -O, -L, -E and Q).



Examples of above (3), (4), and (5).

(3)   - - -    KyA [kya]                               Ky [ky(u)]       KyE [kye]         KyO [kyo]
(4)  - - -    KyAA [kya:]                           KyU [kyu:]      KyEE [kye:]      KyOO [kyo:]
(5)   - - -    Ky'A [kyua]      Ky'I [kyui]                              Ky'E [kyue]      Ky'O [kyuo]


The order and pronunciation of NOXILO Alphabet is different from the Roman Alphabet as above,  and
they are more or less similar to that of the Sanscrit,  a famous ancient language in India.   In NOXILO,
the sound combinations do not change word to word.  The pronunciation is expressed by the International
Phonetic Alphabet, which is specified by International Phonetic Association.

 (Note) This homepage except for the above chart is throughly written with the Roman letters.
 (Note) The Author is planning to introduce a new rule;  We can use small letters instead of capital
           letters for NOXILO word with '_' before the NOXILO word such as '_se' for 'SE' (I in English).
           Even 'se' for 'SE' would be possible in the future if there is no risk of confusion. 


2-2)  Pronunciation of Letters


2-2-1. Letters for Vowels

There are 5 short and long vowels.

A   : [a] father
AA : [a:] hold the sound 'a' longer.

I   : [i] king
II  : [i:] hold the sound 'i' longer.

U   : [u] mouse
UU : [u:] hold the sound 'u' longer.

E   : [e] egg
EE : [e:] hold the sound 'e' longer.

O   : [o] oyster
OO : [o:] hold the sound 'o' longer.

2-2-2. Letters for Consonants

There are 23 consonants as follows. Consonant letters are read with the short
vowel [u] at the end of each Consonant although the letter U is not written out.

H : [hu] harmony
K : [ku] king
G : [gu] get
S : [su] seven
Z : [zu] zebra
C : [tsu] tsunami
X :
(shu) shoes
J :
(ju) joke
Q :
(chu) chance
T : [tu] time
D : [du] dog
N : [nu] night
F : [fu] fan
V : [vu] victory
P : [pu] paper
B : [bu] book
M : [mu] mouse
L : [lu] light
R : [ru] red
Y :
(yu) young
W : [wu] wax


y  :  (y)   cab  [kyab]
n  : (N)   can  [kyan]

 (Note) Author's word processor does not have IPA symbols for X, J, Q, etc., so the
   author use the Roman letters; 'shu' for X, 'ju' for J, 'chu' for Q, and 'yu' for Y.
   These are put in
( ) above.

NOXILO allows some allophones in H, B, and R.   For H, there are two allophones;
[ ] as in 'ich' (German) and [Ф] as in '団'([ФutoN] or [ФtoN] Japanese).

For B, there is one allophone; [ ] as in 'aber' (German). For R, there are three
allophones; [ ] as in 'cry' (English), [ ] as in 'rouge' (French), and [ ] as in
'very' (English).

 (Note) Unfortunately, the author's processor does not have IPA symbols for the
   allophones, which would otherwise fill in all of the [ ] above.

2-2-3.Double Consonants Letters


Double consonants (geminate) play a special role.  The first consonant in the geminate
is not pronounced but indicates a time beat of one syllable in duration (generally
speaking, a syllable is no shorter than a third of a beat.  Thus, PAKK is read as
'pa ck' [pa_ku] rather than 'pack' in English, and SITT is read as 'si t' [si_tu]
rather than 'sit'.

2-2-4.Two small letters

The following 2 small letters have unique functions.

y : [uos yu]
n : [uos nu]

The letter 'y' is read as [uos yu] when it stands alone. The 'uos' means small, and it is
an international standard wowd (ISW).  However, in words, the 'y' is not read [uos yu]; it 
means the palatalization of Consonants. Thus, KyAB is pronounced [kyab] (as 'cab' in English),
and KyU is pronounced [kyu:](as 'queue' in English).  See 2-3.

The letter 'n' is read as [uos nu] when it stands alone, and it means nasal sounds /N/ in
words.  There are 3 allophones [m], [n], and (ng) in the /N/.  Ex. nation [neishoN],
compass [kompas], contact [kontakt], English [inglish].  See 2-3.


2-3)  Pronunciation of word

As we learned earlier, all 21 Consonants letters are pronounced with the short vowel[u]
at the end, so that everyone can easily hear (distinguish) any Consonants, in particular
closed (voiceless) sounds such as [k], [t], and [p].

However, in pronouncing words, students, especially those who are accustomed to closed sounds, may delete
the sound [u] after open Consonants such as H [h],  L [l],  S [s].  Further, the students may even delete the
sound  [u]  after closed (voiceless) Consonants as well if the the closed Consonants have vowels or open
Consonants immediately before or after it.  Thus, AKT is pronounced [aktu] instead of [akutu]
because the first Consonants K[k] has a vowel A[a] immediately before it, but [akt]
is not allowed since the second Consonants T[t] does not have any vowels or open
Consonants immediately before or after it.

Ex.
     K (a letter) [ku]
     AKT [aktu] or [akutu] (hereafter, this will be expressed as [ak(u)t(u)])
     APT [aptu] or [aputu] (hereafter expressed as [ap(u)t(u)])

When 'U' is used immediately after Consonants, the sound [u] should be held longer.
Thus, a word KU is read [ku:] instead of [ku] although there is only one U written.

Ex.
     a letter 'K' [ku] (not [k])    
(Note) There is no one-letter-word in NOXILO.
     a word 'KU' [ku:]
     a word 'Ky' [kyu]
     a word 'KyU' [kyu:]

The above is not applicable when U is the first letter of the word. See the following
example.

Ex.
     UDIn  [udiN] (victory)
     UUS    [u:s(u)] (although)

'Consonants + ' + either one of A, I, E, or O' means the Consonants + [u] + either
one of [a],[i],[e], or [o].
Thus, K'A is read [kua] (not [ka]), and K'I is read [kui]
instead of [ki].

