NOXILO  Webpage  

                    13  April  2005 (latest corrections:   1  January  2021)



NOXILO (pronounced noshilo) is an international auxilliary language for all people. The following
is a brief translation of the 4th part of the NOXILO textbook and the webpage written by
MIZUTA Sentaro © 1996, ....... , 2021.



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Table  of  Contents
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Ch-11    Adjectives

   11-1)    Classification of Adjectives
   11-1-1    General Adjectives
   11-1-2   Quantitative Adjectives
   11-1-3   Numeral Adjectives
   11-1-4   Interrogative Adjectives
       11-1-5    Other adjectives

   11-2)  Position  of  Adjective,  Adjective Phrase,  and  Adjective Clause
   11-2-1    Adjective
   11-2-2    Adjective Phrase
   11-2-3    Adjective Clause

Ch-12    Adverbs

     12-1)   Classification of Adverbs
     12-1-1   General Adverbs
     12-1-2   Affirmation Adverbs
     12-1-3   Negative Adverbs
     12-1-4   Interrogative Adverbs
     12-1-5   Command Adverbs
     12-1-6   Admiration Adverbs  (exclamation)
     12-1-7   Request Adverbs and Others

     12-2)    Position  of  Adverb,  Adverb Phrase,  and  Adverb Clause
     12-2-1   Adverbs
     12-2-2   Adverb Phrase
     12-2-3   Adverb Clause

Ch-13    Comparisons

     13-1)   Rank order is expressed using adjective (or adverb) and 'AN' ('compared to' in English) for M1 or 'ANL' for M2.
     13-2)   Rank order is expressed qualitatively by using adjective (or adverb) and either one of LEST, LEE, FAA, or FAST .
     13-3)   Rank order is expressed quantitatively by showing the size of the differences between objects to be compared.
     13-4)   Rank is expressed by using cardinal numbers such as No.1  or  No.2.
     13-5)   Equality
     13-6)   Other (special) type

Ch-14    Particles

     14-1)   Element Particle  ( -W,  -O,  -L,  -E,  -Q )
     14-2)   Tense Particle  ( -T,  -R )
     14-3)   Continuity Particles  ( -In )
     14-4)   Voice Particles  ( -ZE )
     14-5)   Connection Particles  (  <,   > )
     14-6)   Transform Particles  ( TI,  En,  NA,  BL,  ILU,  OOV,  VOO,  LI,  S,  P,  Z,  B )
     14-7)   Concession Particles  ( HRA,  CRA,  NRA,  VRA)
     14-8)   Other Particles ( SLE,  MO,  -ui,  -mn,  An,  PA,  ZA,  VI,  VII,  HyA,  JIA,  LA,  BBU)
     14-9)   Prefix  ( AAP, DE,  EL ..... )
     14-10)   Suffix  ( AA,  II,  FAn,  ..... )

Ch-15    Interrogatives

     15-1)   One that only requests  YUP ('Yes' in English)  or  NAI ('No' in English)
     15-2)   One that seeks an explanation
     15-3)   Tag questions
     15-4)   Rhetoric questions (Irony)


   Webpage 5 includes Modification Agents, Composers, Clause Leaders, Naturalists, and a sample letter.




*****************
Ch-11  Adjectives
*****************


Adjectives modify not only nouns but also pronouns.  Therefore, an expression such as AOBI DAFE (=beautiful she)
is possible in NOXILO.  Adjectives never change their form for any case. 

  (Note)  For Verb-adjective, see Ch-10-2 in Webpage 3.

Adjective phrases modify nouns or pronouns.   There are two kinds of adjective phrases:  one is a pair of nouns
(or pronouns) and a modification agent,  and the other is a verb-adjective with an object or a complement.
Verb-adjective is one of Verbals, and is similar to 'to-infinitive'  or  'participle' in English.
   

Adjective clause is a set of an adjective clause and a Clause Leader such as Ky (pronounced [ky(u)]) and
EED (pronounced [e:d]).  The English counterpart for  Ky  is  'who',  'which',  or  'that',  and  the one for EED
is  'in order to do that'.   Adjective clauses take the form of  'adjective clause + Clause Leader' in Mode I (M1),  
and 'Clause Leader + adjective clause'  in Mode II (M2),  as shown below.

M1:  adjective clause + Ky
M2:  Ky + adjective clause

M1:  adjective clause + EEA
M2:  EEAL + adjective clause


11-1.  Classification of Adjectives

11-1-1.  General adjectives

General adjectives are the most common adjectives that show a specific state or conditions such as  'red',  'kind',  'last', 
'abstract',  'fast',  'following',  etc.  Any general adjectives of the ISW have, like nouns and bodily verbs, a special
characteristic spelling called 'radical',  which is shown in details in the Webpage 7.  Some examples are as follows.

Radicals & it's meaning        General adjectives with the radical

AI     base, logic ...................  AIDRn (direct),  AInD (independent),  AIPO (possible),  AIRI (real),  AITR (true)
AO    good, neutral ..............   AOBI (beautiful),  AOG (good),  AOIn (intellectual),  AOPAA (proper),  AORDI (ready for)
UE    feature, density .........     UEKA (curvy),  UERA (round),  UEPO (pointed),  UEST (straight),  UESKyA (scattered)
UII    bad  ............................ UIIBA (bad),  UIIG (ugly),  UIIF (false),  UIIDE (dangerous),  UIIMA (mad),  UIIPA (imperfect)
EI     color ...........................  EIBLA (black),  EILO (yellow),  EIMA (magenta/red),  EIPI (pink),  EIS (blue),  EITA (white)

Please note that the derived adjectives inherit the 'radical of the original word' rather than the radicals mentioned above,
and most derived adjectives often have NA or a BL a suffix at the end of the word.  

Examples of derived adjective:

Derived adjectives                                Original words

AFAAVNA  (of welfare) .........................   AFAAV  (noun.  service/welfare)
IYPENA  (of hope/hopeful) ....................  IYPE  (noun.  hope)
IHMINA  (of wonder) ............................  IHMI  (noun.  wonder)
PEnXINA  (poisoneous) .........................  PEnXI  (noun.  poison)
KUBL  (edible) ......................................  KU  (bodily verb.  to eat and drink)


11-1-2.  Quantitative adjective

All the quantitative adjectives in the table below are used regardless of whether they modify countable or
uncountable nouns.  SOM is used without thinking of  XAO  or  MUQ.  XAO is used to show that it is opposite
to MUQ.  Quantitative adjective are not relevant to radicals; they don't have radicals at all.

  Quantitative adjectives  Pronunciation               Meaning 
MUQ [mu:ch] many, much 
XAO [shao] few, little
PLU [plu:] plural (two, three, four, ....)
SGL [sgl] single (one)
SOM [som] some
OOL [o:l] all
NAI [nai] no, nothing


Ex.  No one say it.

M1 :  NAI  JE  TE-O  RU.
M2 :  NAI  JE  RU  TE-O.

     <Note> NAI means No,  and JE  someone.   TE means it, and the '-O' shows that TE is an object.
                RU is bodily verb, and means 'to say' (or 'to talk').

If you prefer English word over NOXILO ISW (=RU in this case),  you can write as follows.

M1 :  NAI  JE  TE-O  say.
M2 :  NAI  JE  say  TE-O.

     <Note> NEI, JE, and TE-O are Basic Word, and threfore these are not allowed to be replaced with English.

You can not replace the above expressions with the following sentences, which means there is someone who
doesn't say it.

M1:  JE  TE-O  NAI  say.
M2:  JE  NAI  say  TE-O.

     <Note> NAI is used as an adverb here because NAI modifies the verb 'say' instead of 'JE'.
               The sentence means that many people say it, but someone doesn't say it.

Ex. This desk has no drawer.

M1 :  TO  KESK-W  NAI  TUSET-O  TUV.
M2 :  TO  KESK-W  TUV  NAI  TUSET-O.

     <Note> TO means this, KESK desk, NAI no, TUSET drawer, TUV to have.

If you prefer English words to ISW, you can write as follows.

M1 :  TO  desk-W  NAI  drawer-O  have.
M2 :  TO  desk-W  have  NAI  drawer-O.

