@@   @‚m‚n‚w‚h‚k‚n  Web‚a‚‡‚…  ‚Q

@   @@@@   @      14  Sept  2001  (latest corrections:   21  September  2021)



NOXILO (pronounced noshilo)  is an international auxiliary language for everyday use among all nationalities.  
The following is a brief translation of the 2nd part of the NOXILO textbook and the webpage in Japanese
by MIZUTA Sentaro ©
1996, ......... , 2021.



==============================

Table of contents of the webpage  2
==============================


Ch. 6   Classification of sentences and useful expressions

    6-1) Classification of sentences
    6-2) Total negation and partial negation
    6-3) Useful expressions
 
Ch. 7   Nouns

    7-1) Common Nouns of International Standard Words (ISW) and Radicals
    7-2) Numbers
    7-3) Years, Months, Dates, and Times
@@7-4) Weather

    (
Note) Radicals are similar to Root in English, and they give NOXILO users
@@@@@ some semantic hint. Radicals for nouns are more explained in Webpage 7.

Ch. 8   Pronouns

    8-1) Personal and Impersonal Pronouns
    8-2) Refelective Pronouns
    8-3) Possessive Pronouns
    8-4) Interrogative Pronouns
    8-5) Demonstrative Pronouns
    8-6) Indefinite Pronouns
    8-7) Negative Pronouns
    8-8) Names and Titles

    (
Note) There are no radicals for pronouns.


œ Webpage 3 includes Verbs, Auxiliary Verbs, and Verbals.





*********************************************************
Ch. 6  Classification of sentences and useful expressions
*********************************************************


6-1)  Classification of sentences

Before learning the useful expressions, we should look at the four most fundamental types of sentences.

@ Assertive  (declarative )  sentence

This is the most common sentence to describe a fact as it is or is not.

Ex. This is a book.

M1 ( = Mode I )  :  TO-W  BEEK  (RI).
M2 ( = Mode II ) :  TO-W  (RI)  BEEK.

<Note> 'TO' means 'this'.@ '-W' is the sign of the subject.  Any word that has this particular sign is the
           subject.   'BEEK' means 'book'.   'RI' is the basic and present form of the verb 'to be', and can be
           omitted in any simple SVC type sentences.  Any words (RI in this case) that are put in parenthesis
           can be omitted.    'a' is not translated because NOXILO doesn't have articles (a, an, the).

If you prefer to use English instead of NOXILO International Standard Word (ISW), you can write as follows;

M1:  TO-W  book  (RI).     or     TO-W  book.
M2:  TO-W  (RI)  book.     or     TO-W  book.

(Note) Using an English word, nouns should be in singular form ( = dictionary form like book instead of books).
  If it's important to show quantity, you can add quantitative words such as WAn (one), SGL (singular), NI (two),
  SAM (three),  ....... PLU (prural), SOM (some), MUQ (many/much), etc.  'RI' in the parenthesis can be omitted.

Ex. This book has many pages.

M1 :  TO  BEEK-W  MUQ  ALP-O  TUV.
M2 :  TO  BEEK-W  TUV  MUQ  ALP-O.     or

M1:  TO  book-W  MUQ  page-O  have.
M2:  TO  book-W  have  MUQ  page-O.

<Note> 'MUQ' means 'many/much'.   'ALP ' means 'page'.   'TUV' means 'to have'.   Please note that
@@@@@'page' is right, and 'pages' is wrong because the English noun should be written in singular form.
@@@@  'have' is right, but 'has' is wrong because English verb should be in the plural form.

Ex. This is not a book.

M1:  TO-W  NAI  BEEK  (RI).
M2:  TO-W  (RI)  NAI  BEEK.

<Note> 'NAI' means 'no' or 'not'.   'RI' can be omitted.  Any words that are put in parenthesis can be omitted.


@  Interrogative  sentence

The word order of the interrogative sentece is the same as that of an assertive sentence, but the
interrogative sentence always has  'ESK'  or  ' ? '  ( both pronounced [esk(u)] ) at the beginning
of the sentence.

(Note)  ESK can be pronounced [esk] or [esku];  NOXILO speakers can choose either one.

Ex. Did you send a book ?

M1:  ESK  ME  BEEK-O  PUS-T.
M2:  ESK  ME  PUS-T  BEEK-O.@@or

M1:  ?  ME  BEEK-O  PUS-T.
M2:  ?  ME  PUS-T  BEEK-O.

<Note> 'ME' [me] means 'you'.  'BEEK' [be:k] means 'book'.   '-O' means that 'BEEK' is the object.
          'PUS' [pu:s] means 'to send'.   '-T' means that  the tense of the verb PUS is the past tense. 
          'ESK' can always be replaced with '?'

The answers to the above type of questions are most likely to start with YUP [yu:p(u)]  or NAI [nai].
YUP means 'Yes', and NAI means 'No'.  The emphasizing forms are YUPn [yu:pN]  and NAIn [naiN],
respectively.  People who have normal sight but have hearing problems can easily distinguish them because
the lips are closed in pronouncing 'P' in YUP, whereas the lips are kept opened in pronouncing NAI.

Ex. What did you send ?

M1:  ? ME  HA-O  PUS-T.
M2:  ? ME  PUS-T  HA-O.

<Note>  'HA' is an interrogative pronoun and it means 'what'.    '-O' means that 'HA' is the object.
           'HA-O' is pronounced [hao].   'PUS' means 'to send', and 'PUS-T' is pronounced [pu:sta] not [pu:st].

Now, let's glance at the set of interrogative pronouns below. 

 HA
 HANA
 [ha]
 [hana]
 interrogative pronouns
 interrogative adjective
   what
 HI
 HINA
 HILI
 [hi]
 [hina]
 [hili]
 interrogative pronouns
 interrogative adjective
 interrogative adverb
   which
 HU  [hu:]  interrogative pronouns    who
 HE
 HELI
 [he]
 [heli]
 interrogative pronouns
 interrogative adverb
   when
 HO
 HOLI
 [ho]
 [holi]
 interrogative pronoun
 inyerrogative adverb
   where
 HyA
 HyALI
 [hya]
 [hyali]
 interrogative pronouns
 interrogative adverb
   why
 Hy
 HyNA
 HyLI
 [hyu]
 [hyuna]
 [hyuli]
 interrogative pronouns
 interrogative adjective
 interrogative adverb
   how
 (degree)
 HyE
 HyENA
 HyELI
 [hye]
 [hyena]
 [hyeli]
 interrogative pronouns
 interrogative adjective
 interrogative adverb
   how
 (method) 

(Note) We'll study more on interrogatives in Ch-15 in Webpage No.4.


@  Imperative  sentence

Most imperative sentences are made by deleting the subject ME (=You), and by adding YO [yo] in the beggining
of the sentence.

(Note) Grammar of imperative sentence has been changed as above since 10 June 2006.
          YO used to be put after the verb instead of the top of the sentence in the old grammar.

Ex.  Come.

M1:  YO  ITAM.
M2:  YO  ITAM.

<Note>  'ITAM' [itam]  means 'to come'.  The base sentence is 'ME  ITAM' , that is, 'You come'.

Ex. Close your file.

M1:  YO  MEI   BEEL-O  EIIKLS.
M2:  YO  EIIKLS  MEI   BEEL-O.

<Note> 'MEI' means 'your', and 'BEEL' means 'file', and 'EIIKLS' means 'to close'.

If you prefer to use English over NOXILO International Standard Words,  you can write as below.

M1:  YO  MEI  file-O  close.
M2:  YO  close  MEI  file-O.

Ex. Don't close your file.

M1:  YO  MEI   BEEL-O  NAI  EIIKLS.
M2:  YO  NAI  EIIKLS  MEI   BEEL-O.

<Note>  NAI means 'no' or 'not'.

<Note>  NOXILO users can take the proper words from their native or favorite natural languages
           to complete the sentences.  Any such words taken from native languages, except for the
           Proper Nouns such as Texas or England, should be written with small letters.  As for most
           proper nouns, the 1st letter should be written with capital letters, and the rest are written
           with small letters as shown in Texas or England.


@  Prayer sentence

AHA (God), AHUL (will of the present universe), or a person in memory (late Grand Mother for ex.) at first,
then PLII, and assertive sentence that show one's particular desire are written.

Ex. My God, please have mega-earthquake not come.

M1:  AHA PLII, mega-earthquake NAIn come.
M2:  AHA PLII, mega-earthquake NAIn come.


@  Exclamatory sentence

Naturalist  AA,  OO,  and  SOO (put before adjectives or adverbs) are the counterpart of 'What a --' and 'How --'
in English.  The word order of exclamatory sentences is the same as assertive ones.  Exclamation mark '!' at the
end of the sentences wil be good sign to show exclamation although the mark is not necessary.