Ex.
     K'A  [kua]
     K'I  [kui]
     K'E  [kue]
     k'O  [kuo]


Pronunciation Table of  NOXILO

 A   [a]      I   [i]        U   [u]  E   [e]   O   [o]
 AA  [a:]    II   [i:]      UU  [u:]     EE  [e:]     OO  [o:]   


 HA [ha]            HI [hi]                 H [hu],      [h]      HE [he]              HO [ho]            
 HyA [hya]  Hy [hyu],   [hy]  HyE [hye]  HyO [hyo]
 KA [ka]  KI [ki]  K [ku],      [k]  KE [ke]  KO [ko]
 GA [ga]  GI [gi]  G [gu],      [g]  GE [ge]  GO [go]
 KyA [kya]  Ky [kyu],   [ky]  KyE [kye]  KyO [kyo]
 GyA [gya]  Gy [gyu],   [gy]  GyE [gye]  GyO [gyo]
 SA [sa]  SI [si]  S [su],      [s]  SE [se]  SO [so]
 ZA [za]  ZI [zi]  Z [zu],      [z]  ZE [ze]  ZO [zo]
 CA [tsa]  CI [tsi]  C [tsu],    [ts]  CE [tse]  CO [tso]
 XA [sha]  XI [shi]  X [shu],    [sh]  XE [she]  XO [sho]
 JA [jya]  JI [ji]  J [jyu],     [jy]  JE [jye]  JO [jyo]
 QA [cha]  QI [chi]  Q [chu],   [ch]  QE [che]  QO [cho]
 TA [ta]  TI [ti]  T [tu],      [t]  TE [te]  TO [to]
 DA [da]  DI [di]  D [du],     [d]  DE [de]  DO [do]
 TyA [tya]  Ty [tyu],   [ty]  TyE [tye]  TyO [tyo]
 DyA [dya]  Dy [dyu],  [dy]  DyE [dye]  DyO [dyo]
 NA [na]  NI [ni]  N [nu],     [n]  NE [ne]  NO [no]
 NyA [nya]  Ny [nyu],  [ny]  NyE [nye]  NyO [nyo]
 FA [fa]  FI [fi]  F [fu],      [f]  FE [fe]  FO [fo]
 VA [va]  VI [vi]  V [vu],      [v]  VE [ve]  VO [vo]
 VyA [vya]  Vy [vyu],   [vy]  VyE [vye]  VyO [vyo]
 PA [pa]  PI [pi]  P [pu],      [p]  PE [pe]  PO [po]
 BA [ba]  BI [bi]  B [bu],      [b]  BE [be]  BO [bo]
 PyA [pya]  Py [pyu],   [py]  PyE [pye]  PyO [pyo]
 ByA [bya]  By [byu],   [by]  ByE [bye]  ByO [byo]
 MA [ma]  MI [mi]  M [mu],     [m]  ME [me]  MO [mo]
 MyA [mya]  My [myu],  [my]   MyE [mye]  MO [myo]
 LA [la]  LI [li]  L [lu],       [l]  LE [le]  LO [lo]
 LyA [lya]  Ly [lyu],    [ly]  LyE [lye]  LyO [lyo]
 RA [ra]  RI [ri]  R [ru],      [r]  RE [re]  RO [ro]
 RyA [rya]  Ry [ryu],   [ry]  RyE [rye]  RyO [ryo]
 YA [ya]  Y [yu],      [y]  YE [ye]  YO [yo]
 WA [wa]  WI [wi]  W [wu],     [w]  WE [we]  WO [wo]


(Note)  In pronouncing words,  students, especially those who are accustomed to closed sounds, may delete
 the sound [u] (as shown by pink-colored symbols in the above table) after open Consonants such as H [h],
 L [l],  and S [s].  Further, the students may even delete the sound [u] after closed (voiceless) Consonants as
 well if the closed Consonants have vowels or open Consonants immediately before or after it.  Thus, AKT
 may be pronounced [aktu] instead of [akutu] because the first Consonants K[k] has the
 vowel A[a] immediately before it, but [akt] is not allowed since the second Consonants
 T[t] does not have any vowels or open Consonants immediately before or after it.
 Indeed, it is hard to hear K, P, T without any vowels or open consonants immediately
 before or after K, P, and T.



2-4)  Accent

Subtle accent is set on the 1st vowel, and 3rd vowel for a long word (No.7 in the table).
Accent is set on the
long vowel (No.8, 9, 10, 11, 12) and the vowel before consecutive
same
consonants (SS in No.13 and PP in No.14).  No more than 2 accents set on a word.
No accent is set on the 2nd and 3rd part of synthetic word such as TyUIAA_ST.
No accent is set on the particles including AA and II.

No.         NOXILO Words                           sounds to be put accent
 1  AU /AUL  [au] / [aul]  through  A (1st vowel)
 2  AUB  [aub]  big  A (1st vowel)
 3  IMREI  [imrei]  appraisal/judgment  I  (1st vowel)
 4  IMTIA  [imtia]  comparison   I  (1st vowel)
 5  BOnRy  [boNry]  cooking/dish   O  (1st vowel)
 6  GEIT [geit]  station  E  (1st vowel)
 7  ELAFANA  [elafana]  affirmative  E  (1st vowel) and A  (3rd vowel)    <note> This is a long word (7 letters !).
 8  EUUVIO  [eu:vio]  violent  E  (1st vowel) and UU (long vowel)
 9  EUDAA  [euda:]  dryer  E  (1st vowel) and AA (long vowel)   <note> This 'AA' is not particle.
 10  InTAAD  [iNta:d]  standard  I  (1st vowel) and AA  (long vowel)  
 11  KUI  [ku:i]  eat  U  (long vowel)    
     <note> 'U' after consonant letter is pronounced [u:].
 12  ILyUM  [ilyu:m]  father  I  (1st vowel) and U (long vowel)    
     <note> 'U' after consonant letter is pronounced [u:].
 13  IPASSE  [ipa_se]  assembly  I  (1st vowel) and A before SS (consecutive same consonant letters)
 14  XOPP  [sho_p(u)]  ship  O before PP (consecutive same consonant)
 15  TyUIAA_ST  [tyu:ia:st] 
  passenger list
 U (1st vowel)    TyUIAA (passenger) ALST (list) 
     <note> AA is particle that means person, therefore no accent is set
        on the AA.   No accent on the 2nd part (_ST) of the synthetic word.  

  <Note> The above accent rule is applied for the most  of the NOXILO Basic and International Standard Words.





************************
Ch. 3  Vocabulary
************************


NOXILO vocabulary consists of two types of words,  which are 500 Basic Words (BW) and 18500 International
Standard Words
(ISW).   Basic Words are mandatory to use.   Except for the BWs,  NOXILO users can freely choose
proper words from the ISWs or any words from their mother language such as English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic,
Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Swedish, Thai, etc.  Total NOXILO words reach some 19000 words (500 + 18500) as of
August 2019.

@  Basic Words (BW)

Some 500 Basic Words are an important part of the NOXILO grammar.   All NOXILO users must use the Basic
Words in writing/speaking NOXILO sentences.  For beginners, memorization of 60 to 70 Basic Words would
be enough.