    <Note> NOXILO nouns don't show if they are singular or plural, whereas personal pronouns do, like SE/SEN.
       When using English, nouns are usually written in singular form such as 'candy' instead of 'candies',
               and English verbs in are plural form (i.e. dictionary form like 'have' instead of 'has').


Let's quickly review NOXILO personal pronouns.

Personal pronouns (singular form) for review:  Review

     Subjective         Possesive     Complementary          Objective
 SE (I)  SEI (my)  SE-E (me)  SE-O (me)
 ME (You)  MEI (your)  ME-E (you)  ME-O (you)
 FE (the person)  FEI (the person's)  FE-E (the person)  FE-O (the person)
 MAFE (He)
 DAFE (She)
 MAFEI (his)
 DAFEI (her)
 MAFE-E (his)
 DAFE-E (her)
 MAFE-O (him)
 DAFE-O (her)
 JE (One)  JEI (one's)  JE-E (one)  JE-O (one)
 TE (It)  TEI (its)  TE-E (it)  TE-O (it)


Personal pronouns (plural form) for review:

      Subjective            Possesive         Complementary             Objective   
 SEN  (We)  SENI  (our)  SEN-E   (us)  SEN-O   (us)
 MEN  (You)  MENI  (your)  MEN-E  (you)  MEN-O  (you)
 FEN  (They)  FENI  (their)  FEN-E  (them)  FEN-O  (them)
 MAFEN  (Men)
 DAFEN   (Women)
 MAFENI  (men's)
 DAFENI   (women's)
 MAFEN-E  (men)
 DAFEN-E   (women)
 MAFEN-O (men)
 DAFEN-O  (women)
 JEN  (They)  JENI   (their)  JEN-E  (them)  JEN-O (them)
 TEN  (They)  TENI   (their)  TEN-E  (them)  TEN-O (them)


11-1-3.  Numeral adjectives

Numbers that are explained in Webpage 2 are Adjectives as well.  Numeral adjectives don't have radicals.

Ex.  XUNyA (Zero, taken from Sanscrit),  WAn (One, English),  NI (Two, Japanese),  SAM (Three, Korean),
      SII (Four, Thai),  LIMA (Five, Malay),  ZEKS (Six, German),  SABAA (Seven, Arabic),  WIT (Eight, French),
      KOO (Nine, Burmese),  TIO (Ten,  Swedish),  STO (Hundred, Russian),  etc.


11-1-4.  Interrogative adjectives

Interrogative adjectives don't have radicals.


Ex.
 HANA ('what' in English),  HINA ('which'),  etc.


11-1-5.  Other adjectives

These types of adjectives include Demonstrative, Distributive, and Possesive adjectives.  Learners do not have to
pay too much attention to the classification of these adjectives.  These adjectives don't have radicals.

Ex.  TO (this),  BOI (that)  - - - -  demonstrative
      IIQ (each),  IIRA (either)  - - -  distributive
      SEI (my),  SENI (our),  MEI (your)  - - -  possesive


11-2.  Position of Adjective,  Adjective Phrase,  and  Adjective Clause

11-2-1.  Position of Adjectives

When adjectives are used as a complement in a sentence, adjectives come before the verb in Mode I (M1),
and come after the verb in Mode II (M2), as shown below.

M1:  S C V
M2:  S V C

When adjectives modify nouns (or pronouns),  the adjectives are always placed immediately before nouns (or pronouns).

M1 : adjectives + noun (pronoun)
M2 :
adjectives + noun (pronoun)

(Note) Adjectives (= modifier) are blue colored, and nouns (= modified) underlined here.

Ex.   It is a
 blue flower.

M1:  TE  EIS  PAAFL  (RI).
M2:  TE  (RI)  
EIS  PAAFL.

     <Note> EIS means blue (cyan), and PAAFL means flower.  PAA is a radical for plants.
                'a' is not translated unless it's necessary. 

Those who prefer English to ISW can write as follows.

M1:  TE  blue  flower  (RI).
M2:  TE  (RI)  blue  flower.

Verb-adjectives without objects or complements also work as adjectives.  See below.

Ex.  I woke the sleeping boy.

M1:  SE sleep-InK
  boy-O  wake-T.
M2:  SE  wake-T 
sleep-InK  boy-O.

Ex.  I saw swimming  Susan.

M1:  SE  swim-InK  Susan-O  see-T.
M2:  SE  see-T 
swim-InK  Susan-O.

The following is a sentence of  SO
CV (SVO
C for M2) pattern.

Ex.  I looked at Susan swimming.

M1:  SE  Susan-O  swim-InK-E  look-at-T.
M2:  SE  look-at-T  Susan-O  swim-InK-E.

    <Note> The '-O' shows that Susan is an object, and the '-E' shows that 'swim-InK' is a complement.

As explained earlier (in Webpage 1), the above example can be shortened as below.

M1:  SE
 Susan  swim-InK  look-at-T.
M2:  SE  look-at-T  Susan  swim-InK.


11-2-2.  Position of Adjective Phrases

Unlike adjectives, the position of an adjective phrase is the opposite for
M1 and  M2.

M1 :  adjective phrase (= noun + modification agent)
+ noun
M2 noun + adjective phrase (= modification agent + noun )

   (Note) The adjective phrase (modifier) is colored blue, and the noun (modified) is underlined.

Ex. book on the desk

M1 :  desk  UN  book
M2 :  book
 UNL  desk

UN  and  UNL  are Modification Agents (MA).  Modification phrases for M1 take the form of  'noun + MA', and
the phrases for M2 take the form of  'MA + noun'.    Modification Agents for M2 are made simply by adding  'L'
onto the Modification Agents for M1.   Modification Agents for M2 are equal to 'Prepositions' in English.

Verb-adjectives with objects and/or complements are modification phrases (here, adjective phrase).  Therefore,
the position of the modification agent with the object is opposite for M1 and M2.   Let's see the following:

Ex.  The hospital bought equipment
to inspect blood.

M1 : Hospital-W  blood-L  inspect  DI  equipment-O  buy-T.
M2 : Hospital-W  buy-T  equipment-O  
DIL  inspect  blood-L.

'DI  (DIL for M2) is Modofication Agent (MA) that is paird with verb, and it means 'in order to ' in English.
In modification phrases (adjective phrase and adverb phrase) and modification clauses (adjective clause and an
adverb clause),  the element particle  '-O'  changes to  '-L'  for both M1 and M2.  That is why 'equipment' has
'-O',  and  'blood'  has  '-L'.    '-O'  is pronounced [o],  and  '-L'  pronounced [ol]  instead of [l].   You can write
'-OL'  instead of  '-L'  until you get accustomed to pronouncing '-L'  as [ol].


11-2-3.  Position of Adjective Clauses

The position of an adjective clause is the same as that of an adjective phrase.  That is, the adjective clause (modifier)
in M1 comes before nouns (modified), and comes after nouns in M2 as shown below.

M1 :  Adjective clause ( = adjectives clause + Clause Leaders) + noun
M2 :  noun + Adjective clause ( = Clause Leaders + adjectives clause)

Ex.  The person who is studying violin is her father.

M1 :
Violin-L  study-In  Ky  person-W  DAFEI  father  (RI).
M2 : Person-W
 Ky  study-In  violin-L  (RI)  DAFEI  father.

Ky, pronounced [ky(u)], is the Clause Leader, and is equal to 'who',  'which',  or 'that' in English.  DAFEI, pronounced
[dafei], means 'her'.  The above example is a S+C+be type (S+be+C in M2) sentence in a present tense. The advanced
learner can delete RI (= 'be' in English) after becoming familiar with NOXILO grammar.   '-L' (pronounced [ol]) shows violin
is an object of the modifying clauses (adjective and adverb clauses).   '-O' (pronounced [o]) is used only in noun clauses.

The above M2 example may be written by adding ZA after the modification clause (Ky study-In violin-L) as follows;

     Person-W  Ky  study-In  violin-L  ZA  (RI)  DAFEI  father.

I (author) myself prefer the following;

     Person-W  Ky  study-In  violin-L  ZA  DAFEI  father.


Last, let's go over the table that we saw in 10-4  in  'Ch-10 Verbals'  in Webpage 3.