Ex. How beautiful this forest is !  =  Ah, this forest is so beautiful  !

M1:  AA,  TO  GyORST-W  SOO  AOBI  (RI) !
M2:  AA,  TO  GyORST-W  (RI)  SOO  AOBI !

M1:  OO (or AA),  TO  GyORST-W  SOO  AOBI  (RI).
M2:  OO (or AA),  TO  GyORST-W  (RI)  SOO  AOBI.


<Note> 'AA' means 'Ah', and is pronounced [a:].  'OO' [o:] means 'Oh' in English.  
          'TO' [to] means 'this'.  'GyORST' [gyorst] is 'forest'.  'SOO' [so:] means 'so'.  
          'AOBI' [aobi] is 'beautiful'.  'RI' is the present form of the verb  'be', and it can be
          deleted in any simple SCV ( SVC for Mode 2 ) type sentences as shown below.

          M1:  AA,  GyORST-W  SOO  AOBI !
          M2:  AA,  GyORST-W  SOO  AOBI !



6-2)  Total negation and partial negation

As we have learned earlier, NAI (no/not in English) is used for negation in general, but NAIPA should be used to
show partial negation in NOXILO.  In the following examples, a shows total negation and b, c, and d partial negation.

a.  There are no trains to go to Odaiba Station.     ( = No. of the trains for Odaiba Station is zero.)

M1:  NAI train-w Odaiba Station UT go.
M2:  NAI train-w go UTL Odaiba Station.

b.  All trains do not go to Odaiba Station. @  (Probably 3/4 trains will go.)@

M1:  OOL train-w Odaiba Station UT NAIPA go.
M2:  OOL train-w NAIPA go UTL Odaiba Station.

@ <Note>@UT (UTL for M2) is modification agent, and means 'to' in English.

In the NOXILO sentences in above b,  the NAIPA (instead of NAI) is used to show partial negation.
Please note, if NAI is used (instead of NAIPA) as following sentences, the meaning of the sentences
turns to the total negation, of which the meaning is the same as the one of above a.

M1:  OOL train-w Odaiba Station UT NAI go.
M2:  OOL train-w NAI go UTL Odaiba Station.

c.  Not all trains go to Odaiba station.      (Probably 3/4 trains will go.)

M1:  NAIPA OOL train-w Odaiba Station UT go.
M2:  NAIPA OOL train-w go UTL Odaiba Station.

The following sentences are possible, but above b and c clearly show the partial negation.

M1:  NAI OOL train-w Odaiba Station UT go.
M2:  NAI OOL train-w go UTL Odaiba Station.

d.  I could not answer all of the questions.

M1:@SE question UB OOL-O NAIPA GIMA answer-t.
M2:@SE NAIPA GIMA answer-t OOL-O UBL question.

   <Note> UB (UBL for M2) is a modification agent, and means 'of' in English.

In the above d, if NAI (instead of NAIPA) is used, the sentences turn to the total negation,
which means that the no. of questions that I could solve is zero.


Incidentally, we see the following 2 examples.

Ex.  Some trains go to Odaiba Station.    (Probably 1/2 trains will go.) 

M1:  SOM train-w Odaiba Station UT go.
M2:  SOM train-w go UTL Odaiba Station.

Ex.  Only some trains go to Odaiba Station.    (Probably 1/4 will go.)

M1:  XAOn SOM train-w Odaiba Station UT go.
M2:  XAOn SOM train-w go UTL Odaiba Station.

   <Note> SOM means 'some', and XAOn means 'only'.


6-3j@Useful@‚…‚˜‚‚’‚…‚“‚“‚‰‚‚Ž‚“

Following 12 expressions are frequently used in both conversation and writing.  NOXILO learners are advised
to memorize these expressions (patterns) without paying much attention to their grammar to minimize their
study time and enjoy the use in practice.

Before we study the useful expressions, let's glance two small tables of Personal Pronouns
since some of them appear in the example sentences.

Single forms :@@@@@@@@@

  Subjective      Possesive   Complementary      Objective
 SE ( I )  SEI (my)  SE (me )-E  SE- O (me) 
 ME (You)  MEI (your)  ME (you)-E  ME-O (you) 
 FE
 (The person)
 FEI
 (the person's)
 FE-E
 (the person)
 FE-O
 (the person)
 JE (One)  JEI (one's)  JE-E (one)  JE-O (one)
 TE (It)  TEI (its)  TE-E (it)  TE-O (it)

  (Note)  '-E' is usually omitted, but '-O' is not.

Plural forms :

 Subjective       Possesive   Complementary        Objective
 SEN (We)  SENI (our)  SEN-E (us)   SEN-O (us) 
 MEN (You)  MENI (your)  MEN-E (you)    MEN-O (you)
 FEN (They)  FENI (their)  MEN-E (them)  MEN-O (them)
 JEN  JENI  JEN-E  JEN-O
 TEN  TENI  TEN-E  TEN-O

  (Note) '-E' is usually omitted, but '-O' is not.
  (Note)  See "Ch-8: Personal Pronouns" for more details.


Here ia a set of 12 usefil expressions (patterns).

š@H@‚o‚k‚h‚h@‚l‚d@` D@@[e(sk) pli: me]

      Very polite request  (Would@you@‚‚Œ‚…‚‚“‚… do `j

Ex.  Would you please write a recommendation letter ?    (A student who want to go a grad school is asking his professor --)

M1:  ? PLII ME EGREK_TE-O NURI.
M2:  ? PLII ME NURI EGREK_TE-O.

<Note> EGREK_TE is an international standard word (ISW), which are synthesized by
          EGREK (recommendation) and BEETE (letter).  'BEE' in BEETE is the radical to
          show 'paper', and the radical of the second word is usually deleted in synthesizing
          a new ISW.   NURI is a bodily verb and means 'to write'.   The '-O' indicates that the
          word preceeding it is the object of the sentence.  Please note NOXILO doesn't have
          any articles (a, an, the), therefore, 'a' is not translated.  However, you can add the
          word such as 1, 2, 3, .... , SGL (single), PLU (plural), MUQ (many/much), MST (most),
          TO (this), BOI (that), etc. when necessary.

If you prefer to use English for 'recommendation letter' and 'to write',

M1:  ? PLII ME recommendation letter-O write.
M2:  ? PLII ME write recommendation letter-O.


š@‚o‚k‚h‚h@‚l‚d@` D @ [pli: me]

      Polite request  @i‚v‚‰‚Œ‚Œ@‚™‚‚•@do `j

Ex.  Will you pass me the solt.

M1:  PLII ME SE-O solt-O pass.
M2:  PLII ME pass SE-O solt-O.

Ex.  Will you push my car as much as you can ?

M1:  PLII  MEN  YOO-O  AASAn  PUX.
M2:  PLII  MEN  AASAn  PUX  YOO-O.

<Note> 'MEN' [men] is a prulal form of ME (=You).   'YOO' [yo:] means 'car',  and  'YOO-O' is
@@@@@ pronounced [yo:o].  AASAn [a:saN] means 'as much as possible'.   PUX [pu:sh] means 'to push'.


š@‚k‚™‚o‚`@`D@@[lypa]

     Request @i‚o‚Œ‚…‚‚“‚… ‚„‚ `j

This is very common form of request, which is more casual or equal to PLII, and more polite or equal to
command sentences with YO on the head of sentence.

Ex.  Please write.   (or  Write.)

M1:  LyPA NURI.
M2:  LyPA NURI.

<Note> NURI means 'to write'.  NU is one of the radicals (semantic marker) to show 'action by hand'.

Ex.  Please send it promptly.   (or  Send it promptly.)

M1:  LyPA TE-O TAPROn PUS.
M2:  LyPA TAPROn PUS TE-O.

<Note> TAPROn means promptly (TASUn = soon).  LyPA is politer than or equal to the
           following expression (command sentence), which would be often heard in military circle.
     
           M1:  YO TE-O TAPROn PUS.
           M2:  YO TAPROn PUS TE-O.

Ex.  Please send an e-mail.

M1:  LyPA  WELn_T-O  PUS.
M2:  LyPA  PUS  WELn_T-O.

<Note>  PUS means 'to send'.   For  'e-mail',  you can use either one of  

@@ @@@WELn  InFT   (electronic mail) 
      @      WELn_T
@@@ @@WELn BEETE   (electronic letter)
@@@ @@WELn_TE

@@@ @@If you prefer to use English words',  you can write as follows.

@@@ @@M1:  LyPA  e-mail-O  send.
@@@ @@M2:  LyPA  send  e-mail-O.


š@‚x‚`‚k@‚r‚d@`D@@[yal se]

     Kind offer/proposal @iShall@‚h@do `j

Ex.  Shall I take your picture ?