Ex.  SE ( I  in English),  SEI (my),  SE-O (me),  ME (You),  MEI (your),  ME-O (you),  AB (about),  UT (to),
      OnD (and),  OA (or),  OTT (but),  HA (what, interrogative pronoun),  HI (which),  HU (who),  etc.

@  International Standard Words (ISW)

International Standard Words (ISW) have a 'radical' (one like root or semantic hint) on its head.  There are some
300 radicals.  Therefore, NOXILO users can see more or less the meaning of any particular ISW with the radicals. 
Any newly made ISW for worldwide-use can be authorized at NOXILO Association as long as they are formed
upon the word-formation-rule.  ISWs are counted up to 18500 as of August 2019.

The following table shows some examples of the radicals and the ISWs with the radical.

Radical for ISW Meaning of radical Examples of ISW
 AP   [ap] noun: non-material
love, sympathy, pride, etc.
 APLO (love), APLOS (to love), API (giving), APAAQ (virtue)
 ILy   [ily(u)]  noun: non-material
kinship, family 
 ILyS (son), ILyTE (daughter), ILyUD (mother), ILyUM (father)
 EL   [el] noun: non-material
accept, agree, support, etc. 
 ELPA (accept), ELPAS(to accept), ELVI (invitation), ELSA (support)
 BE   [be] noun: material
hair, skin, muscle, bone, etc.
 BEA (hair), BENE (nail), BEMAS (muscle)
 BEE  [be:] noun: material
book, paper, ticket, etc.
 BEEK (book), BEEPA (paper), BEETE (letter)
 BII   [bi:] noun: material
house, building
 BIIUS (house), BIIRES (address), BIIKOn (construction)
 EI    [ei] adjective:
color
 EIMA (magenta/red), EITA (white), EIBLA (black), EIPI (pink)
 PyU  [pyu:] bodily verb/action verb
(vb) with ear
 PyU (to hear), PyUL (to listen in), PyUO (to overhear)


(Note) The use of  ISWs is not mandatory;  The ISWs can be replaced with English, French, Japanese, etc.
   For example,  APLO,  ILyS,  ELPA,  PyU can be replaced with  'love',  'son',  'accept',  'hear'  in English.
   BIIRES (address) is not material, but closely related to house, therefore, it's treated as a material noun.





**********************
Ch. 4  Greetings
**********************


NOXILO greetings for 'Hello' ('How are you ?', too) is  'FIINA' [fi:na]  and  'ALOO' [alo:].   People should
say 'FIINA' before they start talking or writing to others in Mode I of NOXILO,  and say 'ALOO' in Mode II.   
'YUP' [yu:p] is for 'Yes',  and 'NAI' [nai]  for 'No' or 'Not'.

The following is a glossary of frequently used NOXILO greetings.

 Good morning  HAU  [hau],   from Lakota (one of the native American nations)
 Good night  BOnSOWAA   [boNsowa:],   French
 Excuse me.  DAMIHI   [damihi],   Latin
 Here you are.  Here we go.  NA   [na],  Greek
 Congratulations  MABLUK   [mab(u)lu:k],   Arabic
 Thank you.  ASAnTE   [asaNte],   Swahili in Africa
 KAMSA    [kam(u)sa],   Korean
     (Note) NAI ASAnTE,  NAI KAMSA = No thank you.
 Thank you very much.     MUQ  ASAnTE   [mu:ch(u) asaNte]
 MUQ  KAMSA    [mu:ch(u) kam(u)sa]
 Not at all.  PARAKAALO   [paraka:lo],   Greek
 Fine !  Nice !  Smart !
 Good looking !
 GUT   [gu:t(u)],   German
 BELLO  [be_lo],   Italian
 ALIn   [aliN],      Quechua in South America
 Take care of yourself.  SMAKKLyANA   [sma_k(u)lyana],   Quechua
 Good bye.  KWAHELI   [k(u)waheli],    Swahili
 See you again.  ABIAnTO   [abiaNto],   French
 Welcome  WELKAM    [welkam],   English
 Sorry  IZVINII    [iz(u)vini:],   Russian
 SOORII   [so:ri:],   English
 I am sorry.  IZVINIITIE   [iz(u)viniitie],   Russian


The following has been added since July 2007.

 Come on !   Stick to it.  YEELA  [ye:la]
 Enjoy it.  or  Take it easy.  QAAMO  [cha:mo] ........

  Ex. QAAMO America = Enjoy America.
      QAAMO exam = Enjoy exam.
     QAAMO coffee = Enjoy coffee.
 Good Luck.  GUTENAAS  [gu:te na:s]
 I wish the current situation
 was getting better.
 GUTEPOOL  [gu:te po:l]
 God save us.  AHA  GATEE  [aha gate:]
 The universe will save us.  AHUL  GATEE  [ahu:l gate:]
   (This would be for atheists/scientists.)
 Poor
 (poor my John ! )
 POONA  [po:na]
 Very poor  SOO  POONA  [so: po:na] or  ZAO  POONA
 Expressing my sympathy.  APSIAALE  [aspia:le]
 Offering my Condolence  KOnDOLAATI  [koNdola:ti]
 Let's go !    Launch !
 Shoot !    Go !
 XPAADA  [shpa:da]
 One, two, three !
 (In cooperative work,
 members release their full
 power at the moment of
 saying 'SAM' (three).
 WAn  NI  SAM  [waN ni sam]
 Ready ? Go !  REDII  DAn  [redi: daN]


The following has been added since March 27, 2010.

 I see.  SEAn  [seaN]  
 Wait a minute.
 Just a minute.  Hold on.
 IDyUTE  [idyu:te]
 Can you wait a minute ?
 Can you hold ?   
 ? IDyUTEBL  [esk idyu:tebl]
      or [e idyu:tebl] in conversa.
 nnn ....
 I can't agree./I can' belive it.
 (No. of N shows the strength of
 doubtness; NNN or NNNN)
 NNN  [NNN]
 We met again !  SAIIn  [sai:N]
 Lups, Look, Alas, Ah (small surprise)  LE / LELE  [le/lele]
 By the way,  BAIZA  [baiza]
 Let's see ?  LASII  [lasi:]

(Note 1)  In conversation,  '?' can be pronounced [e] instead of [esk].
(Note 2)  Greeting words (as well as Basic Words) don't have any 'radicals'.





************************************************************************
Ch. 5   The outline of the NOXILO grammar version 3.0
************************************************************************

We first see the Mode of NOXILO grammar, and then Parts of Speech.


5-1)  M o d e

NOXILO grammar consists of two symmetrical and reversible mode, which are Mode I (M1 for short)  and
Mode II (M2).  The basic word order of the Mode I is

Subject (S) + Object (O) + Verb (V),

and the one of the Mode II  is

Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Object (O).