 Version 3.0  (8 October 2016)
   Verbals      meanings Modification
Agent
that work
with verbs
meanings Modification
Agent
that work
with nouns
meanings   Clause Leader  meanings
 -M  [m(u)]
   verb-noun
  that .....  My  [myu]
    noun clause
 that
 -D  [d(u)]
   verb-noun
  whether .....  Dy  [dyu]
    noun clause
 whether
 -K  [k(u)]
  verb-adjec.
 attributive  use  Ky  [kyu]
    adjec. clause  
 that or
 which
 -KE  [ke]
  verb-adjec.
 predicative  use            
         EA  [ea] for M1
 EAL [eal] for M2
    adjec. phrase
    adverb phrase
 at (time)  EEA  [e:a] for M1
 EEAL [e:al] for M2
    adjec clause
    adverb clause
 when
 Deleted
 -BI  [bi]
   verb-adjec.
   verb-adverb
BI  [bi] for M1
BIL [bil] for M2
degree/
so ... as
 EB  [eb] for M1
 EBL [ebl] for M2
    adjec. phrase
    adverb phrase
.... for
(degree) 
 EEB  [e:b] for M1
 EEBL [e:bl] for M2
    adjec. clause
    adverb clause
 as much
 as that
 Deleted
-CI  [tsi]
   verb-adverb
CI  [tsi] for M1
CIL [tsil] for M2
.... for  EC  [ets] for M1
 ECL [etsl] for M2
    adverb phrase
 .... for
(proper
or not)
 EEC  [e:ts] for M1
 EECL [e:tsl] for M2
    adverb clause
 in order
 to that
 Deleted
 -AI  [ai]
   verb-adjec.
   verb-adverb
DI  [di] for M1
DIL [dil] for M2
in order
to do
 ED  [ed] for M1
 EDL [edl] for M2
  adjec. phrase
  adverb phrase
 .... for
(seeking)
 EED  [e:d] for M1
 EEDL [e:dl] for M2
    adjec. clause
    adverb clause
 in order
 to that
    FI   [fi] for M1
FIL  [fil] for M2 
 if  EF  [ef] for M1
 EFL [efl] for M2
 if  EEF for M1
 EEFL for M2
 if
    JI   [ji] for M1
JIL  [jil] for M2 
 in doing/
while/as
 EJ [ej] for M1
 EJL [ejl] for M2
 in doing  EEJ for M1
 EEJL for M2
 while, as

 (Note 1)  Mofification Agent EA (EAL) has been replaced with ED (EDL) since March 2012.
   (Note 2)  Verbals -AI, -BI, and -CI have been deleted from NOXILO grammar since December 2011.




***************
Ch-12  Adverbs
***************

Adverbs are similar to their English counterparts.  Adverbs never change their form, and they modify verbs,
adjectives, adverbs, and sentences as a whole.  Derived adverbs have an LI ending as a derivative affix.  

Adverb phrases also modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and sentences.  Adverb Phrases take the following form. 
Noun (pronoun or verb) + Modification Agent  .......  for mode I (M1)
Modofication Agent + Noun (pronoun or verb)  ........ for mode II (M2)
There are some 80 Modification Agents (MAs) to be paird with nouns (pronouns), but there are only 3 Modification
Agents (BI, CI, and DI) to be paired with verbs.

Adverb clauses also modify adjectives, adverbs, verbs, and sentences as a whole. They are led by various
Clause Leaders which are put at the head (M2) or the end (M1) of adverb sentence as shown below.  
Adverb clause + Clause Leader ........  for mode I (M1)
Clause Leader + Adverb clause ........  for mode II (M2)
There are many kinds of Clause Leaders (CLs) to lead adverb clauses.


12-1.  Classification of Adverbs

12-1-1.  General Adverbs

The below table shows general adverbs that are frequently used.   Some of these are used as adjectives as well.

    General Adverb (ISW)
 ( Basic Word,  * share w/ particle)
(Friendship Words)         Meaning
BOIE (derived from BOI = that) BOIE, LA there
BOINE (do) then, at that date
BOIRA (do) then, at that era (period)
BOISA (do) then, at that time
BOISA (do) then, at that point in time
BOIT (do) then, at that time
BOIXI (do) then, at that time
DE-MUQ insufficiently
MUQ MUQ fully
MUQ (ad/adj/noun) MUQ many, much, a lot of
RAAZA RAAZA rather
TOA (derived from TO = this) HIA here
TONE (do) this day
TORA (do) this era, this time
TOSA (do) this time
TOT  (do) this time
TOT  (do) this time
TOXI  (do) this time, this period
XAO   UOLT (ad/adj/noun) XAO, XAOLI little, a little, bit
YAK YAK about, approximately
AEJELI  (derived from AEJE (adj)) IIBAnLI generally
AIBSOLI absolutely
AIPOBUL AASAn as〜as possible
AnBLLI  (derived from AnBL (noun)) AOSATOLI on the average
AOPALI  (derived from AOPA (adj)) completely
AUB  (adj) DAA、DAALI large
BAIID indeed
BAIZA   By the way.  Well .....  
BAST * JAST just, very
ByAL YAn yet, still
EIIGELI  (derived from EIIGE (adj)) together
EOGALI  (from EOGA (noun/adj)) right
EOLELI  (from EOLE (noun/adj)) left
EOMALI  (from EOMA (noun/adj)) down
EOnLI  (from EOn (noun/adj)) forward
EOPLI  (from EOP (noun/adj)) up
EORIALI  (from EORIA (noun/adj)) back, rear
EXOLLI as a whole
FAALEE   more or less
IDyUTE Wait a minute
IEENAC, IEENACLI   naturally 
IEENES, IEENESLI   necessarily 
IEEVKO   of course 
IKRE  (noun/adj) in the future
IKTAM  (noun/adj) old time, long time ago
IUFALI  (from IUFA (adj)) quickly
IUHALI  (from IUHA (adj)) early
IUSLLI  (from IUSL (adj)) late
JALBI AFTA at most
KALE SAMU always
KAPRO DAAGAI probably
KAUS TAITEI usually
SAI,  SAILI SAOI again
SOW   so  (ex. I think so.) 
TAFn OOFn often
TALI rarely
TAOKA ocasionally
TAPROn promptly
TARED IIJIn already
TASAM INAGDAA sometimes
TASLO slowly
TASUn SNAAT soon
TAU,  IKn now
TAWAn at the same time
UOPAKLI  (from UOPAK (adj)) as a whole
VAnC AnC than
WAGO AGOO ago
WALEI LEITAA later
XAOn * OnLI only
XATLE ATLE at least
XATTO YATTO barely
YALMO OLMAI almost
ZAHALI / AOOSPELI HAASLI specially
ZAKU * ceratinly, surely
ZAO ZO very
ZASPO * SPO surprisingly



12-1-2.  Affirmation Adverbs

Affirmation adverbs Pronunciation    Meaning
YUP [yu:p] Yes
YUPn [yu:pN] Of course yes
SEAn [seaN]  I see. 


12-1-3.  Negative Adverbs

 Negative adverbs   Pronunciation         Meaning
NAI [nai] no, not
NAIn [naiN] never
NAIDLI [naidli] hardly, seldom
NAIDE [naide] neither
NOA [no:a] nor
NAISEL [naisel]  seldom 
NAIPA [naipa]  for partial negation only 
(See Note below.)

(Note)

 Partial negation 
  All trains do not go to Odaiba Station.    (About 3/4 go)
  M1:  OOL  train-w  Odaiba  Station  UT  NAIPA  go.
  M2:  OOL  train-w  NAIPA  go  UTL  Odaiba  Station.

  Not all trains go to Odaiba Station.    (About 3/4 go)
  M1:  NAI  OOL  train-w  Odaiba  Station  UT  go.
  M2:  NAI  OOL  train-w  go  UTL  Odaiba  Station.

  I could not answer all of the questions.   (= I could not solve some questions.)
     M1:  SE  OOL  question-O  NAIPA  GIMA  answer-T.
     M2: 
 SE  NAIPA  GIMA  answer-T  OOL  question-O.


 Total negation
  There are no trains to go to Odaiba Station.
  M1:  NAI  Train-w  Odaiba  Station  UT  go.
  M2:  NAI  train-w  go  UTL  Odaiba  Station.