M1:  YAL SE MEI BEEFOS.
M2:  YAL SE MEI BEEFOS.

<Note> BEEFOS means 'to take a picture'.  BEEFOS is the verb that includes the object 'picture'.
           The above sentences can be write as follows using BEEFO and UYUS;

           M1:  YAL SE MEI BEEFO-O UYUS.
           M2:  YAL SE UYUS MEI BEEFO-O.

           <Note> BEEFO means 'picture' (noun).  UYUS means 'to take'.  
                     MEI (my) is possesive form of ME (=YouI).

The following example is possible, too.

M1:  YAL  SE  QAAKAS.
M2:  YAL  SE  QAAKAS.

<Note> QAAKAS is 'to take a photograph' (=BEEFOS).  That is, this verb includes the object.
          If you use video camera, you would say as follows.

          M1:  YAL SE QAAVIOS.
          M2:  YAL SE QAAVIOS.


š@‚w‚`‚k@‚r‚d‚m@`D@@[shal seN]

     Polite solicitation for doing with  @i‚r‚ˆ‚‚Œ‚Œ@‚—‚…@do `j

Ex.  Shall we dance ?

M1:  XAL SEN dance.
M2:  XAL SEN dance.

<Note> SEN (we) is the plural form of SE (I).

Ex.  Shall we go to the party ?

M1:  XAL SEN party UT go.
M2:  XAL SEN go UTL party.

<Note> UT (UTL for M2) is a Mod‚‰fication Agent, and means 'to' (Prepositions in English).
          Modification Agent (MA) of Mode2 is obtained by simply adding  'L' at the end of
          the MA of Mode1.  MA of Mode1 is called 'postpositions' and MA of Mode2 is called
          prepositions, which corresponds to 'Prepositions' in English.  
          Please note that Mode I is often abbreviated as M1, and Mode II as M2. @


š@‚k‚d‚b‚b@`D@@[lets]
    
     Solicitation for joining with. @i‚k‚…‚”f‚“@‚„‚ `j

Ex.  Let's go.

M1:  LECC go.
M2:  LECC go.

Ex.  Let's play tennis.

M1:  LECC tennis-O play.
M2:  LECC play tennis-O.


š@‚`‚r‚o‚n@‚r‚d@`D@@[aspo se]

     Asking other's judgement for my (our) action @@i‚`‚@‚h@‚“‚•‚‚‚‚“‚…‚„@‚”‚@`j

Ex.  Am I supposed to dial 03 ?

M1:  ASPO SE dial 03-O.
M2:  ASPO SE 03-O dial.


š@‚l‚`‚h‚s@‚l‚d@`D@@[mait me]

      Kind advice/suggestion @@i‚x‚‚•@‚‚‰‚‡‚ˆ‚”@‚„‚j

Ex.  You might have an umbrella.

M1:  MAIT ME umbrella-O TUV.
M2:  MAIT ME TUV umbrella-O.

<Note> TUV means 'to have'.


š@‚v‚`‚c‚n@‚l‚d@`D@@[wado me]

     Encouragement/suggestion   i‚v‚ˆ‚™@‚„‚‚Žf‚”@‚™‚‚•@‚„‚@`@j

Ex.  Why don't you request an application form ?

M1:  WADO ME application form-O IYUS.
M2:  WADO ME IYUS application form-O.

<Note> IYUS means 'to request'.


š@‚d‚r‚s‚h@`D@@[esti]

     Suggestion/proposal  @i‚g‚‚—@‚‚‚‚‚•‚”@`j

Ex.  How about coffee ?

M1:  ESTI coffee.
M2:  ESTI coffee.

<Note> For any long suggestion such as perticular idea/plan, ESTII is used instead of ESTI.


š@‚x‚k‚d@`D@@[yle]  or  [yule]@@@   @inote: combination of YO and LEENj

     Request for approval.  @i‚k‚…‚”@‚‚…@‚„‚@`@@‚x‚‚•@‚Œ‚…‚”@‚‚…@‚„‚@`Dj

Ex.  Let it be.

M1:  YLE TE RI.
M2:  YLE TE RI.

M1:  YLE TE RIZ.
M2:  YLE TE RIZ.

<Note> RI means is/are.  RIZ means 'to exist'.

Ex.  Let me ask you.

M1:  YLE SE ME-O ask.
M2:  YLE SE ask ME-O.

<Note> Please agree that I'm going to ask you.  or  Agree that I'm going to ask you.


š@‚x‚a‚k@`D@@[ybl]  or  [yubl]@@@@  @inote:  combination of YO and BLEj

     Request for setting to work  @i‚k‚…‚”@‚‚…i‚•‚“j@‚„‚@`j

Ex.  Let me work there.

M1:  YBL SE TOA work.
M2:  YBL SE TOA work.

<Note> TOA means there.

Ex.  Let me ask you.

M1:  YBL SE ME-O ask.
M2:  YBL SE ask ME-O.

<Note> Please make me ask you.  

Ex.  Let your voice to be heard.  @You let your voice to be heard.

M1F@YBL MEI voice hear-ZE.
M2F@YBL MEI voice hear-ZE.

<Note> 'MEI' means 'your'.   '-ZE' after verbs means 'passive voice'.

(Note)  YLE is one that is formed by coupling YO and LEEN, and YBL by YO and BLE.
 We'll study LEEN and BLE in the Web page 3 (Section 9-5).





******************
Ch - 7    N o u n s
******************


Nouns do not change their forms for number or gender.  If you want to indicate the number,  you simply put the
number such as 1, 2, 3 ...., or numeric adjectives such as SGL (=single), UOLT (=few, little), MUQ [mu:ch] (=many, much),
or PLU [p;u:] (=plural) immediately before nouns.    Many words concerning number and time were originally chosen from
many natural languages for the NOXILO Friendship Words, and now they have been moved into International Standard
Words
(ISW).   These formerly Friendship Words (now, a part of ISWs ) don't have any radicals (= root = semantic hint).

     (Note)  Please remember there are no Articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO.


7-1)  Common Nouns of International Standard Word (ISWs)  and Radicals

Most common nouns of the NOXILO International Standard Words (ISW) consist of non-material and material nouns.
Most non-material nouns start with a vowel letter A, I, U, or E,  and most material nouns start with a consonant
letter such as B, C, K, S, Y, X.   The material nouns show what we can touch, see, or hear, and we can measure by
various testing by equipment in the laboratories in our schools.   The property or the nature of materials such as heat
and wave are often started with a consonant letter although they are not considered material itself.

     (Note) Vowel 'O' is used for Composers (=and, or, but, etc.).


There are about 270 radicals for Common Nouns of ISWs.  The following table shows some examples of the
radicals and the words with them.

     (Note)  Radicals for nouns are further explained in  22-1 in Webpage 7.
      

