NOXILO  Webpage 

                  16 July 2007   (latest corrections:   1  January  2021)



NOXILO (pronounced noshilo) is an international auxiliary language for everybody. The following is a brief
translation of the 3rd part of the NOXILO textbook and webpage written by MIZUTA Sentaro
©
1996, ......... ,  2021.



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Table of contents of the webpage  3
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Ch.  9   Verbs and Auxiliary Verbs

      9-1)  Frequently used verbs
      9-2)  Tense,  Progressives,  and  Passive forms
      9-3)  Plural actions
      9-4)  General verbs and Specific verbs
      9-5)  Causative verb BLE and BLU
      9-6)  IYXS,  to wish the contrary-to-fact or the impossible
  9-7)  IKyUMIS,  to pretend
  9-8)  URUZ,  to seem
  9-9)  URAZ,  to look
  9-10)  Narration
      9-11)  The tense of the verb (V2) in subordinate clause
      9-12)  Auxiliary verbs

               (Note) Radicals for verbs are explained in Webpage 7.

Ch. 10   Verbals

      10-1)  Verb-noun
      10-2)  Verb-adjective
      10-3)  Structure of verb-around rules
      10-4)  Verbals,  Modification Agent,  and Clause Leader in table

               (Note) There are no radicals for Verbals.

 Webpage 4 includes Adjectives, Adverbs, Comparisons, Particles, and Interrogatives.




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Ch. 9  Verbs
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Verbs do not have different forms to indicate the number or gender of the subject of the sentence.
Past tense is indicated by adding  -TA  or  -T (both pronounced [ta] and the '-' should not be read) immediately
after the basic form ( = present form ) of verbs.  Future tense is indicated by adding  -RE  or  -R  (both
pronounced [re] and the '-' shouldn't be read).


9-1)  Frequently used verbs

The following table shows examples of most frequently used verbs. 

  (Note 1)  The basic form is always the same as present form.
 (Note 2)  The use of Basic Word, which are written in gothic letters in the table, is mandatory.
 (Note 3)  Basic stands for Basic Word,  and  ISW for Int'l Standard Word,  vb for bodily verb (action verb).

  English    NOXILO Int'l Std Word    Class
 vi. be/is/are  RI  Basic
 vi. exist  RIZ  Basic
 vi. consist  RIKOn   Basic
 vt. bear/deliver  IBAAS  ISW 
 vi. be born  IBAAZ  ISW 
 vt. bear/deliver.  (Note) bodily virb  NyUDEL   [nyu:del]  ISW
 vi. become  EQKAZ   [etchkaz]  ISW 
 vi. come  ITAM  ISW
 vt. continue  UKOAS  ISW 
 vi. die  IBDEZ   ISW 
 vt. dislike  IWGES   [iwges]  ISW 
 vt. dislike  DE-APLIS  ISW
 vt. drink  KUD (vb: bodily verb)  [ku:d]  ISW 
 vt. eat  KUI (vb)   [ku:i]  ISW 
 vi./vt. do  DU  [du:]  Basic 
 vt. eat & drink  KU (vb)  ISW
 vt. get  UYAKS  ISW 
 vt. get  GH   [gh]   Basic
 vt. give  APIS   ISW
 vi. go  ITU  [itu:]  ISW 
 vt. have (hold/get/own)  TUV (vb)  ISW
 vt. have (causative)  BLE  Basic
 vt. have (polite causative)  BLU  Basic
 vt. hear  PyU (vb)   [pyu:]  ISW
 vt. invite  ELVIS   ISW 
 vi. laugh  GyU (vb)   [gyu:]  ISW 
 vt. let (silent approval)  LEEN   Basic
 vt. like  APLIS  ISW
 vt. love  APLOS   ISW 
 vt. make  EKAMS  ISW 
 vt. put  PUC (vb)   [pu:ts]  ISW
 vt. put (set up)  DUY (vb)  ISW
 vt. receive  TURE (vb)  ISW
 vi. run  RyUR (vb)  ISW
 vt. say  RU (vb)  ISW
 vt. see  MU (vb)  ISW
 vi. seem (ex. He seems to be right.)  URUZ  ISW
 vi. look (ex. You look pale.)  URAZ  ISW
 vi. send  PUS (vb)  ISW 
 vi. sit  JUE (vb)  ISW
 vt. stad  MyUS (vb)   [myu:s]  ISW
 vt. stop  ETOS  ISW 
 vt. take  UYUS  [uyu:s]  ISW 
 vt. think  INOGS  ISW 
 vt. know  URKS  ISW
 vi. walk  RyU (vb)   [ryu:]  ISW
 vt. want/require  IYAnS  ISW
 vt. want/ask/request  IYUS  ISW 
 vt. would like to do  IYAA   [iya:]  ISW 
 vt. hope  IYPES  ISW 
 vt. wish (contrary-to-fact)  IYXS   [iyshs]  ISW
 vt. write  NURI (vb)  [nu:ri]  ISW



9-2)  Tense, Progressives, and Passive forms

@ Tense

Past tense is indicated by adding  -TA  or  -T (both pronounced [ta] ) immediately after the basic ( = present ) form
of verbs.  Future tense is indicated by adding  -RE  or  -R ( both pronounced [re] ).   The '-' should not be read.

Ex. Present tense  :  EKAMS [ekams] ('to make')
     Past tense :        EKAMS-T [ekamsta] ('made')
     Future tense :     EKAMS-R [ekamsre] ('will make')

Ex. Present tense  :  PUS [pu:s] ('to send')
     Past tense :        PUS-T [pu:sta] ('sent')
     Future tense :     PUS-R [pu:sre] ('will send')

There are some other examples in the following table.

 Basic form          Past       Present          Future
 RI   [ri]
 be   
 RI-T  [rita] 
 was, were
 RI   [ri]
 is, are
 RI-R   [rire]
 will be
 RIZ   [riz(u)]
 exist
 RIZ-T  [rizta]
 existed
 RIZ  [riz(u)] 
 exist
 RIZ-R  [rizre] 
 will exist
 DU [du:]
 do
 DU-T [du:ta]
 did
 DU [du:]
 do 
 DU-R [du:re]
 will/shall do 
 GyU  [gyu:]
 laugh
 GyU-T [gyu:ta]
 laughed
 GyU  [gyu:] 
 laugh
 GyU-R  [gyu:re] 
 will/shall laugh
 KUI  [ku:i]
 eat
 KUI-T [ku:ita]
 ate
 KUI  [ku:i]
 eat 
 KUI-R  [kuire]
 will/shall eat
 TUV [tu:v]
 have
 TUV-T  [tu:vta]
 had 
 TUV  [tu:v]
 have 
 TUV-R  [tu:vre]
 will/shall have 

   (Note) Present form is always the same as basic form.


@ Progressive

Progressive tense is indicated by adding  '-In'  after the basic form of verbs.