    M1:  OOL  train-w  Odaiba  Station  UT  NAI  go.
  M2:  OOL  train-w  NAI  go  UTL  Odaiba  Station.

   I could not answer even one question.     (note) even = VRA,   can = GIMA
     M1:  SE  VRA  one  question-O  NAI  GIMA  answer-T.
     M2:  SE  NAI  GIMA  answer-T  VRA  one  question-O.

     M1:  SE  OOL  question-O  NAI  GIMA  answer-T.
     M2:  SE  NAI  GIMA  answer-T  OOL  question-O.



12-1-4.  Interrogative Adverbs

Interrogative adverbs Pronunciation      Meaning
ESK  or  ? [esk] ? (placed at the top of sentence)
HELI [heli] when
HOLI [holi] where
HyALI [hyali] why
HyLI [hy(u)li] how
HyELI [hyeli] how
ETOn [etoN] tag question
ENA [ena] irony question

(Note)  ESK (or ?)  is always placed at the beginning of a sentence.
            '?' can be pronounced [e] instead of [esk] in conversation.


12-1-5.  Command Adverbs

Command particles Pronunciation      Meaning
YO [yo] regular command
YOI [yoi] strong command


12-1-6.  Admiration Adverbs  (= Naturalist = exclamation)

Admiration adverbs Pronunciation  Meaning 
AA [a:] Ah
OO [o:] Oh
SOO [so:] So


12-1-7
.  Request Adverbs and Others


PLII ([pli:], request),  XAL ([shal], remind),  YAL ([yal], encouragement),  MAIT ([mait], advice),  etc.
These were already seen on Webpage 1.


12-2.  Position of Adverb,  Adverb Phrase,  and  Adverb Clause

12-2-1.  Adverbs are, as a rule, placed before a modified word ( = modified) for both M1 and M2.  However, when an
adverb modifies the whole sentence, it should be placed at the beginning of the sentence and have an ','  immediately
after the adverb.  In NOXILO, the word order never changes even for this case.

12-2-2.  Adverb phrases are placed immediately before a modified word for M1, and placed after a modified word for
M2.  When an adverb phrase modifies a whole sentence, it should be placed on the top of the sentence, and leave ' , '
after the adverb phrase.

12-2-3.  Adverb clauses are placed before a modified word for M1, and is placed after a modified word for M2.  
However, when an adverb clause modifies the whole sentence, the adverb clause should be placed on the top of the
sentence and  ' , '  or  'PA'  for  M1,  and  ' , '  or  'ZA'  for  M2.




*********************
Ch-13  Comparisons
*********************

Before going into the details of the NOXILO comparison,  I would like to touch upon the fundamental meaning of
comparisons because they also have philosophical importance. 

In our universe, it would be one of the most important tasks that everything from photons, to electrons to humans to
our universe itself (=life) establishes some sort of meaningful difference between others and themselves, in the past
and present, lest these fall into the grave of monotony.  Failure to create these true differences means extinction.

Any natural thing (=life) from photon to humans to the universe that wants to survive must continue to compare with
themselves with others in the past and present in order to create meaningful differences, and, by doing so, the lives
assure their existences.  The universe itself also must change to a different universe in the future.

Falling into the grave of monotony means universal death, whereas the death in our daily lives is merely a technical
death.  This technical death of humans prevents any indivisuals from continuing to live too long.  Thanks to this
technical death, we can be reborn and start over many times without falling into the grave of monotony.  Our
universe doesn't like the abundance of monotony because it eventually leads to the universal death.  

(Note)  Small elements such as photons, electrons, and protons don't have to die as often as we do
          because they are not object oriented matters but parts (investment materials) that compile
          stars, plants, and animals.  However, they too are a life and have indivisual personalities.  
          These small elements don't tell us all of their will (mind), and they never reveal to us their
          spacial location and kinetic energy at the same time, but they are indeed life, life itself.

Physicists call these activities of the nature the 2nd law of Thermodynamics, and economists observe the same
activities of goods as Law of Diminishing Marhinal Utility.  Both observations come from the same universal will,
which is a want to exist by continuing to create difference.

Thus, the comparisons are not merely a technique of English or NOXILO compositions, but actually the practices
of our universal will (the intention of our universe).

In NOXILO, comparison has  'comparative',  'superlative',  and  'equal'  ideas,  and their expressions fall into the
following  six types :

1.  Rank order is expressed using adjective (or adverb) and 'AN' ('compared to' in English) for M1 or 'ANL' for M2.
2.  Rank order is expressed qualitatively by using adjective (or adverb) and either LEST, LEE, FAA, or FAST.
3.  Rank order is expressed quantitatively by showing the size of the differences between objects to be compared.
4.  Rank is expressed by using cardinal numbers such as No.1 or No.2.
5.  Equality
6.  Other (special) type


Let's study one by one from Type 1.

13-1. Rank order is expressed using adjective (or adverb) with 'AN' for M1 or 'ANL' for M2,
        but the differences are not shown.


        (Note) Modification Agent 'AN' for M1 and  'ANL' for M2 are used for comparison purposes only.

 The pattern to compare two things,  A and B

M1:  A-W  B  AN  adjective  RI.
M2:  A-W  RI  adjective  ANL  B.

        <Note> This is a typical sentence pattern to show a comparative idea.  An adjective may be replaced
         with an adverb, and RI ( = 'be' in English) may also be replaced with general verbs.

In NOXILO, the form of adjectives or adverbs does not change for any reason.  They are always unchanging.

Ex. Mr. Svenson is tall compared to her.

M1:  MR. Svenson-W  DAFE  AN  tall  (RI).
M2:  MR. Svenson-W  (RI)  tall  ANL  DAFE..

      <Note> DAFE means She.  This is equal to 'Mr. Svenson is taller than she.'
                This shows a superlative idea although no superlative words such as 'more',  '--er' are used.



 The pattern to compare three or more things:

M1:  A-W  B,  C,  and  D  AN  adjective  (RI).
M2:  A-W  (RI)  adjective  ANL  B,  C,  and  D

     <Note> This shows a superlative idea although no superlative words such as 'more',  '--er' are used.

Ex. Mr. Svenson is tall compared to her and her friend.

M1:  MR. Svenson-W  DAFE  OnD  DAFEI  Friend  AN  tall  (RI).
M2:  MR. Svenson-W  (RI)  tall  ANL  DAFE  OnD  DAFEI  friend.

     <Note> DAFEI means her.

13-2. Rank order is expressed qualitatively by putting either LEST,  LEE,  FAA,  or  FAST
        immediately before an adjective (or adverb).

The functions of these four words (adverbs) are shown below:

@
  LEST [lest] ('least' in English)

It is put before an adjective (or adverb),  and greatly weakens the meaning of the adjective (adverb).

@
 
 LEE  [le:] (less)

It is put before an adjective (or adverb), and somewhat weaken the meaning of the adjective (adverb).

@  FAA  [fa:] (more)

It is put before an adjective (or adverb), and somewhat strengthens the meaning of the adjective (adverb).

@  FAST [fast] (most)

It is put before an adjective (or adverb), and greatly strengthens the meaning of the adjective (adverb).


Let's see some examples:

Ex. DS. Duvois is much shorter than him.

M1:  DS. Duvois-W  MAFE  AN  FAA  short  (RI).
M2:  DS. Duvois-W  (RI)  FAA  short  ANL  MAFE.

     <Note> MAFE means he.  MAFE-O AN (ANL MAFE-O for M2) is wrong in NOXILO.

Ex. DS. Duvois is a little shorter than him.

M1:  DS. Duvois-W  MAFE  AN  XAO  LEE  short  (RI).
M2:  DS. Duvois-W  (RI)  XAO  LEE  short  ANL  DAFE.

   <Note> XAO is NOXILO Basic Word (BW), and means 'little' or 'few'.   Incidentally, UOLT is
              NOXILO Int'l Standard Word (ISW), which means the same as XAO.  In the case that the ISW
              has been formed for the BW, the use of the BW is not necessary.  That is, you can freely
              use either XAO or UOLT.  This example shows that the differences between the two parties
              in question are small or very small because of XAO LEE instead of LEE.