(Note) The Object (O) in the above formula can be replaced with the Complement (C).
           Mode I (M1) may be called  'SO Mode',  and Mode II (M2) called 'SV Mode'.

The word order of Mode I more or less fits Hindi, Japanese, Korean, Mali, Tamil, Turkish, Latin, etc.,  and
Mode II fits Chinese, German, English, French, Russian, Spanish, etc.  People can write or speak NOXILO
either in Mode I or Mode II,  whichever is more comfortable to him/her.  Naturally, the communication in
the same mode are extremely easy, and even communication in the other mode is just as easy because
both modes are simply reversible.


5-1-1.   Mode I  ( M1 )

@  Sentence pattern

The sentence pattern of Mode I  is   SV,    SOV,    SCV,    S ( Oa Ob ) V,    S ( O C ) V,
where Oa is indirect object,  and Ob direct object.

@  Modification pattern

There are 3 kinds of modifiers ; the modifing word (MW), the modifing phrase (MP), and the modifing clause (MC).  

The MW include adjectives, adverbs, and verbals without object or complement.
The MP include adjective phrases and adverb phrases, which are the combination of nouns and modification agents,
the combinations of verbs and modification agents, and verbals with object or complement.
The MC include adjective clauses and adverb clauses, which are the combination of clauses and clause leaders.

The order of the modifier (underlined below) and the modified word (modificand) for Mode I are as follows;

MW + modified word (modificand)       Ex. EILO  BIIUS  ( yellow house )
MP + modified word                 Ex. Japan  AT  BIIUS  ( Japan in house )
MC + modified word                Ex. Japan  AT  RIZ  Ky  BIIUS  ( Japan in exist which house )

   <Note> 'BIIUS' means 'house'.   'RIZ' means 'to exist'.   'Ky' [kyu] means 'that/which/who' (relative pronoun
             in English) and also 'when/where' (relative adverb).   'Ky' has a broad range of meaning.

     Modification Agent  and  Clause Leader

      Modification Agent (underlined) is post-positioned as follows:

     Ex.  Japan  AT  (Japan in )       ATyUn  IZ  ( friend with )

          <Note> 'AT' means 'at' in English.   'ATyUn' means 'friend'.   'IZ' means 'with'.

      Clause Leader ( underlined ) is post-positioned as well as Modification Agent.

     Ex.   ME  ITAM  Dy  ( you come whether )       FEN  ITAM  My ( they come that )

       <Note> 'ME' means 'You'.   'ITAM' means 'come'.   'Dy' means 'whether'.   'FEN' means 'They'.
                 'My' means 'that' which leads noun clause.


5-1-2.   Mode  II  ( M2 )

@  Sentence pattern

The sentence pattern of Mode II  is  SV,   SVO,   SVC,   SV ( Oa Ob ),   SV ( O C ),
where Oa is indirect object, and Ob direct object.

@  Modification pattern

There are 3 kinds of modifiers; modifing word (MW), modifing phrase (MP), and modifing clause (MC).

The MW include adjectives, adverbs, and verbals without object or complement.
The MP include adjective phrases and adverb phrases, which are the combination of modification agents and nouns,
the combinations of modification agents and verbs, and verbals with object or complement.  
The MC include adjective clauses and adverb clauses, which are the combination of clause leaders and clauses.

The order of the modifier (underlined below) and the modified word (modificand) for Mode II are as follows;

MW + modified word (modificand)         Ex. EILO  BIIUS  ( yellow house )
modified word (modificand) + MP           Ex. BIIUS  ATL  Japan  ( house in Japan )
modified word (modificand) + MC       Ex. BIIUS  Ky  RIZ  ATL  Japan  ( house which exists in Japan )

     Modification Agent  and  Clause Leader

    Modification Agent ( underlined ) is  pre-positioned (= prepositions in English) as follows:

    Ex.  ATL  Japan  ( in Japan )      IZL  ATyUn  ( with friend )

          <Note>  The MAs in Mode II are made by simply adding a letter 'L' after the end of MAs in Mode I.  
    
    Clause Leader ( underlined ) is pre-positioned as well as Modification Agent.

    Ex.  Dy  ME  ITAM  ( whether you come )       My  FEN  ITAM  ( that they come )


Note:  Hereafter, we often use the abbreviation 'M1' for Mode I,  and  'M2' for Mode II,  especially in examples.



5-2)  Mode comparison M1 with M2

5-2-1.  Sentence pattern

               Mode I  (M1) :               S                         V
               Mode II  (M2) :              S                         V

               Mode  I  (M1)  :             S           O            V
               Mode  II  (M2) :             S                         V          O

               Mode  I  (M1) :              S           C            V
               Mode  II  (M2) :             S                         V          C

               Mode  I  (M1)  :             S      ( Oa Ob )     V
               Mode  II  (M2) :             S                         V     ( Oa Ob )

               Mode  I  (M1)   :            S        ( O C )      V
               Mode  II  (M2)  :            S                         V      ( O C )


Let's see the examples of  5 patterns.

 S V

Ex. I walk.

M1:  SE  RyU.
M2:  SE  RyU.

   <Note> M1 stands for Mode I.   M2 stands for Mode II.
    'SE' means 'I', and it's Basic Word.   'RyU' means 'to walk' and
    it's NOXILO International Standard Word.

If you prefer to use English word over NOXILO International Standard Word (ISW), you can write as follows.

M1:  SE  walk.
M2:  SE  walk.

    <Note> The use of 'SE' is necessary because it's NOXILO Basic Word.

Ex. We swim.

M1:  SEN  DyUMI.
M2:  SEN  DyUMI.

   <Note> 'SEN' means 'We',  and 'DyUMI' means 'to swim'.

If you prefer to use English words over International Standard Words (ISW),  you can write as follows.

M1:  SEN  swim.
M2:  SEN  swim.

   <Note> The use of 'SEN' is necessary because it is Basic Word.


 SOV   (SVO  for  M2)

Ex. I love you.

M1:  SE  ME-O  APLOS.       ( I you love. )
M2:  SE  APLOS  ME-O.       ( I love you. )

   <Note> 'SE' means 'I',  'ME' means 'you',  and  'APLOS' means 'to love'.
        '-O' means that ME is an object.   'ME-O' is pronounced [meo].

If you prefer to use English words over International Standard Words (ISW), you can write as follows.

M1:  SE  ME-O  love.
M2:  SE  love  ME-O.

   <Note> The use of SE and ME-O is necessary since they are both Basic Word.


 SCV   (SVC  for  M2)

Ex. That house is large.