Radicals for
non-material
nouns
 Mmeaning  Example (ISW) 
 AB  discussion, rebutal,
 influence, etc.
ABDIA (dialog), ABKOn (meeting), ABKRI (criticism), ABRIB (rebutal),
ABIn (influence), ABEKT (effect)
 AP  love, nurture,
 virtue, aid
APLO (love), APLI (like), APAAQ (virtue), APLIOn (good feeling),
APEATI (care), APLE (joy), APIAn (fiancee), APIEn (aid, giving)
 ILy  family ILyAAM (family), ILyUM (father), ILyUD (mother), ILyTE (daughter),
ILyS (son), ILyGMA (grandfather), ILyGDA (grandmother)
 InF  information, revelation,
 jounalism, public report
InFOM (information), InFA (flag), InFT (post), InFI (news),
InFAD (advertisement), InFOST(jounalist), InFIAn (official report),
InFIIV (accusation), InFNO (notice)
 UKy  treatment, nursing,
 prevention, med doctor,
UKyUM (treatment), UKyNAA (nursing), UKyVA (evasion), UKyUA (care),
UKyUV (prevention), UKyUM_IST (medical doctor)
 US  voice, sound,
 phoneme 
USVO (voice), USPI (pitch), USAnBy (volume), USKA (conversation),
USEMI (phoneme), USAAE (Vowel), USKOn (Consonant)
 ED  education, proverb,
 knowledge
EDKEI (education), EDAAB (proverb), EDIA (study), EDLEK (lecture),
EDKLA (class), EDNOL (knowledge)
 ES  East, West, longtitude EST (East), ESWE (West), ESL (longtitude) 
 Radicals for
   material
    nouns
        Meaning                                         Example (ISW) 
 BAA  birds  BAAP (pegeon), BAAI (eagle), BAASGL (seagul), BAAS (swan),
BAAROT (parot) 
 BE  hair, nail, bone, skin,
 muscle, tail, pimple
BEA (hair), BEOn (bone), BEOMA (marrow), BENE (nail), BES (skin),
BEMAS (muscle), BEIL (tail), BEnP (pimple), BERIn (wrinkle), BESMA (birthmark)
 BEE  paper, book, letter BEEC (card), BEEK (book), BEEL (file), BEEPA (paper), BEETE (letter),
BEENO (notebook), BEEP (stamp), BEEDIK (dictionary), BEENIS (newspaper)
 BII  house, structure BIIUS (house), BIIRES (address), BIIKOn (construction), BIIG (fence),
BIIXEL (shelter), BIIN (nest), BIISIL (cocoon)
 CAA  star CAA (star), CAAPO (polestar), CAAM (Mercury), CAAVI (Venus),
CAAR (Mars), CAAS (Saturn), CAARA (Uranus), CAAPIA (Jupitar)
 FII  fish  FIISA (sardine), FIIPA (pacific saury), FIITA (tuna), FIIRIn (herring),
FIIL (eel)
 HEE  Earth, planet HEES (Earth), HEEPLA (planet), HEESEK (equator),
HEEP (surface/ground), HEEMA (underground), HEER (shell)
 KO  soap, perfume, dye KOODI (detergent), KOOP (soap), KOOM (perfume), KOOIn (incense),
KOODA (dyestuffs) 
 SAA  Sun SAAn (Sun), SAAFS (fixed star), SAA_SAR (revolution/circulation),
SAAD (dawn), SAAE (eclipse of the sun)
 WII  foods from plants WIIT (wheat), WIIR (rice), WIIB (pan/bread), WIIPS (pasta),
WIIn (beans), WIINAC (peanuts), WIISPI (spinach), WIIMA (taro/sweat potato)
 YOO  vehicles YOO (car in general), YOOP (passenger car), YOOR (railway),
YOOBS (bus), YOOT (truck),YOOMOS (motor cycle), YOOX (taxi),
YOOGL (traffic signal)

   (Note)  BIIRES (address) is not material, but is included in material nouns for convenience.



7-2)  Numbers

@  Kinds of numbers

Natural number @         NAAC AnBAA
Integer number   @       InTE AnBAA
Real number         @     AIRI AnBAA
Imagenary number    @AIME AnBAA
Prime number           @ AOONI AnBAA
Even number          @   NIn AnBAA
Odd number             @ DE-NIn AnBAA
Fraction@@@@@@@@AnBRA
Decimal@@@@@@@@AnBES


@  Natural numbers

 Many words about number and time were originally chosen from many natural languages for Friendship Words,
and now they have been moved into International Standard Words (ISW).  These formerly Friendship Words
(now, a part of ISWs ) don't have any radicals (root in English).

    
(Note)  The numbers are adjectives as well.

                                   0   XUNyA  [shu:nya]   from Sanscrit 
                                   1   WAn  [waN]  English
                                   2   NI  [ni]  Japanese
                                   3   SAM  [sam]  Korean
                                   4   SII  [si:]  Thai
                                   5   LIMA  [lima]  Malaysia
                                   6   ZEKS  [zeks]  German
                                   7   SABAA  [saba:]  Arabic
                                   8   WIT  [wit]  French
                                   9   KOO  [ko:]  Burmese
                                 10   TIO  [tio]  Swedish
                               100   STO  [sto]  Russia
                             1000   MILA  [mira]  Italian
                           10000   MAn  [maN]  Japanese
                    100000000   OK  [ok(u)]  Korean
             1000000000000   TERA  [tera]  Greek
  @10000000000000000  JIM  [jim]  /////



@  Decimal point is expressed by '.'  or  'TEn',  and both are read [teN] (from Japanese).

     <Note> Period  '.' to show the end of a sentence is read [kinib(u)] instead of [teN]

Ex.   20.153            [nitio teN waN lima sam]
          0.01              [shu:nya teN shu:nya waN]   or   [teN shu:nya waN]
        45.0608          [si: tio lima teN xhu:nya zeks shu:nya wit]
      107                  [waN sto saba:]  or  [sto saba:]
      210                   [ni sto waN tio]  or  [ni sto tio]
   60391                  [zeks maN sam sto ko:tio waN]

@  Fractions are expressed with  '/'   or   '€'.   Both are read [feN] (from Chinese).

Ex.    2/5                [ni  feN  lima]

Ex.    7 € 3 = 2 UKRME 1        [ saba:  feN  sam  TOOn  ni  UKRME  waN ]      'UKRME' means remainder.

@  Exponents

Ex.   @ 32       or    SAM JyOO NI                 [sam jyo: ni]
        2.310@    or    NI TEn SAM JyOO STO     [ni teN sam jyo: sto]

@  Arithmatic symbols for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and equal are written as
     shown below.

 +     or    PLS           [p(u)ls]
 -      or    MINS          [min(u)s]
 x      or    KARS         [kars]
 €     or    FEn            [feN]
 =     or    TOOn         [to:N]

@  Cardinal numbers

Adjective   Adverb   Noun 
 First           1DAI   At first         1DAILI   the first one          1DAITI
 Second       2DAI   Secondly      2DAILI   the second one      2DAITI
 Third          3DAI   Thirdly         3DAILI  the third one          3DAITI
 Fourth        4DAI  Fourthly       4DAILI  the fourth one        4DAITI
 Fifth           5DAI  Fifthly          5DAILI  the fifth one            5DAITI
 25th         25DAI  25thly        25DAILI  the 25th one          25DAITI
 100th      100DAI   100thly     100DAILI  the 100th one       100DAITI



7-3)  Years, Months, Dates and Times

Many nouns concerning time and seasons were originally adopted as Friendship Words from many natural languages
such as English, Greek, Sancsrit/Hindi, etc., and eventually have been moved into International Standard Words (ISWs).
These words (except for AZ- seasons, AHT, AHSA, AHTA) don't have radicals similar to most numeric nouns.  


@ The NOXILO year system

     (Note)  The year system doesn't depend on any religion.

 Gregorian system   NOXILO system    Abbreviation
 BC 0002  EITA 2001 SAAL   T2001 or TA2001 
 BC 0001  EITA 2000 SAAL  T2000 or TA2000 
 AC 0001  EITA 1999 SAAL   T1999 or TA1999 
 AC 0002  EITA 1998 SAAL   T1998 or TA1998 
 AC 0100   EITA 1900 SAAL  T1900 or TA1900
 AC 1000  EITA 1000 SAAL  T1000 or TA1000 
 AC 1900  EITA 0100 SAAL  T100 or TA100
 AC 1998  EITA 0002 SAAL  T2 or TA2 
 AC 1999  EITA 0001 SAAL  T1 or TA1
 AC 2000  XUNyA SAAL    XS
 AC 2001  EIMA 2001 SAAL  M1 or MA1
 AC 2002  EIMA 2002 SAAL  M2 or MA2
 AC 2003  EIMA 2003 SAAL  M3 or MA3
 AC 2008  EIMA 2008 SAAL  M8 or MA8
 AC 2009  EIMA 2009 SAAL  M9 or MA9
 AC 2010  EIMA 2010 SAAL  M10 or MA10
 AC 2011   EIMA 2011 SAAL  M11 or MA11
 AC 2012  EIMA 2012 SAAL  M12 or MA12
 AC 2050  EIMA 2050 SAAL  M50 or MA50
 AC 2100  EIMA 2100 SAAL   M100 or MA100
 AC 2300  EIMA 2300 SAAL   M300 or MA300 


<Note> 'EITA' means white, and 'SAAL' year.   'XUNyA' [shu:nya] means zero, and 'EIMA' magenta/red. 
          XUNyA and SAAL were originally NOXILO Friendship Words (from Sanscrit/Hindi), but now they
          are part of NOXILO International Standard Words.   EI is a radical for adjectives to show 'color'.
          The use of the NOXILO year system is, so far, not necessary in writing a NOXILO letter.

Example.

15 July 1900        T100.7.15.
15 July 1998    @ T2.7.15.
15 July 1999@@@T1.7.15.
15 July 2000@@@XS.7.15.    (NOXILO base year)
15 July 2001@@@M1.7.15.
15 July 2002@@@M2.7.15.
15 July 2010@@@M10.7.15.
15 July 2050@@@M50.7.15.
15 July 2100@@@M100.7.15.


@  Glossary concerning dates and times

The following words (SAAL, YE, ...... MyO, KAn) in this section are Friendship Words and
International Standard Words.