Ex. Mr. Svenson is much taller than her and her friend.

M1:  MR. Svenson-W  DAFE  and  DAFEI  friend  AN  FAA  tall  (RI).
M2:  MR. Svenson-W  (RI)  FAA  tall  ANL  DAFE  and  DAFEI  friend.

Ex. Mr. Svenson is a little taller than her and her friend.

M1:  MR. Svenson-W  DAFE  and  DAFEI  friend  AN  XAO  FAA  tall  (RI).
M2:  MR. Svenson-W  (RI)  XAO  FAA  tall  ANL  DAFE  and  DAFEI  friend.

Ex. Mr. Svenson is a lot taller than her and her friend.

M1:  MR. Svenson-W  DAFE  and  DAFEI  friend  AN  FAST  tall  (RI).
M2:  MR. Svenson-W  (RI)  FAST  tall  ANL  DAFE  and  DAFEI  friend.

If you do not want to touch upon the degree of the difference, you can simply mention the difference
as shown below.

M1:  MR. Svenson-W  DAFE  and  DAFEI  friend  AN  tall  (RI).
M2:  MR. Svenson-W  (RI)  tall  ANL  DAFE  and  DAFEI  friend.

   <Note> The above sentences do not refer the degree of 'tall'.
              Therefore, the 'tall' could be FAA tall,  FAST tall, or simply tall.


13-3. Rank order is expressed quantitatively by showing the size of the difference
        between objects being compared.


Ex. The person is  5cm taller than me.

M1:  FE  SE  AN  5cm  tall  (RI).
M2:  FE  (RI)  5cm tall  ANL  SE

     <note> FE means 'that person', which doesn't show gender.     cf. MAFE (He),  DAFE (She).

Ex. The population of the U.S. is double that of Japan.

M1:  U.S.  UB  population-W  Japan  AN  2  BAI  (RI).
M2:  Population-W  UBL  U.S.  (RI)  2  BAI  ANL  Japan

     <Note> UB (UBL for M2) means 'of' in English.   'U.S. UB population'  can be written 'U.S. population'.
               By the same token, 'Population UBL U.S.' can be written 'U.S. population'.  BAI means 'times' in English.
               Thus, '2  BAI' means '2 times' (= 'double').   '2 BAI' can be written '2BAI'.

Ex. This rocket flies 10 times faster than that of a typical jet.

M1:  TO  Rocket-W  jet AN  10  BAI  fast fly.
M2:  TO  rocket-W  10  BAI  fast  fly  ANL  jet.

      <Note> TO means 'this', and BAI means 'times'.  10 BAI means '10 times' in English.

Ex. Rainfall for this year was 30% less than that of last year.

M1:  This  year  UB  rainfall-W  last  year  AN  30%  XAO  RI-T.
M2:  Rain-fall-W  UBL  this  year  RI-T 30%  XAO  ANL  last  year.

      <Note> XAO means 'little' or 'few'.  RI-T can not be omitted because RI is in the past tense.

Ex. The capacity of this box is 3/4 the capacity of that box.

M1:  TO  box'Z  capacity-W  BOI  box  AN  3/4  (RI).
M2:  TO  box'Z  capacity-W  (RI)  3/4  ANL  BOI  box.

      <Note> BOI means 'that' in English.   3/4 is read as 'SAM  FEn  SII'.


13-4. Rank is expressed by using cardinal numbers (i.e. 1, 2, 3).

The cardinal number is placed before an adjective (or adverb) to directly show the rank order.

Ex. The Taiwan Trade Center building is No.1 in height in the world.     (= tallest in the world)

M1:  Taiwan Trade Center building-W  world  AT  1DAI  high  (RI).
M2:  Taiwan Trade Center building-W  (RI)  1DAI  high  ATL  world

Ex. That lake is the second deepest lake in Japan.

M1:  BOI  Lake-W  Japan  AT  2DAI  deep  (RI).
M2:  BOI  lake-W  (RI)  2DAI  deep  ATL  Japan.

M1:  BOI  Lake-W  Japan  AT  2DAILI  deep  (RI).
M2:  BOI  lake-W  (RI)  2DAILI  deep  ATL  Japan.

     <Note> DAI (adjective) and DAILI (adverb) means 'th' in English.   2DAI  for  2DAILI  is often acceptable.

Ex. My academic score last term was the third from the bottom of the class.

M1:  HTES  term  IN  SEI  academic score-W  bottom  IM  3DAI  RI-T.
M2:  SEI  academic record-W  INL  HTES term RI-T 3DAI  IML  bottom.

     <Note> SEI is the possesive form of SE, which means 'my' in English.  HTES means 'last', which is taken from Greek
      IN (INL for M2) is the Modification Agent, which means 'in' in English.   IM (IML for M2) is also MA and means 'from'.


13-5. Equality

'IL' ('ILL' for M2) and 'IIL' ('IILL' for M2) are used to make this type of sentence.  IL is the Modification Agent which
is equivalent to 'as' or 'like' in English.   IIL is a Clause Leader, and is equal to 'as' (conjunction) in English.  IL is
pronounced [il],  and  ILL pronounced [i_l].

'AB' ('ABL' for M2) means 'about',  and is often used in the case where any particular viewpoint to compare is added.  
AB is pronounced [ab], and ABL pronounced [abl].

SEIM,  SEIMLI,  TOOn,  and  TOOnLI  are often used to modify adjectives (adverbs).  SEIM means 'same', and
SEIMLI is the adverb form of 'same'.   They are pronounced [seim] and [seimli] respectively.  
TOOn (pronounced [to:N) means 'equal', and TOOnLI (pronounced [to:Nli]) is the verb form of TOOn.


The following examples provide four typical sentence patterns for equality:

 The sentence pattern where SEIM (or  SEIMLI)  is used.

M1: A-W  B  AN  SEIM  - - RI.
M2:  A-W  RI  SEIM  - -  ANL  B.

 The sentence pattern where IL (ILL for M2)  is used.

M1: A-W  B  IL  - -  RI.
M2:  A-W  RI  - -  ILL  B.

The sentence pattern with a viewpoint (about X) to compare.

M1: A-W  X  AB  C  AN  - -  RI.
M2:  A-W  RI  - -  ABL  X  ANL  C.

The sentence pattern with a particular viewpoint and only that viewpoint (X).

M1: A-W  OnLI  X  AB  C  AN  - -   RI.
M2:  A-W  RI  - -  ABL  OnLI  X  ANL  C.

      <Note> This is similar to the idea of 'iff' (if and only if).


Let's see some examples:

Ex.  That problem is the same as this problem.

M1:  BOI  problem-W  TO  problem  AN  SEIM  (RI).
M2:  BOI  problem-W  (RI)  SEIM  ANL  TO  problem.

Ex.  The young sister is equally as beautiful as her old sister.

M1:  Young sister-W  old  sister  AN  SEIMLI  beautiful  (RI).
M2:  Young sister-W  (RI)  SEIMLI  beautiful  ANL  old  sister.

Use of Modification Agent  IL  (ILL for M2)  shortens the sentence as follows.

M1:  Young sister-W  old  sister  IL  beautiful  (RI).
M2:  Young sister-W  (RI)  beautiful  ILL  old  sister.

Ex.  I  am as tall as you.

M1:  SE  ME  AN  SEIMLI  tall  (RI).
M2:  SE  (RI)  SEIMLI  tall  ANL  ME

M1:  SE  ME  IL  tall (RI).
M2:  SE  (RI)  tall  ILL  ME

Ex.  This job is not as dangerous as that job.

M1:  TO  work-W  BOI  work  AN  SEIMLI  dangerous  NAI  RI.
M2:  TO  work-W  NAI  RI  SEIMLI  dangerous  ANL  BOI  work.

M1:  TO  work-W  BOI  work  IL  dangerous  NAI  RI.
M2:  TO  work-W  NAI  RI  dangerous  ILL  BOI  work.

Ex.  Is there a man who loves animals and plants as much as he loves people?

M1:  ?  People-O  APLOS  IIL  Animals  OnD  plants-L  APLOS  Ky  man-W  RIZ.
M2:  ?  Man-W  Ky  APLOS  animals OnD plants-L  IILL  APLOS person-L  (ZA)  RIZ.