M1:  BOI  BIIUS-W  AUB-E  (RI).       (That house large is.)
M2:  BOI  BIIUS-W  (RI)  AUB-E.       (That house is large.)

    <Note> 'BOI' means 'that',  and 'BIIUS' 'house',  and 'AUB' 'large'.    '-W' after BIIUS shows that  'BIIUS' is
       subject.   '-E' after AUB shows that AUB is complement,  and the '-E' is often omitted in any simple sentenses. 
       'RI' means 'is' (present form of 'be' in English),  and often omitted in  S + C + RI  (S + RI + C for M2) at present
       tense.   Thus, the above examples can be shorten as follows.

    M1:  BOI  BIIUS-W  AUB.         (That house large.)
    M2:  BOI  BIIUS-W  AUB.         (That house large.)

If you prefer English words to ISWs (BIIUS and AUB in the example),

       M1:  BOI  house-W  large.         (That house large.)
    M2:  BOI  house-W  large.         (That house large.) 


 SOaObV   (SVOaOb  for  M2 )

Ex. I  gave the person a book.

M1:  SE  FE-O  BEEK-O  APIS-T.        (I the person book gave.)
        (Oa     Ob)
M2:  SE  APIS-T  FE-O  BEEK-O.        (I gave the person book.)
                      
   (Oa    Ob)

    <Note> 'SE' means 'I',  and  'FE'  'the person',  and  'BEEK'  'book',  and  'APIS'  'to give'.
       '-O' means that BEEK is object,  and '-T' (pronounced [ta] ) means that 'APIS' is at past tense.
    There are no Articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO, and therefore 'a' is not translated.  Further, nouns
       have only one form, and they are not changed to indicate number or gender.  The same form is
       used for all circumstances. 


 SOCV   (SVOC  for  M2)

Ex.  You will find him guilty.

M1:  ME  MAFE-O  InPLEn-E  MUFA-R.        (You him guilty find-will.)
M2:  ME  MUFA-R  MAFE-O  InPLEn-E.        (You find-will him guilty.)

    <Note>  'ME' means 'you'.  'MAFE' means 'he', and 'MAFE-O' means 'him'.  The '-O' after MAFE means that
      MAFE is object.   'InPLEn' means 'guilty', and '-E' after InPLEn means that InPLEn is complement.
      'MUFA' means 'to find',  and  '-R' (pronounced [re] ) after MUFA means that 'MUFA' is at future tense.

'-O' for Object and '-E' for Complement in SOCV (SVOC for M2) may be omitted if you use the
basic form of object and complement.  Thus, the above examples can be written as follows.

M1:  ME  MAFE  InPLEn  MUFA-R.
M2:  ME  MUFA-R  MAFE  InPLEn.

Ex.  The person keeps his room clean.

M1:  FE  FEI  TOM-O  AOKL-E  UKEE.
M2:  FE  UKEE  FEI  TOM-O  AOKL-E.

    <Note> 'FE' means 'the person' (He or She),  and 'FEI' is possesive form of 'FE'.
      'TOM' means 'room',  and  'AOKL' means 'clean',  and  'UKEE' means 'to keep'.

The above examples can be written as follows by using 'TOM' instead of 'TOM-O', and AOKL instead of AOKL-E.

M1:  FE  FEI  TOM  AOKL  UKEE.
M2:  FE  UKEE  FEI  TOM  AOKL.

Ex.  The police caught that killer alive.

M1:  AnPOLIS-W  BOI  InPIAA-O  AUUL-E  TUK-T.        (Police that killer alive catch-ed.)
M2:  AnPOLIS-W  TUK-T  BOI  InPIAA-O  AUUL-E.        (Police catch-ed that killer alive.)

    <Note> 'AnPOLIS' means 'police',  'BOI' 'that',  'InPIAA' 'killer',  'AUUL' 'alive',  and 'TUK' means 'to catch'.
       '-T' (pronounced [ta] ) means that 'TUK' is at past tense.  Ordinary pronoun such as AnPOLIS must
       be accompanied by '-W' to show subject although Personal pronoun such as SE (I) and ME (You) and
       Interrogative pronoun such as HA (what), HI (which), and HU (who) must not.

The above example can be written as follows by using 'InPIAA' instead of 'InPIAA-O'  and  'AUUL' instead of AUUL-E.

M1:  AnPOLIS-W  BOI  InPIAA  AUUL  TUK-T.
M2:  AnPOLIS-W  TUK-T  BOI  InPIAA  AUUL.

Ex.  I understood her nurse.

M1:  SE  DAFE-O  UKyUDA-E  INAnDAS-T.        (I her nurse understand-ed.)
M2:  SE  INAnDAS-T  DAFE-O  UKyUDA-E.        (I understand-ed her nurse.)

    <Note>  'SE' means 'I',  'DAFE' 'she' (her),  'UKyUDA' 'nurse', and 'INAnDAS' 'to understand'.
      '-T' means that INAnDAS is at past tense.

The above example can be written as follows by using 'DAFE' instead of 'DAFE-O',
and 'UKyUDA' instead of UKyUDA-E.

M1:  SE  DAFE  UKyUDA  INAnDAS-T.
M2:  SE  INAnDAS-T  DAFE  UKyUDA.

    <Note> If you prefer English words to ISWs,  you can write as follows.  
      However, the use of Basic Words such as SE, DAFE, -T, and -R is necessary for any case.

   M1:  SE  DAFE  nurse  understand-T.
   M2:  SE  understand-T  DAFE  nurse.

     <Note> Pronunciation of understand-T is [anda:standta], not [anda:stud].   '-T' is always pronounced [ta].

Ex.  Parents made their daughter medical doctor.

M1:  ILynT-W  FEI  ILyTE-O  UKyMIST-E  BLE-T.      (Parent their daughter medical doctor make-ed.)
M2:  ILynT-W  BLE-T  FEI  ILyTE-O  UKyMIST-E.      (Parent make-ed their daughter medical doctor.)

  <Note> 'ILynT' means 'parents', and '-W' tells that ILynT is subject.  '-T' tells that the tense of
   verb EKAMS (= make in English) is past tense.  'FEI' means 'their',  'ILyTE' 'daughter', and 'UKyMIST'
      'medical doctor' respectively.  'In this sentebce, 'BLE' can be replaced with a verb 'EKAMS' which
      corresponds to 'make' or 'have' in English.

The above example can be written as follows.

M1:  ILynT-W  FEI  ILyTE  UKyMIST  BLE-T.
M2:  ILynT-W  BLE-T  FEI  ILyTE  UKyMIST

  <Note> 'BLE' is causative verb such as 'make' in English.  You can write the above example as follows if
   you prefer to use English over NOXILO int'l word.   However, the use of  -W,  FEI,  BLE,  and  -T  is
    still mandatory because they are Basic Words.