Ex.  EKAMS-In         [ekamsiN]  [ekams iN]  ( 'making' )          <Note> 'EKAMS' means 'to make'.
       EKAMS-InZE     [ekamsiNze]  [ekams iNze]  ( 'being made' )
       EKAMS-TInZE   [ekamstaiNze]  [ekams taiNze]  ( 'was being made' )
       EKAMS-RInZE   [ekamsreiNze]  [ekams reiNze]  ( 'will being made' )

Ex. They are making a house.

M1:  FEN  BIIUS-O  EKAMS-In.
M2:  FEN  EKAMS-In  BIIUS-O.

     <Note> FEN means 'they'.   BIIUS means 'house'.   EKAMS means 'to make'.

Ex. They are playing tennis.

M1:  FEN  InSTE-O  AMLS-In.
M2:  FEN  AMLS-In  InSTE-O.

     <Note> 'FEN' (They) is a plural form of FE (person) as shown in the table below.  Subject form of
            Personal pronouns and Interrogative pronouns are not accompanied with -W.   'AMLS' means
            'to play'.   'InSTE' means 'tennis'.   

You can write the above sentences using English words as follows.

M1:  FEN  tennis-O  play-In.
M2:  FEN  play-In  tennis-O.


@ Passive form

 Transitive verb -ZE       ( = be + PP of transitive verb  in English)

Passive voice is indicated by adding '-ZE' after the basic form of verbs. Passive voice is often accompanied
with AY [ay] for M1 or AYL [ayl] for M2, which correspond to the Prepositions 'by' ( or 'with')  in English.

Ex.  This house is made by Mr. Tange.

M1:  TO  BIIUS-W  MR, Tange  AY  EKAMS-ZE.
M2:  TO  BIIUS-W  EKAMS-ZE  AYL  MR, Tange.

      <Note> BIIUS means house.   EKAMS means 'to make'.   Mr, means Mr.
                 EKAMS-ZE is pronounced [ekamsze] or [ekams ze].

Ex. This pigeon was killed by that crow.

M1:  TO  BAAP-W  BOI  BAAKRO  AY  AnRU-TZE.
M2:  TO  BAAP-W  AnRU-TZE  AYL  BOI  BAAKRO.

     <Note>   TO means 'this'   BOI means 'that'.   AnRU means 'to kill'.
                  AnRU-TZE is pronounced [aNru:taze] or [aNru: taze].

The following is possible if you prefer English.

M1:  TO  pigeon-W  BOI  crow  AY  kill-TZE.
M2:  TO  pigeon-W  kill-TZE  AYL  BOI  crow.

Ex. Your child was being bullied by the bad guys.

M1:  MEI  BOQIL-W  UIIBA  BOYA  AY  AnRBIS-TInZE.
M2:  MEI  BOQIL-W  AnRBIS-TInZE  AYL  UIIBA  BOYA.

M1:  MEI  BOQIL-W  bad  guys  AY  bully-TInZE.
M2:  MEI  BOQIL-W  bully-TInZE  AYL  bad  guys.

    <Note> 'MEI' means 'Your'.   'BOQIL' means 'child'.    'UIIBA' means 'bad'.   'BOYA' means 'boy'.
              'AnRBIS' means 'to bully'.  A 'the' is usually not translated into NOXILO because NOXILO
              does not have Articles (a, an, the).  However, you can add TO (this), TON (these), BOI (that),
              BOIN (those) instead, if necessary.  AnRBIS-TInZE is pronounced [aNrbistaiNze] or
              [aNrbis taiNze].


The following table shows the possible combinations of tense, progressives, and voice, using a verb
DU [du:], which is taken from English verb  'do'.

              Past          Present             Future  
 Progressive  DU-TIn  [du:taiN]   DU-In  [du:iN]   DU-RIn  [du:reiN] 
 Passive  DU-TZE  [du:taze]   DU-ZE  [du:ze]   DU-RZE  [du:reze] 
 Progressive-passive   DU-TInZE  [du:taiNze]   DU-InZE  [du:iNze]   DU-RInZE  [du:reiNze] 



 The following senteces are also expressed by passive form ( = verb -ZE ).

I was born in New York.

M1:  SE  New York  AT  IBAAS-TZE.
M2:  SE  IBAAS-TZE  ATL  New York.

    <Note>  IBAAS (vt) means  'to bear'.     
               AT (ATL for M2) means  'in'  or  'at'.

You can write as follows if you prefer to use English over  ISW.  

M1:  SE  New York  AT  bear-TZE.
M2:  SE  bear-TZE  ATL  New York.

     <Note> 'bear-TZE' means 'was born'.

Ex.  He was born of John and Susan in New York in the 5th of May 1947.

M1:  MAFE  John  OnD  Susan  UB  New York  AT  5  May  1947  ED  IBAAS-TZE.
M2:  MAFE  IBAAS-TZE  UBL  John  OnD  Susan  ATL  New York  EDL  5 May  1947.

     <Note> UB (UBL for M2) means 'of'.   AT (ATL for M2) means 'at/in' (location)
               EA (EAL for M2) means 'in/on' (time)


 The following sentences are expressed by either passive form or intransitive form (of verbs).

Ex.  Water is formed of (from/by) hydrogen and oxygen.

M1:  LOWT-W  WEOX  OnD  WEHID  AJ  IPKOMS-ZE.
M2:  LOWT-W  IPKOMS-ZE  AJL WEOX  OnD  WEHID.

     <Note> LOWT means water.  WEOX means oxygen.  WEHID means hydrogen.  
               IPKOMS (vt) means 'to form'.   AJ (AJL for M2) means 'of' (contents/element).

Intransitive verb "RIKOn" (consist) can be used as follows.

M1:  LOWT-W  WEOX  OnD  WEHID  AJ  RIKOn.
M2:  LOWT-W  RIKOn  AJL  WEOX  OnD  WEHID.

     <Note> RIKOn (vi) means 'consist'.  AJ/AJL means 'of'.   RIKOn AJL = consist of.

Ex.  My family consist of 4 people, father, mother, syster, and me.

M1:  SEI  ILyAAM-W  ILyUM,  ILyUD,  ILyUXA,  OnD  SE  UK  4  REn  AJ  IPKOMS-TZE.
M2:  SEI  ILyAAM-W  IPKOMS-TZE  AJL  4  REn  UKL  ILyUM,  ILyUD,  ILyUXA,  OnD  SE.

     <Note> IPKOMS (vt) means 'to form'.  ILyAAM means 'family'.   ILyUM 'father',   ILyUD 'mother',
               ILyUXA 'sister'.  REn means man (women)/people.   AJ (AJL for M2) means 'of'.
               UK (UKL) means 'equality' (=), and this can be replaced with ',' as follows.

               M1:  SEI  ILyAAM-W  ILyUM,  ILyUD,  ILyUXA,  OnD  SE,  4  REn  AJ  IPKOMS-TZE.
               M2:  SEI  ILyAAM-W  IPKOMS-TZE  AJL  4  REn,  ILyUM,  ILyUD,  ILyUXA,  OnD  SE.

Intransitive verb "RIKOn" (consist) can be used as follows.