M1:  ?  People-O  APLOS  IIL  Animals  OnD  plants-L  APLOS-K man-W  RIZ.
M2:  ?  Man-W  APLOS-K  animals OnD plants-L  IILL  APLOS person-L  (ZA)  RIZ.


(Note)  '?' is pronounced [esk].  You may write 'ESK' instead of '?'.   In any modifying phrase (= adjective phrase
and adverb phrase) and modifying clause (= adjective clause and adverb clause),  '-L' (pronounced [ol]) is used to
show 'object,'  whereas '-O' (pronounced [o]) is used only in noun clauses.   'Ky' [kyu] is the Clause Leader
which leads an adjective clause.  The Ky can be replaced with '-K' (pronounced [ku]), which is a verb-adjective. 
RIZ means 'to exist' in English.   ZA is a punctuation participle for M2, which is often put after modification clauses.  
PA is put before the modification clause in M1.  These are used to show the end or beginning of a modification
phrase/clause in any complex or long sentence, although the use of these two words (PA and ZA) is not mandatory.

Ex.  As far as mathematics is concerned,  your academic score is the same as her.

M1:  OnLI  mathematics'Z  score  AB  MEI  academic score-W  DAFEI  AN  SEIM  RI.
M2:  ABL  OnLI  mathematics'Z  score  MEI  academic score-W  RI  SEIM  ANL  DAFE.I.

M1:  OnLI  mathematics  score  AB  ME  DAFE  AN  SEIM  RI.
M2:  ABL  OnLI  mathematics  score  ME  RI  SEIM  ANL  DAFE..


13-6. Other expressions of comparison

  Sentences with a pair of comparisons ( the more - - ,  the more ....... )

M1:   FAA  - -,  FAAK .......
M2:   - do -

(Note) Any combination of FAA and LEE is also possible as long as the sentence makes sense.


Ex.  The more they do gymnastics, the healthier they become.

M1:  FEN  gymnastics-O  FAA  DU,  FEN  FAAK  healthy  EQKAZ.
M2:  FEN  FAA  DU  gymnastics-O,  FEN  EQKAZ  FAAK  healthy.

      <Note> EQKAZ means 'to become' in English.

Ex. The more I exercise, the worse I feel.

M1:  SE  FAA  exercise,  SE  FAAK  bad  feel.
M2:  SE  FAA  exercise,  SE  FAAK  bad  feel.

Ex. Contemporary economics assumes that the more people get,  the happier they become.

M1:  Contemporary  economics-W  (PA) REn-W  FAA  MUQ-O  get,  FEN  FAAK  happy  EQKAZ  My  assume.
M2:  Contemporary  ecpnomics-W  assume  My  REn-W  get  FAA  MUQ-O  (ZA)  FEN  EQKAZ  FAAK  happy.

     <Note> PA is the Punctuation Particle for M1, which is often put before a modification phrase or sentence,
             which is REn-W FAA MUQ-O get for M1.  The counterpart for PA for M2 is ZA. The ZA is put after the
             modification phrase or sentence, which is En-W  get  FAA  MUQ-O.   The use of PA (or ZA) is arbitrary.
             REn means 'people' in English.  FEN is for REn-W.   The Clause Leader 'My' (pronounced [myu]) means 'that'
             (Conjunction in English).  Since the 'My' leads an object sentence, the My can be written My-O as below.

M1:  Contemporary  economics-W  (PA)  REn-W  FAA  MUQ-O  get,  FEN  FAAK  happy  EQKAZ  My-O  assume.
M2:  Contemporary  economics-W  assume  My-O  REn-W  get  FAA  MUQ-O,  (ZA)  FEN  EQKAZ  FAAK  happy.

     <Note> The object sentence which is led by My-O is underlined for your better understanding.           
               The verb 'assume' takes the object sentence.

Also, the above example can be shortened as below.

M1:  Contemporary  economics-W  (PA)  FAA MUQ-W  FAAK happy  RI  My  assume.
M2:  Contemporary  ecpnomics-W  assume  My  FAA MUQ-W  RI  FAAK  happy.

     <Note> ZA for M2 is not needed at all.  We'd better leave RI as is because we use the Clause Leader 'My'.

Ex. The more you play, the less chance you will have to pass the test.

M1:  ME  FAA  play,  ME  test-L  pass-K  LEE  chance-O  have-R.
M2:  ME  FAA  play,  ME  have-R  LEE  chance-O  pass-K  test-L.


  Sentences with  AN  and  RAAZA        (Note) -- is more preferred or emphasized than ...... .

M1:   ....... AN     RAAZA  --  
M2:   RAAZA  --    ANL  .......

(Note) AN (ANL for M2) is a modification agent, and RAAZA is a particle (also adverb) for sentence structure.

Ex.  The person is rather politician than religionist.

M1:  BOI  REn-W  religionist  AN  RAAZA  politician  (RI).
M2:  BOI  REn-W  (RI)  RAAZA  politician  ANL  religionist.

If  ' - - ' is a clause instead of a word,  'AN', the modification agent for M1, should be 'AAN', the clause leader for M1.
Following the same idea,  'ANL', the modification agent for M2, should be 'AANL', the clause leader for M2,  as below

M1:   a clause  AAN     RAAZA  -- .
M2:   RAAZA  --    AANL  a clause


  Sentences with  ANC  and  RAAZA       (Note)  --  is preferred or emphasized rather than ..... .

M1:   AnC  ......    RAAZA  --
M2:   AnC  ......    RAAZA  --

(Note)  AnC is a particle and an adverb for sentence structure.

Ex. The man is a politician rather than a religionist.

M1:  BOI  REn-W  AnC  religionist  RAAZA  politician  (RI).
M2:  BOI  REn-W  (RI)  AnC  religionist  RAAZA  politician.

Ex.  Older brother prefers to jog rather than to swim.

M1:  Older brother-W  AnC  swim  RAAZA  jog  <  prefer.
M2:  Older brother-W  AnC  swim  prefer  >  RAAZA  jog.

M1:  Older brother-W  AnC  swimming  RAAZA  jogging-O  prefer.
M2:  Older brother-W  AnC  swimming  prefer  RAAZA  jogging-O.

M1:  Older brother-W  AnC  swimming  RAAZA  jogging-O  like.
M2:  Older brother-W  AnC  swimming  like  RAAZA  jogging-O.

    <Note>  ' < '  for M1 and  ' > '  for M2 are Connection Participles which connect specific (small) verbs
      and general (large) verbs.    Both ' < ' and ' > ' are pronounced [N].

Ex.  Brother became rather confused than failed.

M1:  Brother  AnC  failed-T  RAAZA  become-T  confused.
M2:  Brother  AnC  failed-T  RAAZA  become-T  confused.

M1:  Brother  AnC  failed-T  RAAZA  confuse-T.
M2:  Brother  AnC  failed-T  RAAZA  confuse-T.

Ex.  I would rather stay in a house.

M1:  SE  RAAZA  house  IN  stay.
M2:  SE  stay  RAAZA  INL  house.




*****************
Ch-14  Particles
*****************

There are many kinds of Particles in NOXILO as shown below.

1.  Element Particles  ( -W,  -O,  -L,  -E,  -Q )
2.  Tense Particles  ( -T,  -R )
3
.  Continuity Particles  ( -In )
4.  Voice Particles  ( -ZE )

5.  
Connection Particles  (  <,   > )
6. 
Transform Particles  ( TI,  En,  NA,  BL,  ILU,  OOV,  VOO,  LI,  S,  P,  Z,  B )
7.  
Concession Particles  ( JRA,  HRA,  CRA )
8.  Other Particles ( SLE,  MO,  -ui,  -mn,  An,  PA,  ZA,  VI,  VII,  HyA,  BBU )
9.  
Prefix  ( AAP,  ATO,  DE,  ..... )
10.  
Suffix  ( AA,  II,  FAn,  ..... )


14-1.  Element Particles ( -W,  -O,  -L,  -E,  -Q )

Element Particles are the markers to show a subject, object, or a complement of sentence.

 in noun clauses    in adjective clauses and adverb clauses position of particles
          -W [wa]          -W [wa] end of a subject
          -O [o]          -L  [ol] end of an object
          -E  [e]                          -Q [ech] end of a complement

(Note 1) Use of the element particles '-W',  '-O'  and  '-L' is mandatory,  whearas the 'E' and 'Q'
are used only in long and complicated sentences.   'L'  and  'Q' are better than 'OL' and  'EQ'
because the former particles are shorter by a letter.