      M1:  Parent-W  FEI  daughter  medical doctor  BLE-T.
      M2:  Parent-W  BLE-T  FEI  daughter  medical doctor.


In the following examples,  'OC' in  SOCV (SVOC in M2)  means S2 + V2 .
That is,  S(OC)V means  S1(S2V2)V1,  and  SV(OC) means  S1V1(S2V2).
For these particular types, the object (= S2) should be written by the basic form,  
and  '-O'  and  '-E'  can (should) be omitted.

Ex.  We heard her singing.

M1:  SEN  MAFE  sing-In  hear-T.
M2:  SEN  hear-T  MAFE  sing-In.

Ex.  We heard her singing a song.

M1:  SEN  MAFE  song-O  sing-In  hear-T.
M2:  SEN  hear-T  MAFE  sing-In  song-O.

    <Note> '-O' after 'MAFE' can be omitted, but another '-O' after 'song' can not be omitted.
       There are no Articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO, and therefore 'a' is not translated.

Ex.  Teacher keeps the boy standing.

M1:  Teacher-W  boy  stand-In  keep.
M2:  Teacher-W  keep  boy  stand-In.

    <Note> There are no articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO, and therefore 'the' is not translated.

Ex.  I had my hair cut.

M1:  SE  SEI  hair  cut-ZE  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  SEI  hair  cut-ZE.

    <Note> 'ZE' means passive voice.  'BLE' is causative verb.   'SEI' means 'my' (possesion).

Ex.  I had my TV repaired.

M1:  SE  SEI  TV  repair-ZE  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  SEI  TV  repair-ZE.

Ex.  I had him repair my TV.

M1:  SE  MAFE  SEI  TV-O  repair  BLE-T.   ............   S (O C) V
M2:  SE  BLE-T  MAFE  repair  SEI  TV-O.   ............   S V (O C)

    <Note> C (verb) has an object 'SEI TV-O'.

Ex.  Sorry,  I kept you waiting. 

M1:  IZVINII,  SE  ME  wait-In  BLE-T.
M2:  IZVINII,  SE  BLE-T  ME  wait-In.

    <Note> 'IZVINII' means 'sorry' as we learned earlier (Greetings). 

Ex.  You should make yourself understood. 

M1:  ME  MEL  understand-ZE  GIMI  BLE. 
M2:  ME  GIMI  BLE  MEL  understand-ZE. 

    <Note> 'MEL' means 'youself' (MENL yourselves, SEL myself, SENL ourselves, etc). 
      'GIMI' is auxiliary verb, and means 'should'.  Auxiliary verbs are always put before verb.
      All auxiliary verbs start with GI such as GIKA (may/permission), GIKI (had better do), GI (sure to do),
      GIMA (can/capable/possible), GIMI (should/need/obligation), GIM (must/strong obligation),
      GIME (may/probably).

Ex.  You should make her understand you (=yourself).

M1:  ME  DAFE  ME-O (MEL-O)  understand  GIMI  BLE.
M2:  ME  GIMI  BLE  DAFE  understand  ME-O (MEL-O).


5-2-2.  Modification Pattern

          Mode I  (M1)                             EILO   BIIUS
          Mode II  (M2)                            EILO   BIIUS
                                                            ( yellow  house )

          Mode I  (M1)                      Japan  AT   BIIUS
          Mode II  (M2)                                        BIIUS   ATL  Japan
                                                                       ( house  in  Japan )

          Mode I  (M1)         Japan  AT  RIZ  Ky  BIIUS
          Mode II  (M2)                                        BIIUS  Ky  RIZ  ATL  Japan
                                                                      ( house which exists (= is)  in Japan )


We take a look at the drawings of the basic structure of NOXILO grammar.  For the sentence pattern of SOV,
SVO, and VSO which are tied with the red line, the 'S' always comes before 'O', whereas in the sentence pattern
OSV, OVS, and VOS which are tied with blue line, 'O' comes before 'S'.  The author (MIZUTA Sentaro) supposes
that there is none or very few Cartesian in such society with O-first-language.  What do you think ? 

NOXILO covers the first 3 patterns of SOV, SVO, and VSO.  The VSO type is not explained in this webpage yet
since the no. of the speakers may be less than 3% of the world populations.  However, it (VSO) is to be added
in the future (hopefully by the end of year 2011).





         

The 'x' means any words to be modified. the 'a' means any words that modify x,  and a' means any phrases
that modify x,  and  a'' means any clauses that modofy x.


In the following drawing,  the upper portion (triangle) shows the rule about elements, and the lower portion explains
the rule concerning the modification mode of NOXILO.

                    

        Note.  For VSO, the ax (example. red book) might be changed to xa (book red).    ..........  <16 Dec  2009>


      (NOXILO doctorine of stress-minimization

         In NOXILO, in order to avoid the structural stress, all phrases have the constant form of "noun + postposition",
         and all subordinate clauses have "subordinate clause + Clause Leader" in Mode 1,  and all phrases have the
         constant form of  "preposition + noun" and all subordinate clauses have the constant form of
         "Clause Leader (Conjunctions in English) + subordinate clause" in Mode 2.   These word order agrees the word
     order of  S + O + V in Mode 1, and  S + V + O in Mode 2.  
         Please note Postpositions (M1)/Prepositions (M2) show actions, functions as if they are verbs.   
         And Post/Pre Clause Leaders show similar meaning like verbs as well.   Therefore, the Clause Leaders are
         placed after subordinate clause in Mode 1, and placed before subordinate clause in Mode 2 in compliance with
         the order of O + V in Mode 1, and V + O in Mode2.   For example, prepositions  'with',  'by', and  'to'  mean
         'to have',   'to use',   'to go'  respectively.  Therefore, these words (with, by, to) are placed after nouns (O) just
         like  'ribbon with',  'nife by',  and  'NY go' respectively in Mode 1,  and before nouns (O) in Mode 2 just like  
         'with robbon',   'by nife'  and  'go NY'.   By the same token, 'after' and 'as' are place after subordinate clause in
         Mode1, and before the subordinate clause in Mode2.  Unification of word order is very important to achieve
         stress-minimization.    We maybe able to get a hint from a bar-magnet with N-S poles, where any pieces inside
         the magnet has the same directionn of the N-S.



5-3)  Parts of Speech

There are 12 parts of speech; Nouns, Pronouns, Auxiliary verb, Verbals, Adjectives, Adverb, Modification Agents,
Composers, Clause Leaders, Particles, and Naturalists as shown below.