M1:  SEI  ILyAAM-W  ILyUM,  ILyUD,  ILyUXA,  OnD  SE  UK  4  REn  AJ  RIKOn.
M2:  SEI  ILyAAM-W  RIKOn  AJL  4  REn  UKL  ILyUM,  ILyUD,  ILyUXA,  OnD  SE.

     <Note> UK (UKL) means 'equality' (=), and this can be replaced with ',' as follows.

               M1:  SEI  ILyAAM-W  ILyUM,  ILyUD,  ILyUXA,  OnD  SE,  4  REn  AJ  RIKOn.
               M2:  SEI  ILyAAM-W  RIKOn  AJL  4  REn,  ILyUM,  ILyUD,  ILyUXA,  OnD  SE.

Ex.  Cheese is made of (from) milk.

M1:  MyAAQI-W  MyAAL  AJ  EKAMS-ZE.
M2:  MyAAQI-W  EKAMS-ZE  AJL  MyAAL. 

      <Note> MyAAQI means 'cheese', and MyAAL 'milk'.  EKAMS (vt) means 'to make'.
                AJ (AJL) means 'of' (contents/element).

M1:  MyAAQI-W  MyAAL  IM  EKAMS-ZE.
M2:  MyAAQI-W  EKAMS-ZE  IML  MyAAL. 

      <Note> IM (IML) means 'from'. 

Intransitive verb "RIKOn" (consist) can be used as follows.

M1:  MyAAQI-W  MyAAL  AJ  RIKOn.
M2:  MyAAQI-W  RIKOn  AJL  MyAAL. 

      <Note> AJ (AJL) means 'of' (contents/element).



 Passive verb  GH      ( pronounced [gh]  or  [guh(u)] ) 

The GH is similar to 'have' or 'get'  in  'have/get + Object + done'  in English.

Ex.  I had my camera robbed.

M1:  SE  SEI  camera  rob-ZE  GH-T.
M2:  SE  GH-T  SEI  camera  rob-ZE.

     <Note> Above example can be rewritten as follows.

        M1:  SEI  camera-W  rob-TZE.
        M2:  SEI  camera-W  rob-TZE.
                                   (S)            (V)

Ex.   I will get my hair cut tomorrow.

M1:  SE  SEI  hair  cut-ZE  GH-R  tomorrow.
       (S)       (O)      (C)      (V)

M2:  SE  GH-R  SEI  hair  cut-ZE  tomorrow.
   (S)   (V)          (O)     (C)

      <Note> Above example can be rewritten with BLE/BLU as follows
                since the example is 'causative' as well as 'passive'.

         M1:  Tomorrow,  SE  SEI  hair  cut-ZE  BLE-R.
         M2:  Tomorrow,  SE  BLE-R  SEI  hair  cut-ZE.

Ex.  I got my passport renewed.

M1:  SE  SEI  passport  renew-ZE  GH-T.

M2:  SE  GH-T  SEI  passport  renew-ZE.
       (S)  (V)              (O)          (C)

      <Note> Above example can be rewritten with BLE/BLU (causative verb) as follows.

                M1:  SE  SEI  passport  renew-ZE  BLE-T.
                M2:  SE  BLE-T  SEI  passport  renew-ZE.

            
  M1:  SE  immigration officer  SEI  passport-O  renew  BLE-T.
              M2:  SE  BLE-T  immigration officer  renew  SEI  passport-O.
                      (S)    (V)              (O)               (C)       (object of 'renew')

            
 M1:  SE  immigration officer  SEI  passport-O  renew  BLU-T.
               M2:  SE  BLU-T  immigration officer  renew  SEI  passport-O.

Ex.  I could get myself understood in English.

M1:  SE  SEL  English  AY  understand-ZE  GIMA  GH-T.
M2:  SE  GIMA  GH-T  SEL  understand-ZE  AYL  English.

   <Note> SEL = myself.

Ex.   You got caught in the rain.     (You got rainned.)

M1:  ME  rain-ZE  GH-T.
M2:  ME  GH-T  rain-ZE. 



            Review
Here, we review personal pronouns (singular form) before we go into 9-3. Plural Actions.   

    Subjective      Possesive    Complementary       Objective
 SE (I)  SEI (my)  SE-E (me)  SE-O (me)
 ME (You)  MEI (your)  ME-E (you)  ME-O (you)
 FE
 (the person)
 FEI
 (the person's)
 FE-E
 (the person)
 FE-O
 (the person)
 MAFE (He)
 DAFE (She)
 MAFEI (his)
 DAFEI (her)
 MAFE-E (his)
 DAFE-E (her)
 MAFE-O (him)
 DAFE-O (her)
 JE (One)  JEI (one's)  JE-E (one)  JE-O (one)
 TE (It)  TEI (its)  TE-E (it)  TE-O (it)


Personal pronouns (plural form) for review:

        Subjective          Possesive        Complementary          Objective
 SEN  (We)  SENI  (our)  SEN-E   (us)  SEN-O   (us)
 MEN  (You)  MENI  (your)  MEN-E  (you)  MEN-O  (you)
 FEN  (They)  FENI  (their)  FEN-E  (them)  FEN-O  (them)
 MAFEN  (Men)
 DAFEN   (Women)
 MAFENI  (men's)
 DAFENI   (women's)
 MAFEN-E  (men)
 DAFEN-E   (women)
 MAFEN-O (men)
 DAFEN-O  (women)
 JEN  (They)  JENI   (their)  JEN-E  (them)  JEN-O (them)
 TEN  (They)  TENI   (their)  TEN-E  (them)  TEN-O (them)



9-3)  Plural actions

@  Simultaneous or parallel actions

Simultaneous or parallel actions are described by simply arraying two verbs with ',' inbetween them, or
connecting  two verbs with OnD, which means is 'and' in English.  Actions that their timely order is less
important can be described in this manner, too.

Ex.  We eat and drink.

M1:  SEN  KUI,  KUD.
M2:  SEN  KUI,  KUD.

M1:  SEN  KUI  OnD  KUD.
M2:  SEN  KUI  OnD  KUD.

     <Note> 'KUI' means 'to eat', and 'KUD'  'to drink'.

Ex. We ate and drank.

M1:  SEN  KUI-T  OnD  KUD.
M2:  SEN  KUI-T  OnD  KUD.

     <Note> The '-T' ( the sign of 'past' ) is not necessary for the 2nd verb when the tense of the both
                  verbs is the same (past tense in this example).


@  Consecutive (sequential) actions

Two (or three) verbs are arrayed in a timely order with OZn.  The OZn [ozN] means  'then'  or  'and then'  
in English.

Ex.  She went and slept there.

M1:  DAFE  go-T  OZn  BOIE  sleep.
M2:  DAFE  go-T  OZn  BOIE  sleep.

    <Note> 'BOIE' means 'there'.   Adverbs are put before verbs though they (adverbs, ad phrases, ad clauses)
           have a bit of degree of freedom in terms of the positions.  If you do not emphasize the timely order, you
           can still use OnD instead of OZn.   Incidentally, the word corresponding 'Here' is 'TOIE'.