 English NOXILO Int'l Standard Word (ISW) Friendship Word Original language
 Year  SAAL  [sa:l]  SAAL  Hindi
 Month  YE      [ye]  YE  Chinese 
 Week  WIIK    [wi:k]  WIIK  English (week)
 Weekend   WIIK ETn   [wi:k etN]   WIIK ETn  English (week)
 Day  DEI  [dei]  
 ex. 1DEI = HUDD = Sunday
     2DEI = LAnDI = Monday
 DEI  English (day)

  (Note) Above 5 words don't have radical because these are derived from friendshipwords.

 English   ISW  FW  Origin.
 Spring      AZRIn  TAVAS  [tavas]         Hungarian
 Summer  AZMAA  VERAUn  [verauN]         Portuguese
 Autumn  AZOOL  AKI  [aki]  Japanese
 Winter  AZnTA  ZIMA  [zima]  Czech, Polish

  (Note) AZ is a radical to show 'seasons'.  AZRIn, AZMAA, AZOOL, and AZnTA are originally ISWs.
             TAVAS ........ ZIMA are originally Friendship Nouns (now part of ISWs), therefore they don't
             have any radicals.

 English  ISW   FW   Origin 
 January   1YE  TAAnJIEn [ta:NjieN]  Vietnamese
 February  2YE  WIKATA [wikata]  Lakota
 March  3YE  MAARES [ma:res(u)]  Arabic 
 April  4YE  ABRIL [abril(u)]  Philipino
 May  5YE  MAIOS [maios(u)]  Greek
 June  6YE  YUNI [yu:ni]  German
 July  7YE  JLI [juli]  Indonesian
 August  8YE  WASTOn [was(u)toN]  Lakota
 September  9YE  XITAnBAR [shitaNbar]  Hindi
 October  10YE  AKTUBAR [aktu:bar]  Hindi/Nepal
 November  11YE  NOVEnBER [noveNber]  Arabic/Hungarian
 December  12YE  JIKAAPRI [jika:pri]  Russian


(Note)  1YE can be replaced with 1DAIYE  or  1DYE.

English   ISW   FW   Origin
 Sunday  1DEI or 7DEI  HADD [ha_d(u)]  Arabic
 Monday  2DEI or 1DEI  LAnDI [laNdi]  French
 Tuesday  3DEI or 2DEI  TERSA [tersa]  Portuguese
 Wednesday   4DEI or 3DEI  RABU [rabu:]  Indoneasian
 Thursday  5DEI or 4DEI  TOOSTAI [to:stai]   Finnish
 Friday  6DEI or 5DEI  PAATEK [pa:tek]  Czech
 Saturday  7DEI or 6DEI  SABADO [sabado]  Spanish/Portuguese


   (Note)  Sunday is either 1DEI or 7DEI, which will be fixed in the future.

 English   ISW  FW   Origin 
 Morning  PROI  PROI   [proi]  Greek
 Before Noon (AM)  PROIn   PROI   [proi]  Greek
 Noon  TIAn  TIAn   [tiaN]  Thai
 Afternoon (PM)  AFTIAn  AFTIAn   [aftiaN]  NOXILO + Thai 
 Evening  AFTIAnSE  EXTE   [eshte]   Hungarian
 Night  Ny'I  Ny'I   [nyui]  French


English   ISW  FW  Origin 
 The day before yesterday  2HTES   2 HTES  [ni htes]   Japanese + Greek
 Yesterday  HTES  HTES   [htes]  Greek
 Today  AAJI  AAJI    [a:ji]  Hindi
 Tomorrow  BUKAS  BUKAS   [bu:kas]  Philipino
 The day after tomorrow  2BUKAS  2 BUKAS   [ni bu:kas]  Japanese+Philipino 


 English  ISW FW  Origin 
 Time  AH  Will of the universe.
 Energy to show existence by
 creating differences from others.
 ISW
 point in time  AHSA  point in time  ISW
 time period  AHTA  time period  ISW
 Time  TAIM  TAIM  [taim]  English
 Time (point)  SAMAE  SAMAE  [samae]   Thai
 Date  NE  NE  [ne]  
 ex. 25NE (= 25DAINE = 25th date)
 NOXILO
 Hour  XI  XI  [shi]  Korean
 Minute  NAATI  NAATI  [na:ti]  Thai
 Second  MyO  MyO  [myo]  Chinese
 Time period, for   KAn  KAn  [kaN]  
 ex. 25NE KAn (for 25days)
 Japanese 

  (Note)  AH is a radical for the basics.   AHT, AHSA, and AHTA are originally ISWs.


NOXILO time goes on a 24 hour system, so the specification of  AM  or  PM  is not necessary.
However, the AM/PM system is still acceptable in NOXILO.

                 Time   AHSA and AHTA in  NOXILO            Pronunciation
 9 ( 9 O'clock. )  9 or 9 XI  [ko:]  or  [ko:shi] 
 10:55  AM  10:52  or
 PROI  10:52
 ( 10:52 AM is acceptable.)
 [tio shi  lima tio ni]
 [proi tio shi lima tio ni]
 5:30  PM  17:30  or
 AFTIAn  17:30
 ( 5:30 PM is acceptable.)
 [tio saba: shi sam tio]
 [aftiaN tio saba: shi sam tio] 
 Noon  TIAn  [tiaN]
 Midnight  NyITIAn  [nyuitiaN]
 3 hours (for 3 hours)  3  XI   KAn  [sam shi kaN]
 9 minutes (for 9 minutes)  9  NAATI  [ko: na:ti]
 3 hours 9 minutes
 (for 3hours and 9 minutes)
 3  XI   9  NAATI   KAn   [sam  shi  ko:  na:ti  kaN] 
 [sam  shi  kaN  ko:  na:ti]
 9 minutes 28 seconds 
 (for 9 minutes and 28 seconds)
 9  NAATI  28  MyO  KAn  [ko:  na:ti  nitio wi_tu myo kaN]



@  Date, day, and time.

In NOXILO, there is no resemblance to the empty subject 'It' used in references to time and weather as in English. 
Time and weather are usually expressed as  '15:30' (3:30pm) or 'AOn' (fine/nice) without the empty 'It' in NOXILO.
AOn [aoN] means 'fine'.  However, in case such simple expressions may mislead people or be considered too short,
the subject of AHSA (time point) or EnZAA (weather) could be added as shown in the following examples.

Ex.  It is 0:05 AM.

M1:   0:05    [shu:nya shi shu:nya lima]       or      PROI  0:05      or     AHSA-W   0:05  (RI).
M2:   0:05    [ -same- ]                          or      PROI  0:05      or     AHSA-W  (RI)   0:05.

   <Note> AHSA [ahsa] means time point.  AHSA is better than AHTA because the former refers to
             'a point of time' whereas the latter usually means 'time period'.

Ex. It is  9:12.

M1:   9:12    or    AHSA-W   9:12  (RI).
M2:   9:12    or    AHSA-W  (RI)   9:12.

<Note> RI (verb 'is/are' in English ) can be omitted.  NOXILO recognizes military time ( 24 hour system),
          so AM/PM is not necessary though people can still add these symbols if they want.
          AHSA (time poinT) is the same as SAMAE (time point), but hereafter AHSA should be used
          because AHSA is International Standard Word (ISW) and SAMAE is Friendship Word (FW).

Ex.  It is 12:16 PM.

M1:   12:16    [tio ni shi tio saba:]      or      AFTIAn  12:16      or      AHSA-W  12:16  (RI).
M2:   12:16    [ -same- ]                   or      AFTIAn  12:16      or      AHSA-W  (RI)  12:16.

Ex. The time is 15:40 PM.

M1:  AHSA-W  15:40  (RI).       or      AHSA-W  AFTIAn  15:40  (RI).
M2:  AHSA-W  (RI)  15:40.       or      AHSA-W  (RI)  AFTIAn  15:40.

Ex.  What date is today ?

M1:  ?  AAJI-W  HANA  NE  (RI).
M2:  ?  AAJI-W  (RI)  HANA  NE.

<Note> AAJI [a:ji] means 'today'.  HANA means 'what'.   NE [ne] means 'date'. 

Ex. Today is the 14th of September 2013.

M1:  AAJI-W   M8  XITAnBAR  14  (RI).      or      AAJI-W  14  XITAnBAR   M13  (RI).
M2:  AAJI-W  (RI)   M8  XITAnBAR  14.      or      AAJI-W  (RI)  14  XITAnBAR   M13.

<Note> XITAnBAR [shitaNbar] (from Hindi) means 'September'.  XITAnBAR can be replaced with 9YE.
          M13 means 2013.  RI can be omitted.@There are no articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO,  therefore 
          'the'  is not translated.

Ex. (Today is)  the 14th.

M1:  14   or   14 NE    or    14DAI NE    (DAI [dai] means 'th'. )
M2:  14   o    14 NE    or    14DAI NE 

Ex. What day is today ?