   Parts of speech                 Examples of NOXILO International Standard Words
 Nouns  APLO (love), AFKOR (cooperation), ILyS (son), InFOM (intelligence), EDKEI (education),
 EDyTT (student), BEEK (book), LOWT (water), SII (ocean), WIIB (bread), WIIT (wheat)
 Pronouns  SE ( I ), SEN (We), ME (You), MEN (you), FE (The person), FEN (They), DAFE (He),
 MAFE (She), TE (It), TEN (They), JE (one), JEN (ones), SEL (myself) 
 Verbs  APIS (give), CU (sing),  INAnDAS (understand),  RI (is/are),  RIZ (exist),  RyUR (run),
 UYUS (take),  IYAA (would like to do),  IYUS (want/request),  IYAnS (want/require)
 Auxiliary verb  GIMA (can), GIMI (should), GIM (must), GIME (may),
 GIME-MA (may be able to ) 
 Verbals  n/i  UYUS-M (verb-noun = gerund),  UYUS-K (verb-adjective)
 Adjectives  AOBI (beautiful), AUB (=DAA; large), AUWA (wide), EILO (yellow), EIBLA (black),
 UOS (small)
 Adverbs  YUP (Yes), NAI (No), AIBSOLI (absolutely), BAIZA (by the way), KALE (always)
 Modification Agents
  (post-posision in M1) n/i
  (pre-position in M2)
 AT (in),  ATL (for M2),  IZ (with),  IZL (for M2),  UT (to), UTL (for M2),

 BI (to-infinitive),  BIL (for M2),  
 CI (to-infinitive),  CIL (for M2),
 DI (to-infinitive),  DIL (for M2)
 Composers  OnD (and),  OA (or),  OTT (but),  OZn (and then),  OENI (therefore)
 Clause Leaders
  (post positioned in M1) n/i
  (pre positioned in M2)
 EEF (if),  EEFL (if),  Dy (whether),  Ky (who, which, when, where, that),  My (that)
 Particles  n/i  -W (subject),  -O (object),  -T (ed; past tense),  -R (will, shall; future tense), -In (.....ing)
 Naturalists  AA (Ah),  SOO (So)

 (Note 1)  ' n/i ' stands for  'no identity' (no corresponding) in English.
 (Note 2)  Please click here to see the parts of speech for the NOXILO Int'l Standard Words.


@  Nouns

Nouns have only one form, and they are not changed to indicate number or gender.  The same form is used for all
circumstances.  Most NOXILO nouns consist of non-material nouns and material nouns.  Most non-material nouns
start with vowel letter A, I, U, or E,  and most material nouns start with Consonant letter such as B, C, K, S, Y, X. 
The material nouns include anything that we can touch, see, or hear, and that we can measure by various testing
equipment in the experiment room in our school.   Property or nature of materials such as heat and wave are often
started with a consonant letter although they are not considered material itself.  Please remember there are no
Articles ( a, an, the ) in NOXILO.

Ex.  non-material nouns;  APLO (love), AFKOR (cooperation), EDKEI (education), EMyURE (party),
       InFOM (intelligence), UXRAn (insurance), UKyUM (medical treatment), UKyUMIST (medical doctor).

      material nouns;  BEA (hair), BEEK (book), BIIUS (house), HEES (earth), SAAn (Sun), SII (sea),
       YETI (tooth), YOO (car), etc.

        <Note> 'BEEK' could be 'a book',  'books',  'the book',  and/or  'the books' in NOXILO.


@  Personal and Impersonal Pronouns

Personal and Impersonal Pronouns change their form depending on number and gender.  
Basic and subject forms are as follows.

Ex.  SE ( I ),  ME ( You ),  FE ( the person ),  MAFE ( He ),  DAFE ( She ),  JE (One),   TE ( It ),  etc.

Plural forms are made by adding N [n(u)] at the end of the single forms as follows.

Ex.  SEN ( We ),  MEN ( You ),  FEN (the persons),  MAFEN (They),  DAFEN (They),  JEN (Ones),  TEN (They )

Possesive form is made by adding  'I'  to its subject form. 

Ex.  SEI (my),  MEI (your),  FEI (the person's),  MAFEI (his),  DAFEI (her),  JEI (someone's),  TEI (its),
      SENI (our),  MENI (your),  FENI (their),  MAFENI (their),  DAFENI (their),  JENI (Their),  TENI (Their),  etc.

Objective form is made by adding '-O' to to its subject form.  

Ex.  SE-O (me),  ME-O (you),  FE-O (the persons),  MAFE-O (him),  DAFE (her),  JE-O (one),  TE-O (it),
      SEN-O (us),  MEN-O (you),  FEN-O (them),  MAFEN-O (them),  DAFEN-O (them),  JEN-O (them),  
   TEN-O (them)

      <Note> For more details, see the next Homepage 2 (Chapter 18)


@  Verbs

Verbs do not have different forms to indicate the number or gender of the subject of sentence.

Past tense is indicated by adding  '-TA' ( or  '-T' ) immediately after the present form of verbs,  and future
tense is indicated by adding  '-RE' ( or  '-R' ).  Both  -TA  and  -T are pronounced [ta],  and -RE and -R are
pronounced [re].    The ' - ' should not be read out.

Ex.  APLIS    [aplis] ( 'like' in English)
       APLIS-T  [aplista] (liked)
       APLIS-R  [aplisre] (will like)

Progressive tense is indicated by adding  '-In'  after the basic form of verbs, and Passive voice by '-ZE'.

Ex.   APLIS-In         [aplisiN]  ( liking )
        APLIS-ZE       [aplisze]  ( is liked )
        APLIS-TInZE   [aplistaiNze]  ( was being liked )
        APLIS-RInZE   [aplisreiNze]  ( will be liked )

There are two Causative Verbs;  BLE  [ble] (to make or to have)  and  BLU  [blu:] (polite causative).
These will be explained in detail in Ch-9 in Webpage 3.


@  Verbals

There are 2 kinds of verbals; verb-noun and verb-adjective.  These are made by adding particular letter
(-M,  -D,  -K,  -KE) to the end of verbs.  Verb-nouns (verb-M or verb-D) work as verb and noun at the same
time.  The English counterpart for verb-nouns would be gerund.  The functions of verb-adjectives verb-K
resemble participles or relative pronouns, and verb-KE the predicative use of adjectives in English.


@  Adjectives

Adjectives are similar to their English counterparts.  Adjectives never change their form.  In NOXILO, there are
no articles such as 'a', 'an', and 'the' in English.  Here, learners are advised to memorize two demonstrative
adjectives 'TO' (pronounced [to] not [tu:],  'this' in English),  and  BOI ([boi], 'that').