@  Cause and effect

Personal feelings (joy, angry, surprises, etc.) and their causes are expressed by a set of corresponding verb
and 'UE'  ('UEL' for M2).   The 'UE' ('UEL') are Modofication Agent (postposition for M1and preposition for M2),
and they mean  'at',  'by',  or  'with'  in English.

Ex.  I  was surprised with it.

M1:  SE  TE  UE  IHSAZ-T.
M2:  SE  IHSAZ-T  UEL  TE.

    <Note> 'IHSAZ' means 'to surprise'.  IHSAZ often accompanies by Modification Agent UE (UEL for M2),
          which shows the reason for surprise.

Ex.  The person was surprised at seeing it.

M1:  FE  TE-O  MU-M  UE  IHSAZ-T.
M2:  FE  IHSAZ-T  UEL  MU-M  TE-O.

     <Note>  'MU' means 'to see'.   The 'Verb-M' is verb-noun, which corresponds to a gerund in English. 
              We will learn the verb-noun in the next chapter.  The examples above are better than those below
              because they are shorter by a letter.

     M1:  FE  TE-O  MU-T  OZn  IHSAZ-T. 
     M2:  FE  MU-T  TE-O  OZn  IHSAZ-T.


9-4)  General verbs and Specific verbs

General verbs such as 'to like', 'to plan', 'to think', and 'to want' are usually accompanied with specific
verbs such as 'to write' and 'to buy' and 'to swim'.  In Noxilo, these two verbs are connected with '<' for M1
and '>' for M2.    Both '<' and '>' are lightly pronounced [N].  Please notice that the order of two verbs are
just opposite for M1 and M2 as shown below.   If the tense of both verbs is the same, the tense particle for
the specific verb can be omitted.

M1:  specific verb  <  general verb           Ex.  swim  <  want
M2:  general verb  >  specific verb           Ex.  want  >  swim

Ex.  I  want to swim.

M1:  SE  swim  <  IYUS.       Pronounce [se] [swim] [N] [iyu:s].
M2:  SE  IYUS  >  swim.       Pronounce [se] [iyus] [N] [swim].

       <Note> 'SE' means 'I'.   'IYUS' means 'to want'.
                  Incidentally,  'IYAA' means 'would like to' (polite expression of IYUS), and
                  'IYAnS' means 'to require', which is usualy used upon legalbase.
                  'YAAJ' is the same as 'IYUS', but 'YAAJ' won't be used as often as 'IYUS' because
                  the origin of 'YAAJ' is a Friendship Word and it's not a pure Int'l Standard Word (ISW). 

Ex.  The person wanted to buy this camera.

M1:  FE  TO  camera-O  UYB  <  IYUS-T.         Pronounce [fe] [to] [kamera o] [uyb] [N] [iyu:sta]
M2:  FE  IYUS-T  >  UYB  TO  camera-O.         Pronounce [fe] [iyu:sta] [N] [uyb] [to] [kamera o]

        <Note> 'FE' means 'the person'.   'IYUS' means 'to want'.   'UYB' means 'to buy'.   'TO' means 'this'.

Ex.  They thought to start a new business.

M1:  FEN  IUNI  business-O  start  <  INOGS-T.
M2:  FEN  INOGS-T  >  start  IUNI  business-O.

       <Note> 'FEN' means 'They', and is plural form of FE.   'INOGS' [inogs] means 'to think'.
                 'IUNI' means 'new'. 


9-5)  Causative verb  BLE  and  BLU

Here, We learn two causative verbs  BLE  [ble] ( 'to have')  and  BLU  [blu:] (polite expression).
The basic pattern of the causative sentence is as follows.

M1:  S + ( O + C ) + BLE.
M2:  S + BLE + ( O + C ).

M1:  S + ( O + C ) + BLU.
M2:  S + BLU + ( O + C ).

It is important that 'O' is expressed in basic form (bare form),  and therefore 'O' never have -O at the
end of 'O'.

From the standpoint of the meaning of the ( O + C ) above,  the ( O + C ) is equals to ( S2 + V2 ) as below.

M1:  S1 +  ( S2 + V2 )  + BLE.
M2:  S1 + BLE  +  ( S2 + V2 ).

Ex.  I  had my child go to school.

M1:  SE  SEI  BOQIL  AnXUL  UT  go  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  SEI  BOQIL  go  UTL  AnXUL.

     <Note> 'BOQIL' means 'child'.   'BOQIL' is in basic form, and ,therefore, neither have -O  nor  -W  
                at the end of BOQIL.   'AnXUL' means 'school'.

If V2 (= C) has any object O2, the sentence pattern would be as follows.

M1:  S1 + ( S2 + O2 + V2 ) + BLE.
M2:  S1 + BLE + ( S2 + V2 + O2 ).

It is important that  S2 (= O)  neither have -W  nor  -O,  whereas O2 does have -O.

Ex.  We will have our parents buy a big dictionary.

M1:  SEN  SENI  ILynT  AUB  BEEDIK-O  UYB  BLU-R.
M2:  SEN  BLU-R  SENI  ILynT  UYB  AUB  BEEDIK-O.

      <Note>  'BLU' is more polite than BLE.   'SENI  ILynT' (our parents) neither have -O nor -W.
       'ILynT' means 'mother and father' (parents).  'AUB' means 'large',  BEEDIK dictionary,
       AUB large, UYB to buy.

If V2 (= C) has any two object O2a and O2b the sentence pattern would be as follows.

M1:  S1 + ( S2 + O2a + O2b + V2 ) + BLE.
M2:  S1 + BLE + ( S2 + V2 + O2a + O2b ).

Ex.  I had him give our dog fried-chicken.

M1: SE  MAFE  SENI  dog-O  fried-chiken-O  give  BLE-T.
M2: SE  BLE-T  MAFE  give  SENI  dog-O  fried-chiken-O.


The following sentence is also expressed by using 'BLE'.

Ex.  Parents made thier daughter medical doctor.

M1:  ILynT-W  FEI  ILyUTE  UKyUMIST  BLE-T.
M2:  ILynT-W  BLE-T  FEI  ILyUTE  UKyUMIST.


(Note)  Verb 'LEEN' [le:n(u)]  is not causative verb, it means to allow or permit.

       M1:  S1 + S2 + ( O2) + V2 + LEEN.
       M2:  S1 + LEEN + S2 + V2 + ( O2).

      Ex.  I  let (allow) my child go to the club.

       M1:  SE  SEI  BOQIL  AGUL  UT  go  LEEN.
       M2:  SE  LEEN  SEI  BOQIL  go  UTL  AGUL.

       'SEI BOQIL' neither have -O nor -W; therefore it must be expressed in basic form (bare form).
    AGUL means club.  NOXILO doesn't have articles (a, an, the), therefore, 'the' in English
    sentences is usually not translated.  If translation is necessary, you can use BOI (=that),
    SOQI (=such), etc.

   Ex.  Let it be.

    M1:  YO  TE  RI  LEEN.
    M2:  YO  LEEN  TE  RI.

       <Note> This is an imperative sentence, which is formed by deleting ME (You) from the following
                   assertive sentence, and placing YO on the top of the sentence. 