(Note 2) Noun clauses become subject clauses, object clauses, or complementary clauses, but
 adjective clauses and adverb clauses only modify other words and/or sentences.


@   -W

'-WA'  or  '-W' (both pronounced [wa]) is a subject marker.   In NOXILO, all subjects, except for personal pronouns
such as 'SE' or 'ME' and interrogative pronouns such as 'HA' or 'HI', should have this element particle at the end of
the word.

Ex.   This is a book.

M1:  TO-W  BEEK-E  (RI).
M2:  TO-W  (RI)  BEEK-E.

     <Note> TO means 'this'.   BEEK means 'book'.   '-E' can be omitted as shown below
                because the above sentence is extremely short and simple. 

                M1:  TO-W  BEEK  (RI).
                M2:  TO-W  (RI)  BEEK.

     <Note> As explained earlier,  the verb 'RI' [ri] ( 'be' in English) in a SCV-type sentence in mode I
                and a SVC-type sentence in Mode II can be omitted to make the sentence even simpler.  
                Thus,  the above sentences can be written as follows:

                M1:  TO-W  BEEK.
                M2:  TO-W  BEEK.

Ex.  The mother, an the older brother, and the youngest sister will be travelling abroad next month.

M1 :  Mother,  FAA  old  brother,  OnD  FAST  young  sister-W  next  month  abroad  travel-RIn.
M2 :  Mother,  FAA  old  brother,  OnD  FAST  young  sister-W  next  month  abroad  travel-RIn.

     <
Note> The lement particle '-W' is not attached after 'Mother' and 'FAA old brother' to avoid wordiness
 
                'RIn' is read [reiN], and means 'will do'.  The 'next month' and 'abroad' are adverbs, and
                therfore are placed before the verb 'travel-RIn'.


@
 -O,    -L

'-O' (pronounced [o] ) is put at the end of all objects in noun clauses, and '-OL'  or  '-L' (both pronounced [ol(u)] )
in modification clauses which consist of adjective clauses and adverb clauses.

Ex. The father gave his daughter a book.

M1 :  Father-W  daughter-O  1  BUF-O give-T.
M2 :  Father-W  give-T  daughter-O  1  BUF-O.

For this particular type (SVOO) of sentence,  NOXILO users can combine the starting point and the arriving point
into a set as shown below.

M1 :  Father-W  daughter  UT   1  BUF-O give-T.
M2 :  Father-W  UTL  daughter   give-T  1  BUF-O.

      <Note> The father is the 'starting (departing) point' of the book and the daughter is the 'arriving point'.
                These two points are compiled and placed at the beginning of the sentence.  
                UT (UTL for M2) is a Modification Agent, which means 'to'  in English.

Ex. I informed the police that he stole the money.

M1 :  SE  police-O  MAFE  money-O  stole-T  My  inform-T.
M2 :  SE  inform-T  police-O  My  MAFE  stolel-T money-O.

      <Note> M1 sentence can be 'SE  police-O  PA  MAFE  money-O  stole-T  My  inform-T'.

Ex. The mother gave the pen to the child to whom I gave the book.

M1 : Mother-W  SE  BUF-L  give-T  Ky  child  UT  pen-O  give-T.
M2 : Mother-W  give-T  pen-O  UTL  child-O  Ky  SE  give-T  BUF-L.

     <Note> We add '-L' instead of '-O' to the object in this modification clauses (remember, modification clauses
                are adjective clauses and adverb clauses).

Ex. The mother will call up her daughter and a son.

M1 : Mother-W  DAFEI  daughter  OnD  Son-O  call-up-R.
M2 : Mother-W  call-up-R  DAFEI  daughter  OnD  son-O.

Ex. The mother regretted that she had called her daughter and son.

M1 : Mother-W  DAFE  daughter  OnD  Son-O  call-T  My  regret-T.
M2 : Mother-W  regret-T  My  DAFE  call-T  daughter  OnD  son-O.

M1 : Mother-W  daughter  OnD  Son-O  call-TM-O  regret-T.
M2 : Mother-W  regret-T  call-TM-O  daughter  OnD  son-O.

     <Note> The 'call-TM' is a past gerund, and it is the object of the verb 'regret'. 
               '-T'  of  'call-T'  is necessary because the 'call' was carried out before the mother regretted.  
               If both actions were carried out at the same time, 'call-T' must be 'call', while 'regret' remains 'regret-T'.


@  -E,    -Q

'E' (pronounced [e] ) is put after the complement in noun clauses, and '-EQ' or 'Q' (both pronounced [ech(u)] )
in modification clauses.  Both '-E' and '-Q' are often omitted, especially in short and simple sentences.



14-2.  Tense Particles  ( -T,  -R )

@  verb-T   or   verb-R

'-TA'  or  '-T' (both pronounced [ta] ) is put at the end of verbs and show the past tense.
'RE' or 'R' (both pronounced [re] ) is put at the end of verbs to show the future tense.
T and R are better than TA and RE, respectively, because the former Tense Particles are shorter.
There are no Tense Particles to show the present tense.

Location of Tense Particles    Past   Present     Future 
            end of verbs  -T  [ ta]     -R  [ re]  

Ex. UYUS (NOXILO Int'l Standard Word for 'to take')

Verb basic form  Past   Present    Future  
   UYUS (=take)
   [uy:s]
 UYUS-T
 [uyu:s ta] 
   UYUS
   [uyu:s] 
  UYUS-R
  [uyu:s re] 


Ex. English verb 'to take'

Verb basic form     Past  Present 
    Future
        take   took    take  will, shall take
        take
       [teik(u)]   
 take-T
 [teik(u) ta]
  take
  [teik(u)]
 take-R
 [teik(u) re]


Let's look at some more examples in the following table.

 Verbs basic form    Past form    Present form   Future form 
RI     [ri]   be RI-T     [rita] RI      [ri] RI-R    [rire]
RIZ   [riz]  exist RIZ-T    [rizta] RIZ     [riz] RIZ-R   [rizre]
DU   [du:]  do DU-T    [du:ta] DU     [du:] DU-R   [du:re]
GyU  [gyu:]  laugh GyU-T  [gyu:ta]  GyU   [gyu:] GyUR   [gyu:re]
KU   [ku:]  eat & drink  KU-T    [ku:ta] KU     [ku:] KU-R   [ku:re]
TUV  [tu:v]  have TUV-T  [tu:vta] TUV   [tu:v] TUV-R  [tuvre] 

(Note) The Present Perfect form in English is expressed by Auxiliary verb such as GIKO (have done) or
           GILA (have ever done) in NOXILO, which we learned in webpage 2.



14-3.  Continuity Particles   (-In)

@ verb-In

Continuity Particles, '-In' are very simple:  they are placed after verbs.

Ex.  I am making these.

M1:  SE  TON-O EKAM-In.
M2:  SE  EKAM-In TON-O.

     <Note> EKAM means 'to make'.   EKAM-In is pronounced [ekamiN] or [ekam iN.

Ex.  Your baby is sleeping.

M1:  MEI  BOBII-W  EHyUZ-In.
M2:  MEI  BOBII-W  EHyUZ-In.

     <Note> BOBII means 'baby', and EHyUZ 'to sleep'.

Ex.  I was laughing, and you too will be laughing.

M1:  SE  GyU-TIn  OnD  ALS  ME  GyU-RIn.
M2:  SE  GyU-TIn  OnD  ALS  ME  GyU-RIn.

M1:  SE  GyU-TIn  OnD  ME  MO  GyU-RIn.
M2:  SE  GyU-TIn  OnD  ME  MO  GyU-RIn.

     <Note> GyU is bodily verb, and means 'to laugh'.   'GyU-TIn' is pronounced [gyu:taiN], and 'GyU-RIn' [gyu:reiN].
               ALS (prepositioned) = MO (post positioned) = also, too.