M1:  ?  AAJI-W  HANA  DEI.  (RI)
M2:  ?  AAJI-W  (RI)  HANA  DEI.

<Note> DEI [dei] means 'day'.   RI can be omitted.

Ex. (Today is)  Friday.

M1:  (AAJI-W)  PAATEK  (RI).
M2:  (AAJI-W)  (RI)  PAATEK.

<Note> AAJI-W [a:ji wa] can be omitted.   PAATEK [pa:tek] (from Czech) means 'Friday'. 
          RI can be omitted.   6DEI for PAATEK is acceptable (= 6th day).

Ex. What time is it now ?

M1:  ?  TAU  HANA  AHSA.        or        ?  TAU  HANA  TAIM.
M2:  ?  TAU  HANA  AHSA.        or        ?  TAU  HANA  TAIM.

<Note> TAU (= IKn = now) can be put last ( ? HANA  AHSA TAU ).  AHSA is better than TAIM
          in this situation because the AHSA always refers to 'point in time.

Ex.
 How long does it take to reach the station ?

M1:  ?  GEIT  IC  HANA  AHTA.
M2:  ?  HANA  AHTA  ICL  GEIT.

<Note> GEIT [geit] means 'station'.   IC [its] and ICL [itsl] are Modification Agent, and means 'to',  'till',
           and 'up to'.   UT (= to for Mode 1) and UTL (= to for Mode 2) can be used instead of IC and ICL
           as below.

M1:  ?  GEIT  UT  HANA  AHTA.
M2:  ?  HANA  AHTA UTL  GEIT.

Ex. About 10 minutes.

M1:  YAK  10  NAATI  KAn
M2:  YAK  10  NAATI  KAn

<Note> YAK [yak] means 'about'.   KAn [kaN] means 'time period' (= for).

Ex. What are the business hours of this restaurant ?

M1:  ? TO  restaurant'Z  EWB  AHTA-W  HANA  IM-UT  (RI).
M2:  ? TO  restaurant'Z  EWB  AHTA-W  (RI)  HANA  IML-UTL.

<Note> TO [to] means 'this'.  EWB [eub] means 'work' or 'business'.   IM (for Mode 1) and IML (for Mode 2)
          are Modification Agents, and mean 'from'.  UT (M1) and UTL (M2) are also Modification Agents and mean 'to'.   
          IM-UT and  IML-UTL mean 'from-to'.   The following is most frequently used Modification Agents, and
          we'll study them in detail in Webpage 5.

      English
  (Prepositions)
 Modif. Agents
  in Mode 1   
  (Postposition)
 Modif. Agents  in Mode 2 
 (Preposition) 
 about   (concerning)  AB    [ab]  ABL   [abl]
 after  AF     [af]  AFL   [afl]
 at, in (place)  AT    [at]  ATL   [atl] 
 by  AY    [ay]  AYL   [ayl]
 till, up to  IC     [its]  ICL    [itsl]
 from  IM     [im]  IML    [iml]
 with  IZ      [iz]  IZL     [izl]
 before  UO    [uo]  UOL   [uol]
 to  UT    [ut]  UTL   [utl]
 at, in, on  (time)  EA    [ea]  EAL   [eal]



Ex.  It is from 11AM to midnight.

M1:  11 IM  Ny'ITIAn  UT
M2:  IML  11 UTL  Ny'ITIAn

M1:  11  UT  Ny'ITIAn
M2:  11  UTL  Ny'ITIAn

<Note> Ny'ITIAn [nyitiaN] (French and Thai) means 'midnight'.   Ny'ITIAn = ‚m‚™E‚h‚s‚h‚`‚Ž ( 'E' is the Japanese script).

Ex.  What time will he be back ?

M1:  ? MAFE  HANA  AHSA  (ED)  ASBAZ-R.
M2:  ? MAFE  (EDL)  HANA  AHSA  ASBAZ-R.

<Note> MAFE [mafe] means 'He'.  ED and EDL are Modification Agents and mean 'at'.  ED and EDL can be
          omitted.  ASBAZ [asbaz] means 'to return'.   '-R' means that the tense of the verb ASBAZ is 'future'.


   (Note) The author's idea about 'time' and 'auxuliary language' ( artificial language ) is partially explained
     in the short article in "Keio University SFC Review No.5" (1999).  Those who are interested in and
     understand Japanese language are cordially welcome to look at the article.


7-4 )  Weather

In weather expressions in NOXILO, a subjects can often be omitted since the subject in weather expression would
be very clear; it is either 'weather' or 'climate' or 'move of the air'.  Therefore, 'It's clowdy.' in English can simply be
written 'Clowdy' in NOXILO.  However, if you prefer to write out the subject, you can write 'Weather is cloudy.'
The following table shows the typical subjects (often omitted) and the predicate parts (written out).

    (Note)  In NOXILO, there are no 'empty subject' such as 'It' in English.
    (Note)  Most words that refer to weather are adjectives and adverbs as well as nouns.

Subject
(often omitted)
Nouns/adjective
(written out)
Verbs
(written out)
  Weather-W   AOn (fine/clear)  AOnZ (is fine), AOnZ-T (was fine),
 AOnZ-R (will be fine) 
  Weather-W
 (vapour-in-air)
 LOOKLA (cloud/cloudy)  LOOKLAZ (is cloudy), LOOKLA-T (was cloudy),
 LOOKLA-R (will be cloudy)
 - do -  LOOn (rain/rainy)  LOOnZ (rain), LOOnZ-T (rained),
 LOOnZ-R (will rain)
 - do -  LOOS (snow/snowy)  LOOSZ (snow), LOOSZ-T (snowed),
 LOOSZ-R (will snow)
 - do -  LOOTE (sleet)  LOOTEZ (sleet), LOOTE-T (sleeted),
 LOOTE-R (will sleet)
 - do -  LOOH (hail)  LOOH (hail), LOOHZ-T (hailed),
 LOOH-R (will hail)
 Move-of-air-W  GyEEn (breeze)  GyEEn (breeze), GyEEnZ (breezed),
 Gyeen-R (will breeze) 
 - do -  GyEE (wind/windy)  GyEEZ (wind), GyEEZ-T (winded),
 GyEEZ-R (will wind)
 - do -  GyEEU (strong wind/strong windy)  GyEEUZ (strong wind), GyEEUZ-T (strong winded),
 GyEEUZ-R (will strongwind)
 - do -  GyEES (storm/stormy)  GyEESZ (storm), GyEESZ-T (stormed),
 GyEESZ-R (will storm)

  @iNotej 'Verb-T' means verb in the past tense, and 'verb-R' means verb in the future tense.


The following is various words and sentences refering to weather.

EnZAA @@@@@@@@ [eNza:]@@@@@@@@@@weather, climate
EnZAA APyUFO   @  @  [eNza: apyu:fo]          @     weather forecast
EnZAAIST  @@@@ @  [eNza:ist]      @@ @@@@@ weather researcher
ELU  EnZAA  APyUFOAA    [elu: eNza: apyu:foa:]     certified weather forecaster
AOn @@@@@@ @@@ [aoN] @@@@@@@@@@@fine/fine weather/nice weather
AUB AOn @@@ @@ @ [aub aoN]  @@@@@@@     very fine/very fine weather
LOOKLA @@@@ @@   [lo:kla]@@@@@@@@@@@cloud/cloudy
LOOn @@@@@@ @@  [lo:N]@@@@@@@@@@@rain/rainy
LOOS @@@@@@ @@ [lo:s]@ @@@@@@@@@@ snow/snowy
AUB LOOS @@@ @     [aub lo:s]   @ @@@@@@ @ much snow/heavy snow
GyEEn @@@@@@@    [gye:N]  @@@@@@@@@@breeze
GyEE                          [gye:]                                  wind/windy
GyEEU @@@@@@@   [gye:u]  @@@@@@@@@@strong wind/strong windy
GyEES @@@@@@@   [gye:s]  @@@@@@@@@@ storm/stormy
LEESAn                      [le:saN]                                thunder

Ex.  Fine (nice).    Fine weather.          Weather is fine.

M1:  AOn             AOn  EnZAA           EnZA-W  AOn  (RI).
M2:  AOn             AOn  EnZAA           EnZA-W  (RI)  AOn.

<Note> In NOXILO, there is no reference to the empty subject 'It' for time and weather as used in English.
           AOn means 'fine/nice' (adj).  EnZA [eNza] means 'weather'.  AOn EnZA means blue sky or very few clowds
@@@  in the sky.  RI (is/are in English) can be omitted because the sentence is simple SCV/SVC type in the
           present tense.

Ex.  It's cloudy.     (= Weather is cloudy.)

M1:  EnZAA-W  LOOKLA  (RI).
M2:  EnZAA-W  (RI)  LOOKLA. 