                 M1:  ME  TE  RI  LEEN.                  
      M2:  ME  LEEN  TE  RI.

   Ex.  Let me help you.

    M1:  YO  SE  ME-O  AFEL  LEEN.
    M2:  YO  LEEN  SE  AFEL  ME-O.

      <Note> 'AFEL' means 'to help'.  This is an imperative sentence, too.   It is formed by deleting  ME (You),  
       and putting YO at the top of the sentence, from the following assertive sentences. 

                M1:  ME  SE  ME-O  AFEL  LEEN.        
        M2:  ME  LEEN  SE  AFEL  ME-O.


9-6)  IYXS  ......  to wish the contrary-of-fact or the impossible

The verb IYXS (pronounced [iyshs]) corresponds to 'wish' (+ perfect/past perfect) in English.

Ex. I wish that I had a camera with me.

M1:  SE  SE  camera-O  TUV  My  IYXS.
M2:  SE  IYXS  My  SE  TUV  camera-O.

The following is better because it is shorter.

M1:  SE  camera-O  TUV  <  IYXS.
M2:  SE  IYXS  >  TUV  camera-O.

    <Note> Just for your review,

     IYAnS .......  to require
     IYUS  .......  to want/ask/hope
     IYAA  .......  would like to do (polite expression of IYUS)
     IYPES  .....  to hope
     IYXS  .......  to wish


9-7)  IKyUMIS  [ikyu:mis] ........  to pretend

Ex. I pretend to go.

M1:  SE  go  <  IKyUMIS.
M2:  SE  IKyUMIS  >  go.

or by making a synthetic verb,

M1:  SE  go-IKyUMIS.
M2:  SE  go-IKyUMIS.

   <Note> 'SE  go OnD  IKyUMIS'.   or   'SE  go  OZn  IKyUMIS'.  is wrong.

Ex.  I pretend to have gone.

M1: SE  go-T  <  IKyUMIS.
M2: SE  IKyUMIS  >  go-T.

,or by making synthetic verb,

M1:  SE  go-T-IKyUMIS.
M2:  SE  go-T-IKyUMIS.

Ex.  I pretended to be a medical doctor.

M1:  SE  medical  doctor  <  IKyUMIS-T.
M2:  SE  IKyUMIS-T  >  medical  doctor.

The following is acceptable but the above is better because it is shorter.

M1:  SE  medical  doctor  RI  <  IKyUMIS-T.
M2:  SE  IKyUMIS-T  >  RI  medical  doctor.

Ex.  We pretend to be weak.

M1:  SEN  weak  IKyUMIS.
M2:  SEN  IKyUMIS  weak.


9-8)  URUZ  [uru:z]  .......   to seem

Ex.  It seems right.

M1:  TE  right  URUZ.
M2:  TE  URUZ  right.


9-9)  URAZ  [uraz]  .......  to look

Ex.  You look pale.

M1:  ME  pale  URAZ.
M2:  ME  URAZ  pale.


9-10)  Narration

There are direct and indirect narrations.  To show the direct narration, the 'narration' is put in 「    」
for M1,  and in "   " for M2.    If the 「   」 is not available in your word processor, use "    " instead.
To show the indirect narration, your interpretation is put in 、     、 for M1, and '     ' for M2, or use no
symbols at all as English speakers do.   If the 、    、 is not available, use '     ' instead.  The following
2 examples show direct narration.

Ex. Mother said  "I love you".

M1:  ILyUD-W  "SE  ME-O  APLOS"  RU-T.
M2:  ILyUD-W  RU-T "SE  APLOS  ME-O".

       <Note> 'ILyUD' means 'mother', and 'APLOS' means 'to love'.   'RU' meand 'to say'.

Ex. Mother said  "Mr. Mizuta called me".

M1:  ILyUD-W  "MR. MIZTA-W  SE-O  FOnS-T" RU-T.
M2:  ILyUD-W  RU-T  "MR. MIZTA-W  FOnS-T  SE-O".

        <Note> 'FOnS' (=FAATELS) means 'to place a telephone call'.   'me' = mother (herself).

The following 2 examples show indirect narration.

Ex. Mother said  that she loved you.

M1:  ILyUD-W  DAFE  SE-O  APLOS  My RU-T.
M2:  ILyUD-W  RU-T  My  DAFE  APLOS  SE-O.

        <Note> 'DAFE' means 'She' (=mother).   The '-W' is not used for personal pronouns and
       interrogative pronouns. 'My' [myu] is a Clause Leader ( conjunction 'that' in English). 
       The word order of a sentense with the use of 'My' is as follows;

                   M1:      - - -  S + O + V + My  - - -
                   M2:      - - -  My + S + V + O  - - -

Ex.  Mother said that Mr. Mizuta called her.

M1:  ILyUD-W  MR. MIZTA-W  DAFE-O  FOnS-T  My  RU-T.
M2:  ILyUD-W  RU-T  My  MR. MIZTA-W  FOnS-T  DAFE-O.

       <Note> NOXILO M1 users can put PA [pa] between ILyUD-W and MR. MIZTA to show that
                 MR. MIZTA is  the beginning of the subordinate clause.  The M2 users can, upon need, put
                 ZA [za] at the end ( not at the beginning ) of the subordinate sentence so that readers can
                 easily distinguish the end of the subordinate clause.  However, in the above example, the ZA is
                 not to put after DAFE-O because it is also the end of main sentense.  We will re-learn about
      PA and ZA later.


9-11)  The tense of the verb (V2) in subordinate clause

This is how to determine the tense of the verb in subordinate part or subordinate clause, which are
shown below.

M1:  S1 + S2 ( objective ) + V2 ( complementary ) + V1.
M2:  S1 + V1 + S2 ( objective ) + V2 ( complementary ).

(Note)  S2 + V2 is the subordinate part.

M1:  S1 + ( S2 + V2 + Clause Leader ) + V1.
M2:  S1 + V1 + ( Clause Leader + S2 + V2 ).

(Note)  S2 + V2 + Clause Leader for M1 and Clause Leader + S2 + V2 are the subordinate clauses.
           Clause Leaders correspond to Conjunctions in English (such as 'that').

The tense is determined by the timely order of two verbs.
The below table shows the rules of the tense of V2.

 Timely order of two verbs           Tense of  V
 first V2 then V1  past form       ( V2-T )
 V1, V2 same time  present form  ( V2 )
 first V1 then V2  future form    ( V2-R )


(Note)  The tense of the V1 is not the factor; only timely order between two verbs talk.

Ex.
I think that she calls the teacher up.

M1:  SE  DAFE  EDyUn-O  (TAU)  FOnS  My  INOGS.
M2:  SE  INOGS  My  DAFE  (TAU)  FOnS  EDyUn-O.

     <Note> 'DAFE' [dafe] means 'She'.  'EDyUn' means 'teacher', and  'TAU' means 'now'.
       'INOGS' means 'to think'.   'INOGS' and  'FOnS' happen at the same time or almost the
       same time in this example.  The Clause Leader 'My' [myu] corresponds to the conjunction 'that'
       in English. Two-word-verb with the object inbetween must be combined together putting the
       object outside of the combination.  Thus, 'call person up' in English  becomes  'FE-O call-up'
       for
M1, and  'call-up FE-O' for M2 in NOXILO. 