@  Adverbs

Adverbs are similar to their English counterparts.  Like adjectives, adverbs never change their form.


@  Modification Agents  (MAs)

Modification Agents always work with Noun, Pronoun, Gerund, or Verb,  and form modification phrase (adjective
phrase or adverb phrase) to modify other word.  MAs which are paired with nouns, pronouns, or gerunds are
2-, 3-,  or  4-letter-word with either A, I, U, or E beginning, and are 84 in number.  

The MAs which paired with verbs are only six;  BI (BIL for M2),  CI (CIL),  DI (DIL),  FI (FIL),  GI (GIL),  and JI (JIL).  

Adding a letter 'L' at the end of MA in Mode I, you have the MA in Mode II (M2).  That is, MAs in Mode II have always
L-ending and are one letter (L) longer than corresponding MAs in Mode I  (M1).   

MAs in Mode I are put after noun, pronoun, gerund or verb, so it is called 'postpositions'.   However, MAs in
Mode II are put before noun, pronoun, gerund, or verb, so it is called 'prepositions'.  Unlike English, the nouns,
pronouns, or gerunds which are paired with the MAs are always in subjective mode instead of objective mode as  
'with I'  instead of  'with me'.

 Modif. Agents    Mode I    Mode II
   to Pari   Pari  UT      UTL  Pari  
   from 7   7  IM   IML  7
   with me    SE  IZ
  IZL  SE

(Note)  'SE' means ' I '.   'SE-O IZ'  and  'IZL SE-O'  are wrong because SE-O is an objective form;
           they should be  'SE  IZ'  and  'IZL  SE'.


@  Composer

Composers mainly play the role in forming logic.  English counterpart for Composers is Conjunctions such as 'and',  
'or', 'therefore', 'because',  etc.  Please note the Conjunctions such as 'that', 'if', and 'although' are not included;
these are categorized into Clause Leaders in NOXILO.

Ex. OnD ([ond]  'and'),   OA ([oa],  'or'),   OENI ([oeni],  'therefore'),   OOZ ([o:z]  'because'), 
      OTT ([o_t(u)]  'but' ),   OZn ([ozN]  'and then'),  etc.


@  Clause Leaders

English counterparts for Clause Leaders ( CL ) are 'if', 'that', 'which', 'who', 'although', etc.   CLs are put last
of the sentence in Mode I, and therefore it is called post-clause-leaders.  However, CLs are put first of the
sentence in Mode II, and it is called pre-clause-leaders.  The pre-clause-leader is the same as Conjunctions
in English.   CLs does not include 'and' and 'or', which are categorized into Composers in NOXILO.

   Clause Leaders             Mode I             Mode II
  that I love you   SE  ME-O  APLOS  My   My  SE  APLOS  ME-O
  whom we invited   SEN  ELVIS-T  Ky   Ky  SEN  ELVIS-T
  although I like you     SE  ME-O  APLIS  UUS     UUS  SE  APLIS  ME-O  

(Note) 'APLOS' means 'to love', and 'APLIS' means 'to like'.   'My' means 'that' (Conjunction in English).  
   'Ky' (= who, which, that, where, when) is Clause Leader which leads adjective clause. 
   'UUS' (=although) is CL that leads adverb clause.   'ELVIS' means 'to invite'.


@  Particles

There are many kinds of Particles.   We learn Element Particles and Tense Particles so far.

Element Particles  '-WA'  or  '-W' ( both pronounced [wa] ) are put at the end of all subjects ( except for
personal pronoun and interrogative pronoun ).   '-O' ( pronounced [o] ) is put at the end of all objects in
noun clauses, and '-OL'  or  '-L' ( both pronounced [ol(u)] ) in modification clauses ( that is, Adjective
clauses and Adverb Clauses ).   'E' ( pronounced [e] ) is put at the end of Complement in Noun clauses, and
'-EQ' or 'Q' ( both pronounced [ech(u)] ) in modification clauses.  Putting '-W',  '-O'  and  '-L'  is mandatory,
but 'E' and 'Q' are put only in long and complicated sentences.  'L'  and  'Q' would be better than 'OL' and  'EQ'
because the formers are shorter by one letter.

 Element Particles 
 
in Noun Clauses  
 Element Particles
 
in Adjective Clauses 
 and Adverb Clauses
 
 location of Element Particles 
         -W [wa]      -W [wa]  end of subject
         -O [o]      -L [ol(u)]  end of object
         -E [e]            -Q [ech(u)]  end of complementary

(Note) Noun Clauses become Subject clause, Object Clause, or Complementary clause. 
           Adjective and Adverb clauses modify other words and sentences.


Ex.   This is a book.

M1:  TO-W  BEEK-E  RI. 
M2:  TO-W  RI  BEEK-E. 

   <Note> 'TO' means 'this'.  'BEEK' means 'book'.   '-E' can be omitted as follows because the above
      sentence is a simple SCV (SVC for M2) type.   In NOXILO, article 'a' and 'the' is not translated;
      in case translation of article is necessary, you simply add words such as WAn (=one), SGL (single),
      SOM (some), PLU (plural), or MUQ (many/much).   Ex. WAn BEEK (a book, one book).

M1:  TO-W  BEEK  RI.
M2:  TO-W  RI  BEEK.

   <Note> As explained earlier, verb RI [ri] ( 'be' in English) in SCV type sentence in Mode I and SVC type
      sentence in Mode II can be omitted to make the sentence even simpler.  Thus, the above sentences
      can eventually be written as follows.

M1:  TO-W  BEEK.
M2:  TO-W  BEEK.

   <Note> Both sentences become identical !  


Tense Particles  -TA  or  -T ( both pronounced [ta] ) is put at the end of verbs, and show the past tense.
RE  or  R ( both pronounced [re] ) is put at the end of verbs to show the future tense.  T and  R  are better than
TA  and  RE  because the formers are a bit shorter.  There is no Tense Particles to show the present tense.

Tense Particles     Past   Present     Future 
     -T,    -R   -T  [ ta]      -R  [ re]

Ex.

    Verb      Past       Present      Future
     take       took      take  will, shall take
    UYUS
    [uyu:s]   
   UYUS-T
   [uyu:sta]  
    UYUS
    [uy:s]
  UYUS-R
  [uyu:sre]

   <Note> 'UYUS' means 'to take'.



@  Naturalist

Naturalists include Onomatopoeias and Interjections.

Ex. Ah,  Oh,  So, Ouch,  Bang,  knock,  Rin Rin,  Cook-a-doodle-doo,  etc.




    Thank you for  reading!  See  you  again  on webpage 2.
           
( Webpage 2 will include the classification of sentences, nouns, and personal pronouns.)