<Note> LOOKLA means 'clowdy' (adj).  RI can be omitted because the sentence is
@@@@simple SCV/SVC type in the present tense.

Ex.  It's fine, today.

M1:  AAJI,  AOn  (RI).
M2:  AAJI,  (RI)  AOn.

<Note> AAJI means today.

Ex.  It was rainy, yesterday.

M1:  HTES,  LOOn  RI-T.
M2:  HTES,  RI-T  LOOn.

<Note> HTES means yesterday, LOOn means 'rain/rainy'.  The subject EnZA-W is omitted.  This is a
            simply SCV (SVC) type sentence, but RI-T can't be omitted since the tense of RI is of past.  

<Note> In the future, NOXILO grammar may allow the omission of RI-T to avoid redundancy; the word
@@@@'HTES' shows the past tense.

Ex.  It rained yesterday.

M1:  HTES, LOOn-ZT.
M2:  HTES, LOOn-ZT.

<Note> LOOnZ means 'to raine' (vi).   LOOnZ-T means the past tense of LOOnZ.

Ex.  It will be rainy tomorrow.

M1:  BUKAS,  LOOn  RI-R.
M2:  BUKAS,  RI-R  LOOn.

<Note> BUKAS means tomorrow.  RI-R can't be omitted because the tense of RI is of future.
<Note> In the future, NOXILO grammar may allow the omission of the RI-R to avoid redundancy;
            the word 'BUKAS' alone show the future tense.

Ex.  It will rain, tomorrow.

M1:  BUKAS,  LOOnZ-R.
M2:  BUKAS,  LOOnZ-R.

<Note> LOOnZ (vi) means 'to rain'.  LOOnZ-R is the future tense of LOOnZ.

Ex.  It will be snowy, tonight.

M1:  (EnZAA-W)  LOOS  RI-R,  Ny'I.
M2:  (EnZAA-W)  RI-R  LOOS,  Ny'I.

<Note> Ny'I means 'tonight'.  LOOS means snow/snowy.

Ex.  Tonight it may snow.

M1:  Ny'I,  GIME  LOOSZ.
M2:  Ny'I,  GIME  LOOSZ.

M1:  Ny'I,  LOOSZ-R.
M2:  Ny'I,  LOOSZ-R.

<Note> Ny'I means 'tonight'.  GIME means 'may' (aux. verb@in English).
           LOOSZ-R is the future tense of LOOSZ (vi).  If the chance of snow is very little
           GIVOI (might) instead of GIME should be used.  If the chance is reasonably high,
           KAPLO (probably) is used instead for GIME (may) or GIVOI (might) as below.

M1:  Ny'I  KAPLO, LOOSZ-R.
M2:  Ny'I  KAPLO, LOOSZ-R.

Ex.  Today of the last year was snowy.

M1:  HTES  SAAL  UB  AAJI-W  LOOS  RI-T.
M2:  HTES  SAAL  UB  AAJI-W  RI-T  LOOS.

M1:  HTES  SAAL'Z  AAJI-W  LOOS  RI-T.
M2:  HTES  SAAL'Z  AAJI-W  RI-T  LOOS.

<Note> LOOS means 'snow (snowy)'.  HTES SAAL means last year.  
          UB (UBL for M2) is Modification Agent and means 'of' in English.  
          HTES SAAL'Z means HTES SAAL's.  

Ex.  May 20th of a week ago, it was rainy.      (Note) Today is May 27.

M1:  1WIIK  WAGO  5YE  20NE,  LOOn  RI-T.
M2:  1WIIK  WAGO  5YE  20NE,  RI-T  LOOn.

<Note> WIIK means 'week', WAGO 'ago', YE 'month', and 5YE 'May'.  
          NE means 'day/date', and 20NE '20th date'.  LOOn means 'rain/rainy'.

Ex.  It's been rainy for 3 days.

M1:  TARED  3NE  KAn,  LOOn.@
M2:  TARED  3NE  KAn,  LOOn.@

M1:  LOOn-W  3NE  KAn  UKOAZ.
M2:  LOOn-W  3NE  KAn  UKOAZ.

<Note> TARED means 'already'.  KAn means time period (= for).
          UKOAZ means 'to continue'.

Ex.  How will be the weather tomorrow.

M1:  ?  BUKAS  EnZAA-W  HA  RI-R.
M2:  ?  BUKAS  EnZAA-W  RI-R  HA.

M1:  ?  BUKAS  EnZAA-W  Hy  RI-R.
M2:  ?  BUKAS  EnZAA-W  RI-R  Hy.

<Note> BUKAS means 'tomorrow'.  HA means 'what', and Hy 'how' (degree/condition).  
          RI-R means the future tense of RI (= is/are).  The following is acceptable between close friends.

          M1:  ?  BUKAS  EnZAA.
          M2:  ?  BUKAS  EnZAA.

Ex.  Whatever the weather day after tomorrow will be, I will go.

M1:  2BUKAS  NRA  EnZAA,  SE  GI  ITU-R.
M2:  2BUKAS  NRA  EnZAA,  SE  GI  ITU-R.

<Note> 2BUKAS means 'day after tomorrow'.  NRA is a Concessive Particle (--ever).
          SE means 'I'.   GI means 'will' (strong will).  ITU means 'to go'.  We'll learn
          the concessive particles, NRA, JRA, and CRA in Chapter 7 in Webpage 4.




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‚b‚ˆD8@@‚o ‚’ ‚ ‚Ž ‚ ‚• ‚Ž ‚“@
**************************


8-1)  Personal and Impersonal Pronouns

Personal and impersonal pronouns have two forms, singular and plural.  Please note that subjective forms
(SE, ME, FE, MAFE,  ..... SEN, MEN, FEN, MAFEN, ..... ) do not take '-W' which is an Element Particle to show
subject.   Also note that '-E' chages to '-Q', and '-O' changes to '-L' in modification clauses, which consist
of adjective clauses and adverb clauses.         (Note) There are no radicals for pronouns.


Single forms in Noun clauses

            subjective          possesive       complementary           objective
1st person SE [se]     I SEI [sei]    My SE-E [see]     I SE-O [seo]  me
2nd person ME [me]  You MEI [mei]  Your ME-E [meo]  You ME-O [meo]  you
3rd person FE [fe] The person FEI [fei] The person's   FE-E [fee] the person   FE-O [feo] the person
3rd   MAFE [mafe] He
  DAFE [dafe]  She 
  MAFEI [mafei] His
  DAFEI [dafei]  Her
  MAFE-E [mafee] he
  DAFE-E [dafee]  she
  MAFE-O [mafeo] him
  DAFE-O [dafeo]  her
3rd JE [je]  One JEI [jei]  One's JE-E [jee]  one JE-O [jeo]  one
3rd TE [te]  It TEI [tei]  Its TE-E [tee]  it TE-O [teo]  it

(Note) Noun clauses include subject clause, complement clause, and object clause.
@@@@@Element Particle '-W' is not necessary for the subjective form of pronouns.
@@@@@Element particle '-E' which shows complement is very often omitted in simple sentence.

Single forms in Modification clauses (adjective clauses and adverb clauses)

       subjective     possesive        @complementary            @objective
1st person  same as above  same as above SE-Q [se ech(u)] me SE-L [se ol(u)] me
2nd person ME-Q [me ech(u)] you ME-L [me ol(u)] you
3rd person FE-Q [fe ech(u)] the person FE-L [fe ol(u)] the person
3rd   MAFE-Q [mafe ech(u)] he 
  DAFE-Q  [dafe ech(u)] she
  MAFE-L [mafe ol(u)] him
  DAFE-L  [dafe ol(u)] her
3rd JE-Q [je ech(u)] one JE-L [je ol(u)]  one
3rd TE-Q [te ech(u)] it TE-L [te ol(u)] it

(Note)  Modification clauses include adjective clauses and adverb clauses.  '-Q' and '-L' can be
  pronunced [ech] and [ol] instead of [echu] and [olu], respectively.   '-W' is not nocessary for subject
  forms.  Element particle '-Q' which shows complement is very often omitted in simple sentences.