Ex. I think that she called the teacher.

M1:  SE  DAFE  teacher-O  call-T  My  INOGS.
M2:  SE  INOGS  My  DAFE  call-T  teacher-O.

     <Note> First 'call-up', then 'INOGS'.     ( 'call-up'  before  'INOGS' )

Ex. I think that she will call the teacher.

M1:  SE  DAFE  teacher-O  call-R  My  INOGS.
M2:  SE  INOGS  My  DAFE  call-R  teacher-O.

     <Note> First 'INOGS', then 'call-up'.     ( 'INOGS'  before  'call-up' )

Ex.
I thought that she called the teacher.

M1:  SE  DAFE  teacher-O  call  My  INOGS-T.
M2:  SE  INOGS-T  My  DAFE  call  teacher-O.

     <Note> The 'thought'  and  the 'called-up' happened at the same time ( in the past).

Ex. I thought that she had called the teacher.

M1:  SE  DAFE  teacher-O  call-T  My  INOGS-T.
M2:  SE  INOGS-T  My  DAFE  call-T  teacher-O.

     <Note>  First 'call', then 'INOGS'.    ( 'called'  before  'INOGS' )

Ex. I thought that she would call the teacher.

M1:  SE  DAFE  call-R  teacher-O  My  INOGS-T.
M2:  SE  INOGS-T  My  DAFE  call-R  teacher-O.

     <Note> First  'INOGS',  then  'call'.       ( 'INOGS'  before  'call' )


9-12)  Auxiliary verbs

Auxiliary verbs modify verbs.  They have only one form, and never change to indicate tense or number. 
They are placed immediately before the verb.

@  List  of  auxiliary verb  (26 words)

  Auxiliary verbs                Meaning            Remarks
 GIKA  [gika]  may  permission
 GIKI    [giki]  had better do  
 GIK   [gik(u)]  will do, sure to do  strong will
 GIKE   [gike]  be about to do  
 GIKO  [giko]  have done  completion
 GILA   [gila]  have ever done  experience
 GILI    [gili]  must  probable with confidence
 GILU   [gilu:]  have done  continuation
 GILE   [gile]  glad to do  
 GILO  [gilo]  dare to do  
 GIMA  [gima]  can  be able to do
 GIMI   [gimi]  should  obligation (I should go.)
 GIM    [gim(u)]   must  strong obligation
 GIME  [gime]  may  presumption
 GIMO  [gimo]  naturally, necessarily  as you would expect
 GINA  [gina]  opposite before , but now --  
 GINI   [gini]  neutral beforte, but now --  
 GISA   [gisa]  always/as one's occupation  sounds like profession
 GISE   [gise]  likely to do/prone to do  apt to do
 GIVA  [giva]  unwillingly do  
 GIVI   [givi]  can't help doing  
 GIVLI  [givli]  (do) in the disguise of    
 GIVn  [givN]  (do) in vain  
 GIVOI  [givoi]  might  very low possibility
 GIUD  [giud]  would  modesty, softning
 GITT  [gi_tu]  wish (were--,  would do,
 had done--,  would have done)
 wish the contrary-to-fact



@  Usage of Auxiliary verb

GILA  go-T   [gila go:ta] ...... has ever gone
NAI  GILA  go-T   [nai gila go:ta] ...... no experience that one went
GILA  NAI  go-T   [gila nai go:ta] ...... experience that one didn't go
NAI  GILA  NAI  go-T   [nai gila nai go:ta] ...... no experience that one didn't go

GIME  go
NAI  GIME  go
GIME  NAI  go
NAI  GIME  NAI  go

GIMA  go
NAI  GIMA  go
GIMA  NAI  go
NAI  GIMA  NAI  go

GIME  GIMA  go
GIME  GIMA  NAI  go
GIME  NAI  GIMA  go
NAI  GIME  GIMA  go

(Note)  'GIME  GIMA' can be written as  'GIME-MA', and is read as [gimema].


Ex. She may be able to go.

M1:  DAFE  GIME-MA  go.
M2:  DAFE  GIME-MA  go.

Ex. They have been married for 30 years.

M1:  FEN  30  SAAL  KAn  GIL  marry.
M2:  FEN  GIL  marry  30  SAAL  KAn.

     <Note> 'KAn' means 'for' (time period), which can be replaced with 'URP' (URPL for M2).

Ex. I  have ever gone to Istanbul.

M1:  SE  Istanbul  UT  GILA go-T.
M2:  SE  GILA go-T UTL  Istanbul.

Ex. I  have been in Istanbul.

M1:  SE  Istanbul  AT  GILA  RIZ-T.
M2:  SE  GILA  RIZ-T  ATL  Istanbul.


@  GITT [gi_tu],     GIMO [gimo]

GITT is used to show that the both actions in a if-clause (conditional clause) and a main clause (conclusionary
clause) are untrue.

Ex. If that had been true, I would have written a letter back to her.

M1:  TE  true  RI-T  EEF,  SE  DAFE-O  letter-O  GITT  write-T.
M2:  EEFL  TE  RI-T  true,  SE  GITT  write-T  DAFE-O  letter-O.

       <Note> 'TE' means 'it' or 'that'.   'DAFE-O' means 'her'.   'EEF' (EEFL for M2) means 'if'.
       I knew that TE was not true, consequently I did not write a letter to her.

Ex.  If that were true, I would write a letter to her.

M1:  TE  true  RI  EEF,  SE  DAFE-O  letter-O  GITT  write.
M2:  EEFL  TE  RI  true,  SE  GITT  write  DAFE-O  letter-O.

       <Note> That is not true, so I won't write a letter to her.

Ex.  If that were to be true, I would write a letter to her.

M1:  TE  true  RI-R  EEF,  SE  DAFE-O  letter-O  GITT  write-R.
M2:  EEFL  TE  RI-R  true,  SE  GITT  write-R  DAFE-O  letter-O.

       <Note> That will never be true, so I won't write a letter to her.

(Note)  In NOXILO, if-clauses (conditional clause) are managed by Clause Leader 'EEF' (=if) for M1 and
'EEFL' (=if) for M2.  NOXILO's conditional clauses without GITT do not show 'true' or 'false' of the contents
of the conditional clauses.   However, when the GITT is used in main (conclusionary) clauses, the contents
of the if-clause and main clause with GITT are both completely false;  thus GITT plays the similar role as  
'if + past'  and  'if + past perfect'  in English.


GIMO is not related to true or false of the contents of conditional clauses.

Ex.  If he attends, she will go there, too.

M1:  EEF  MAFE  attend,  SLE  DAFE  GIMO  go-R.
M2:  EEFL  MAFE  attend,  SLE  DAFE  GIMO  go-R.

(Note) He may attend or not attend.   If 'he attends' is true, she naturally (necessarily) goes, too.




*****************
Ch. 10  Verbals
*****************


There are 2 different kinds of verbals; verb-noun (-M, -D) and verb-adjective (-K, -KE).  These are formed
by adding particular letter M, D, K, or KE to the end of verbs.  Verb-nouns work as a verb and a noun at the same
time.  By the same token, verb-adjectives work as a verb and a adjective at the same time.  
The English counterpart for verb-nouns would be gerunds,  and ver-adjective would be participles, to-infinitive,
and relative pronouns. 

   (Note)  Verbals  -AI,  -BI,  -CI have been deleted from the NOXILO grammar since December 2011,


10-1)  Verb-noun

Verb-noun are made by adding  -M  or  -D  at the end of the verb.  Verb-M corresponds to
'that + (S) + V + (O)',  and  Verb-D  to 'whether + (S) + V + (O)' in English.  Verb-nouns work as a verb and
a noun at the same time.  That is, a Verb-noun, as a verb, can take object/complement, and also it, as a noun,
becomes subject, object, or complement.  Further, Verb-nouns get together with Modification Agents to
become an adjective phrase or an adverb phrase, which modify nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, or whole
sentence.

(Note)  Modification Agents in Mode II corresponds to 'prepositions' in English.


@ Verb-M

            Past        Present           Future
 Basic  -TM [tam]  -M [m]  -RM [rem]
 Progressive  -TInM [taiNm]  -InM [iNm]  -RInM [reiNm]
 Passive   -TZEM [tazem]  -ZEM [zem]  -RZEM [rezem]
 Progressive-passive  -TInZEM [taiNzem]   -InZEM [iNzem]   -RInZEM [reiNzem] 


Ex. Seeing is believing.

M1:  MU-M-W  ELBILS-M  (RI).     pronounced [mu:mwa  elbilsm (ri)]
M2:  MU-M-W  (RI)  ELBILS-M.

  <Note> 'MU' means 'to see',  and  ELBILS 'to believe'.   'RI' can be omitted.

Ex. Completing these practices are important.

M1:  TON  practice-O  EKOMS-M-W  important  (RI).
M2:  EKOMS-M-W  TON  practice-O  (RI)  important.

  <Note> 'TON' means 'these'.   'EKOMS' means 'to complete'.

Ex. Her dream is becoming (to become) a doctor.

M1:  DAFEI  dream-W  doctor-E  EQKAZ-M (RI).
M2:  DAFEI  dream-W  (RI)  EQKAZ-M  doctor-E.

<Note> 'DAFEI' means 'her'.    'EQKAZ' means 'to become'.   The 'doctor' is complement, so it has  '-E'  at
            the end.

Ex.  I lessened my weight by running. 

M1:  SE  run-M  AY  weight-O  reduce-T.
M2:  SE  reduce-T  weight-O  AYL  run-M.

 <Note> 'AY' (AYL for M2) means 'by'.


@  Verb-D  (= whether)

           Past       Present           Future
 Basic  -TD [tad]  -D [d]  -RD [red]
 Progressive  -TInD [taiNd]  -InD [iNd]  -RInD [reiNd]
 Passive   -TZED [tazed]  -ZED [zed]  -RZED [rezed]
 Progressive-passive  -TInZED [taiNzed]   -InZED [iNzed]   -RInZED [reiNzed] 


Ex. The point is whether you will go.

M1:  Point-W  ME  ITU-RD  (RI).
M2:  Point-W  (RI)  ME  ITU-RD.

      <Note> 'ITU' means 'to go'.

Ex. The point is whether you will go or not.

M1:  Point-W  ME  ITU-RD  OA  NAI  (RI).
M2:  Point-W  (RI)  ME  ITU-RD  OA  NAI.

Ex. Whether  I go is the question.

M1:  ITU-D-W  question  (RI).
M2:  ITU-D-W  (RI)  question.

The above example can be written as follows.

   M1:  ITU-OA-NAI-W  question  (RI).
   M2:  ITU-OA-NAI-W  (RI)  question.

Ex. Whether  I go,  that is the question.

M1:  ITU-D,  TE  question  (RI).
M2:  ITU-DI,  TE  (RI)  question.

The above example can be written as follows.

   M1:  ITU  OA  NAI,  TE  question  (RI).
   M2:  ITU  OA  NAI,  TE  (RI)  question.


<<  Verb-noun clause  >>

A Verb-noun clause does not have a subject but they still have a Clause Leader (conjunction in English),
whereas a gerund clause in English does not have a subject or a conjunction at all.

Ex. After sending the documents, the student recalled her mistake.

M1:  Documents-O send-TM AAF,  BOI girl student-W mistake-O recall-T.
M2:  AAFL send-TM documents-O,  BOI girl student-W recall-T mistake-O.

  <Note> 'AAF' (AAFL for M2) is the Clause Leader, and means 'after'.   'BOI' means 'that'.

Ex. Not knowing your situation there, we certainly sent you the perfect product.

M1:  MEI   situation-O  NAI   know-M  UUS,  SEN  perfect  products-O  certainly  send-T.
M2:  UUSL  NAI   know-M  MEI   situation-O,  SEN  certainly  send-T  perfect  products-O.

   <Note> 'UUS' [u:s] (UUSL for M2) is Clause Leader, and means 'though'.


10-2)  Verb-adjective

Verb-adjectives are formed by adding  -K  or  -KE  to the end of the verb. 

@  Verb-K   (attributive use)

The functions of the verb-K resemble that of participles, to-infinitives, and/or relative pronouns in English.
The Verb-K modifies nouns.  The following is a verb-adjective table using a verb  IMS ('to ask' in English).

       Past           Present           Future     
 Basic  IMS-TK
 [ims tak]
 IMS-K
 [ims ku]
 IMS-RK
 [ims rek]
 Progressive  IMS-TInK
 [ims taiNk]
 IMS-InK
 [ims iNk]
 IMS-RInK
 [ims reiNk]
 Passive  IMS-TZEK
 [ims tazek]
 IMS-ZEK
 [ims zek]
 IMS-RZEK
 [ims rezek]
 Progressive-passive  IMS-TInZEK
 [ims taiNzek] 
 IMS-InZEK
 [ims iNzek] 
 IMS-RInZEK
 [ims reiNzek] 


Ex. The person who will ask a question is about to stand up.

M1:  IMKE-O IMS-K  REn-W  GIKE  stand-up.
M2:  REn-W  IMS-K IMKE-O  GIKE  stand-up.

  <Note> 'IMKE' means 'question'.   igyu:z means to ask, and REn person.
      'GIKE' is Auxiliary verb, and it means 'be about to'.

Ex. The person who did not ask left.

M1:  NAI  IMS-TK  REn-W  leave-T.
M2:  NAI  IMS-TK  REn-W  leave-T.

Ex. The person who is asked is the officer of the U.S. Army.

M1:  IMS-ZEK  REn-W  U.S.  Army  UB  officer  (RI).
M2:  IMS-ZEK  REn-W  (RI)  officer  UBL  U.S.  Army.

  <Note> 'igyu:z' means 'to ask', and 'IMS-ZEK' means 'one that is asked'.  'ZE' is passive form of verb. 
     'UB' (UBL for M2) is Modification Agent, and means 'of'.   'U.S. Army UB officer' can be written
     'U.S. Army'Z officer' or simply 'U.S. Army officer'.