Plural forms in Noun clauses

         subjective        possesives       @complementary            @objective
1st person SEN@[sen(u)]  We SENI  [seni]  Our SEN-E  [sen(u) e]  us SEN-O [sen(u) o]   us
2nd person MEN [men(u)]  You MENI  [meni]  Your  MEN-E  [men(u) e] you MEN-O [men(u) o]  you
3rd person FEN [fen(u)]  They FENI  [feni]  Their FEN-E  [fen(u) e]  they FEN-O [fen(u) o]   them
3rd   MAFEN 
  [mafen(u)]  Men
  DAFEN
  [dafen(u)]  Women
  MAFENI    
  [mafeni]  Men's
  DAFENI  
  [dafeni]   Women's
  MAFEN-E
  [mafen(u) e]   men
  DAFEN-E
  [dafen(u) e]   women
  MAFEN-O
  [mafen(u) o]   men
  DAFEN-O
  [dafen(u) o]   women
3rd JEN  [jen(u)]  Ones JENI  [jeni]  One's JEN-E  [jen(u) e]  ones JEN-O  [jen(u) o]  ones
3rd TEN  [ten(u)] They TENI  [teni]  Their TEN-E  [ten(u) e]  them  TEN-O  [ten(u) o]  them 

(Note)  Noun clauses become subject clauses, complement clauses or object clauses.
@@@@@ Element Particle '-W' is not necessary for subjective forms.
           The -E which shows complement is very often omitted in simple sentences.

Plural forms in Modification clauses

       subjective   @possesives         complementary               objective
1st person same as above same as above SEN-Q [sen(u) ech(u)]  us SEN-L [sen(u) ol(u)]  us
2nd person MEN-Q [men(u) ech(u)]  you MEN-L [men(u) ol(u)]  you
3rd person FEN-Q [fen(u) ech(u)]  them FEN-L [fen(u) ol(u)]  them
3rd   MAFEN-Q
  [mafen(u) ech(u)]  men 
  DAFEN-Q 
  [dafen(u) ech(u)]  women
  MAFEN-L  
  [mafen(u) ol(u)]  men
  DAFEN-L  
  [dafen(u)ol(u)]  women
3rd JEN-Q [jen(u) ech(u)]  ones JEN-L [jen(u) ol(u)]  ones
3rd TEN-Q [ten(u) ech(u)]  them TEN-L [ten(u) ol(u)]  them

(Note)  Modification clauses include adjective clauses and adverb clauses.   '-Q' and '-L' can be pronounced
           [ech] and [ol], instead of [e] and [o] respectively.   '-W' is not necessary for the subjective form.
           The -Q which shows complement is very often omitted in simple sentences.


8-2)  Reflective Pronouns

Singular form

        subjective           possesive        complementary             objective
1st person SEL    myself SELI    myself's SEL-E    myself-E SEL-O   myself-O
2nd person MEL   yourself MELI    yourself's MEL-E    youeself-E MEL-O   yourself-O
3rd person FEL    oneself FELI    oneself's  FEL-E    oneself-E  FEL-O    oneself-O 
3rd   MAFEL    himself   DAFEL    herself   MAFELI    himself's
  DAFELI    herself's
  MAFEL-E    himself-E
  DAFEL-E    herself-E
  MAFEL-O   himself-O
  DAFEL-O   herself-O
3rd JEL    oneself JELI     oneself's JEL-E    oneself-E JEL-O    oneself-O 
3rd TEL    itself TELI     itself's  TEL-E    itself-E TEL-O    itself-O

(Note)  Element particle '-W' is not necessary for the subjective form.
           The -E which shows complement is very often omitted in simple sentences.

Plural form

           subjective           possesive         complementary               objective 
1st person SENL    ourselves  SENLI    ourselves'  SENL-E    ourselves-E SENL-O   ourselves-O
2nd person MENL    yourselves MENLI    yourselvess MENL-E   yourselves-E MENL-O   yourselves-O
3rd person FENL    oneselves FENLI    oneselves'  FENL-E    oneselves-E FENL-O   oneselves-O 
3rd   MAFENL  themselves
  DAFENL  themselves
  MAFENLI  themselves'
  DAFENLI  themselves'
  MAFENL-E  themselves-E
  DAFENL-E  themselves-E
  MAFENL-O  themselves-O
  DAFENL-O  themselves-O
3rd JENL    themselves JENLI    themselves' JENL-E    themselves-E JENL-O    themselves-O
3rd TENL    themselves TENLI    themselves' TENL-E    themselves-E TENL-O    themselves-O

(Note)  Element particle '-W' is not necessary for the subjective form.
           The -E which shows complement is very often omitted in simple sentences.

8-3)  Possessive Pronoun

   single subject form  plural subject form
1st person SEM    mine SENM   ours
2nd person MEM    yours MENM   yours
3rd person FEM    ones FENM   theirs 
3rd    MAFEN   his
   DAFEM   hers
   MAFENM   theirs
   DAFENM   theirs
3rd JEM   ones JENM    theirs
3rd TEM   its TENM    theirs

(Note)  Element Particle '-W' is not necessary for the subjective form.



8-4)  Interrogative Pronoun

HA    - - -    What
HI     - - -    Which
HU    - - -    Who
HE     - - -    When
HO    - - -    Where
HyA    - - -   Why
Hy     - - -    How
HyE    - - -   How

(Note) Element Particle '-W' is not necessary for the subjective form.

Ex. Who laughed ?

M1:  ? HU  GyU-T.   [esk hu: gyu:ta]
M2:  ? HU  GyU-T.   [esk hu: gyu:ta]


The subject form of the following pronouns (8-5 to 8-8) need the element particle '-W'.

8-5)  Demonstrative Pronoun

TO     - - -   this
TON   - - -   these (plural form of TO)

BOI    - - -   that
BOIN  - - -   those (plural form of BOI)

SEIM   - - -   same
SOQI   - - -   such

Ex. This is a book.

M1:  TO-W  BEEK  (RI).
M2:  TO-W  (RI)  BEEK.

     <Note> TO  BEEK  (RI).   or   TO  (RI)  BEEK.   is wrong.
@@@@@@BEEK means book.   RI can be deleted.

Ex. These are important.

M1:  TON-W  AOOIn  (RI).
M2:  TON-W  (RI)  AOOIn.

     <Note> TON  AOOIn  (RI)   or   TON  AOOIn  (RI).   is wrong. 
@@@@@@AOOIn means important.


8-6)  Indefinite Pronoun

AANO  - - -    Another
IILA     - - -   Either
IIQI     - - -    Each
MUQ   - - -     Much
OOL    - - -    All
XAO    - - -    Some
UUBO  - - -    Both


8-7)  Negative Pronoun

NAIDE@@- - - @neither
NAIT@@  - - -    none
NATIn@@- - -    nothing
NAIJE     - - -     no one
NAWEA@ - - -    nowhere


8-8)  Names and Titles

In writing names, the family name comes first, followed by the middle name, and lastly the given name.
The family name should be completely written in capital letters.  The first letter of the middle and
given names should be written in capital letters as well, and the rest of the middle and given names
in small letters.  

 Example.

@@@ OBAMA@            F                 John
    (family name)   (middle name)   (given name)

@@   TOYOTA           Jiro
    (family name)   (given name)                   <Note> Most Japanese don't have middle names.

MR. is used in addressing a man who has no special titles and it is pronounced [ma:r].
DS. is used for a woman who has no special titles, and is pronounced [da:s].
These NOXILO titles do not refer to married or unmarried.


Generally, in taking/using words from any individual's native language for use in NOXILO, the
pronunciation of the word determines the spelling of the word.  However, as far as the name expressions
are concerned, most of the NOXILO users have the following three options:

(1)  To write their name in accordance with the English spellings and by NOXILO word order.

      Ex. @MR. BRAWN  B.  Tomas         or      MR. BRAWN  Tomas
               DS. JEFFERSON  K.  Mary      or      DS. JEFFERSON  Mary

(2)  They write their name in accordance with the English pronunciation and by NOXILO word order.
      In taking this option, 'MR.' must be replaced with 'MR,' and 'DS.' with 'DS,'.

      Ex.  @MR, BRAUn  B-  TOMAS       or     MR, BRAUn  TOMAS
                DS, JEFAASOn  K-  MERII     or     DS, JEFAASOn  MERII

(3)  To write their name exactly the same as their English name.

      Ex. @Mr. Thomas  B.  Brown
               DS, Mary  K.  Jefferson

Please note that the element particle  '-W'  is necessary for the subject.

Ex.  Mr. Brown shall (will) visit New York.

M1:  MR. BRAWN-W  NeW York-O  ITVIS-R.
M2:  MR. BRAWN-W  ITVIS-R  New York-O.

M1:  MR, BRAUn-W  New York-O  ITVIS-R.
M2:  MR, BRAUn-W  ITVIS-R  New York-O.

@@@<Note> 'ITVIS' means 'to visit'.




    Thank@you@‚†‚‚’@‚’‚…‚‚„‚‰‚Ž‚‡I@‚r‚…‚…@‚™‚‚•@‚‚‡‚‚‰‚Ž@on  web ‚‚‚‡‚…@3@I
            
( Webpage 3 will include Verbs, Auxiliary verbs, and Verbals. )


     @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@