Ex.  The person who swam, raise your hand !

M1:  YO  Swim-TK  JE  hand-O  EOPS.
M2:  YO  Swim-TK  JE  EOPS  hand-O.

<Note> 'Swim-TK' is read [swimtak].   'JE' is Personal Pronoun, and means 'one' in English.
             'EOPS' means 'to raise'.    Imperative sentence start with 'YO'.

Ex.  I had the policeman who was questioning Mr. Maki call.

M1:  SE  MR. MAKI-L  IMS-TInK  policeman  call  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  policeman  IMS-TInK  MR. MAKI-L  call.

  <Note> Any objects in modifing phrase and modifying clause should have '-L' (pronounced [ol]) at their
             end instead of  '-O' (pronounced [o]).   Any objects in main clause (noun clauses) have '-O' at
     the end.   'igyu:z' means 'to ask questions'.  'BLE' is causative verb.

Ex.  I had the policeman who was asking Mr. Maki call her.

M1:  SE  MR. MAKI-L  IMS-TInK  policeman  DAFE  call  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  policeman  IMS-TInK  MR. MAKI-L  call  DAFE.

  <Note> This is SOCV (SVOC for M2) type of sentence.  'Policeman' correspond to 'O',
       'call' corresponds to 'C'. 

Ex. I had her call the policeman who was questioning  Mr. Maki.

M1:  SE  DAFE  MR. MAKI-L  IMS-TInK  AnPOLIS-O  call  BLE-T.
M2:  SE  BLE-T  DAFE  call  AnPOLIS-O  IMS-TInK  MR. MAKI-L.

  <Note> 'DAFE' means 'She'.   'AnPOLIS' means 'policeman'.   Any object in a modifying clause
      should have '-L' (instead of -O) on its end.


@  Verb-KE   (predicative use)

Verb-KE is used as a complement in SCV (SVC for M2) and SOCV (SVOC for M2) type sentences.

The following is a verb-adjective table using a verb  IGyUZ (vi.  'be/get injured' in English).

         Past             Present            Future     
 Basic  IGyUZ-TKE
 [igyu:z take]
 IGyUZ-KE
 [igyu:z ke]
 IGyUZ-RKE
 [igyu:z reke]
 Progressive  IGyUZ-TInKE
 [igyu:z taiNke]
 IGyUZ-InKE
 [igyu:z iNke]
 IGyUZ-RInKE
 [igyu:z reiNke]
 Passive  IGyUZ-TZEKE
 [igyu:z tazeke]
 IGyUz-ZEKE
 [igyu:z zeke]
 IGyUZ-RZEKE
 [igyu:z rezeke]
 Progressive-passive   IGyUZ-TInZEKE
 [igyu:z taiNzeke] 
 IGyUZ-InZEKE
 [igyu:z iNzeke] 
 IGyUZ-RInZEKE
 [igyu:z reiNzeke] 


Ex.  Oh !  the oldman is injured.

M1:  OO !  BOLDn-W  IGyUZ-TKE  (RI)。
M2:  OO !  BOLDn-W  (RI)  IGyUZ-TKE.  

 <Note> OO = Oh/Ah.   BOLDn = oldman.   IGyUZ = get injured.

Ex.  The police found the oldman injured near the lake.

M1:  AnPOLIS-W  SIIK  IB  BOLDn  IGyUZ-TKE  MUFA-T。
M2:  AnPOLIS-W  MUFA-T  BOLDn  IGyUZ-TKE  IBL  SIIK.

 <Note> 'AnPOLIS' means 'policeman'.  'MUFA' means 'to find'.   'IB' (IBL) means 'by'.  
            'BOLDn' means 'oldman'.   'IGyUZ' means 'to get (be) injured'.   'SIIK' means 'lake'.



10-3)  Structure of verb-around rules

The following picture shows the structure of verb-around rule including verb-M, verb-D, and verb-K.




10-4)  Verbals, Modification Agent, and Clause Leader in table

 Version 3.0  (8 October 2016/ 20 September 2017)

   Verbals      meanings Modification
Agent
that work
with verbs
meanings Modification
Agent
that work
with nouns
meanings   Clause Leader  meanings
 -M  [m(u)]
   verb-noun
  that .....  My  [myu]
    noun clause
 that
 -D  [d(u)]
   verb-noun
  whether .....  Dy  [dyu]
    noun clause
 whether
 -K  [k(u)]
  verb-adjec.
 attributive  use  Ky  [kyu]
    adjec. clause  
 that or
 which
 -KE  [ke]
  verb-adjec.
 predicative  use            
         EA  [ea] for M1
 EAL [eal] for M2
    adjec. phrase
    adverb phrase
 at (time)  EEA  [e:a] for M1
 EEAL [e:al] for M2
    adjec clause
    adverb clause
 when
 Deleted
 -BI  [bi]
   verb-adjec.
   verb-adverb
BI  [bi] for M1
BIL [bil] for M2
 degree/
 so ... as
 EB  [eb] for M1
 EBL [ebl] for M2
    adjec. phrase
    adverb phrase
.... for
(degree) 
 EEB  [e:b] for M1
 EEBL [e:bl] for M2
    adjec. clause
    adverb clause
 as much
 as that
 Deleted
-CI  [tsi]
   verb-adverb
CI  [tsi] for M1
CIL [tsil] for M2
 .... for  EC  [ets] for M1
 ECL [etsl] for M2
    adverb phrase
 .... for
(proper
or not)
 EEC  [e:ts] for M1
 EECL [e:tsl] for M2
    adverb clause
 in order
 to that
 Deleted
 -AI  [ai]
   verb-adjec.
   verb-adverb
DI  [di] for M1
DIL [dil] for M2
 in order
 to do
 ED  [ed] for M1
 EDL [edl] for M2
  adjec. phrase
  adverb phrase
 .... for
(seeking)
 EED  [e:d] for M1
 EEDL [e:dl] for M2
    adjec. clause
    adverb clause
 in order
 to that
    FI   [fi] for M1
FIL  [fil] for M2 
 if  EF  [ef] for M1
 EFL [efl] for M2
 if  EEF for M1
 EEFL for M2
 if
    GI  [gi] for M1
GIL [gil] for M2
 iff   EG  [eg] for M1
 EGL [egl} for M2 
 iff   EEG for M1
 EEGL for M2
 iff 
    JI   [ji] for M1
JIL  [jil] for M2 
 in doing/
 while/as
 EJ [ej] for M1
 EJL [ejl] for M2
 in doing  EEJ for M1
 EEJL for M2
 while, as


 (Note 1)  Mofification Agent EA (EAL) has been replaced with ED (EDL) since March 2012.
  (Note 2)  Verbals -AI, -BI, and -CI have been deleted from NOXILO grammar since December 2011.





    Thank you for reading! See you again on  webpage 4!
            
( Webpage 4 will include Adjectives, Adverbs, Comparison, Particles, and Interrogatives.)