14-4.  Voice Particles   (-ZE)

@  verb-ZE

Passive voice is formed by attaching '-ZE' after verbs. When tense particles and continuity particles work together
with voice particles, they should be expressed in the order of the tense particles, continuity particles, and voice particles
as -TInZE (pronunced [taiNze]) or -RInZE ([reiNze]).  Let's look at the table from Webpage 3 again.

     Past       Present      Future
Passive voice  DU-TZE  DU-ZE  DU-RZE
Progressive  DU-TIn  DU-In  DU-RIn
Progressive and passive voice  DU-TInZE  DU-InZE  DU-RInZE

  (Note) Passive verb GH does not need the voice perticle -ZE.



14-5.  Connection Particles (coupling particles)    <  (for M1),     >  (for M2)

@   <  (for M),        >  (for M2)

Connection particles are used to couple infinite (large) verbs with specific (small) verbs.   The connection particles are
pronounced [N], whereas the symbols such as ' , '  or  ' . ' are not.   Therefore, they are treated as particles rather than
symbols.

M1:  specific verb  <  infinite verb
M2:  infinite verb  >  specific verb

Ex. want to see

         English                English & NOXILO           NOXILO
M1:   see < want            see < IYUS                   MU < IYUS
M2:   want > see            IYUS > see                   IYUS > MU

Ex. would like to see

M1:   see < would-like-to       see < IYAA             MU < IYAA
M2:   would-like-to > see       IYAA > see             IYAA > MU

Ex. want to go (and) see

M1:  go  see  <  want         go  see  <  IYUS               ITU,  MU  <  IYUS
M2:  want  >  go  see         IYUS  >  go  see               IYUS  >  ITU,  MU

For the following 3 examples, the connection particles are not used because there is no combination of an
infinite verb and a specific verb.

Ex.  I will go there and research the situation.

M1:  SE  BOIE  ITU-R  OnD  situation-O  research.
M2:  SE  BOIE  ITU-R  OnD  research  situation-O.

      <Note> BOIE means 'there' and ITU means 'to go'.  OnD (=and) can be omitted as shown below.

M1:  SE  BOIE  ITU-R,  situation-O  research.
M2:  SE  BOIE  ITU-R,  research  situation-O.

Ex.  I turned on the TV and was surprised with the big news.

M1:  SE  TUOn-T  OnD  AUB  news  UE  IHSAZ-T.
M2:  SE  TUOn-T  OnD  IHSAZ-T  UEL  AUB  news.

     <Note> TUOn means 'to turn on'.   AUB means 'big'.  UE (UEL for M2) is the Modification Agent which shows 
               the cause (=big news) of feelings such as surprise, laugh, joy, anger, sadness, and worry. 
               IHSAZ means 'to be surprised'.    'IHSAZ UEL --' means 'to be surprize with -- '.

Ex. The man heard the news and became angry.

M1:  FE  news-O  PyU-T  OnD  EOOnS-T.
M2:  FE   PyU-T news-O  OnD  EOOnS-T.

Or more simply

M1:  FE  news-O  PyU,  EOOnS-T.
M2:  FE  PyU  news-O,  EOOnS-T.

      <Note> PyU-T is acceptable since the tense of PyU is the same as that of EOOnS.



14-6.  Transform Particles     TI,   En,   NA,   BL,   LI,   S, .......

NOXILO users can change a part of speech by adding specific characters such as 'TI', 'NA', 'LI', and 'S' at the end
of the original word.  These characters are called Conversion Particles, and the newly made words are called
derivatives or derived words.

@  TI,   En   changes the original word to a noun

Ex.  AOBI  (adj.  beautiful)    --->   AOBITI  (noun.  beauty)

      EAADR (adj.  derivative)  --->   EAADRTI  (noun.  derivation)
                                         --->   EAADREn  (noun.  derived word/derivative)

      MUFA  (vt.  to find)         --->   MUFATI  (noun.  finding)
                                         --->   MUFAEn  (noun.  what was found)


@  NA,   BL        changes the original word to an adjective.
      ILU        
changes the original verb to an adjective and/or an adverb.
  OOV
,   VOO     changes the original word to an adjective and/or an adverb.

BL refers ability or possibility, and  ILU is used to make an illustrative adjective (and illustrative adverb) from a
well-known verb.  OOV (added to consonant ending words) and VOO (added to vowel ending words) is used to
make a more generalized or illustrative adjective.  OOV and VOO are not often used.

Ex.  IYPE (noun.  hope)          --->   IYPENA  (adj.  hopeful)
      AFKOR (noun.  cooperation)    --->  AFKORNA  (adj.  cooperative)

      EIIPOLS (Verb.  to depend)      --->   EIIPOLBL  (adj.  dependable)
      AnMOA (noun.  combustion)     --->   AnMOABL (combustible/flamable)

  CUL  (verb.  to sing or to chirp) --->   CULILU (like singing or like charping) (as if singing or as if charping)
      EHyUZ (verb.  to sleep)        -------> EHyUZILU (like sleeping.   Ex. He is dieing as if he is sleeping peacefully.)


@  LI  changes the original word to an adverb

Ex.  AOBI (adj. beautiful)      --->   AOBILI  (ad.  beautifully)


@  S,  P  changes the original word to a transitive verb

Ex.  AOBI  (adj. beautiful)     --->   AOBIS  (vt.  make someone/something beautiful)


@  Z,  B  changes the original word into an intransitive verb

Ex.  AOBI  (adj. beautiful)     --->  AOBIZ  (vi.  become beautiful)



14-7.  Concession Particles     HRA,    CRA,    NRA,    VRA

These particles are used to make various concessive expressions.  With these particles,
you can even delete Clause Leaders EEN (EENL), which will be introduced in the next web page.

     (Note) Concession particles have been modified in Version 3.1 (8 October 2020).

HRA  .......  general concession: whatever, whichever, whenever, etc.
CRA  .......  up to, depend on
NRA  .......  even if
VRA  .......  even


@  HRA  [h(u)ra]  ---- general concession: whatever, whichever, whenever, etc.

HRA is used to make general concessive sentence.  Typical combinations are 'HRA + Interragatives' as below.

HRA  HA  ............   whatever
HRA  HI   ...........    whichever
HRA  HU   ...........   whoever
HRA  HUM  .........   whomever
HRA  XU  ............   whatever      <Note> XU is equivalent to the relative pronoun 'what' in English.

The following combinations are possible, too:

HRA  ME    .............  no matter who, what, or how you are (name, occupation, character, etc)
HRA ME HA    ........   no matter what you are (occupation)
HRA ME HU    .......    no matter who you are (name)
HRA  IYUS  ..............  no matter how you want  (politely request or rudely request or ordinalily request, etc)
HRA  EILO  ................   no matter how yellow (lemon, mustard, dark yellow, or light yellow, etc)
HRA  AUHE  EILO  ........ no matter how dark yellow
HRA  EKLEZ ...................  no matter how someone (or it) works
HRA  MUQ  EKLEZ ...........  no matter how much work
HRA  AOOH  EKLEZ .........  no matter how hard someone (or it) works
HRA  RyUR ........................  no matter how run (slow, or fast, or by bare foot, or with children, etc ..... )
HRA  IUFALI  RyUR  ..........  no matter how quickly run

Ex.  I will not be surprised whatever may happen.

M1:  HRA  HA  IBAAn,  SE  NAI  IHSAZ.
M2:  SE  NAI  IHSAZ,  HRA  HA  IBAAn.

      <Note> IHSAZ means 'to be surprised'.   IBAAn means 'to happen'.

If you need to emphasize the phrase 'HRA HA IBAAn', put 'VII' before the phrase, as below.

M1:  VII HRA HA happen,  SE NAI  IHSAZ.
M2:  SE NAI  IHSAZ,  VII HRA HA happen.

      <Note> VI and VII are enhancement particles.  We'll study them them more at 14-10.

Ex.  Whatever you say is right.

M1:  ME  say  Ky  HRA  HA-W  right  (RI). 
M2:  HRA  HA-W  Ky  ME  say  (ZA)  (RI)  right.

      <Note> Ky is a relative pronoun (= that) in English.  
        ZA is a punctuation particle which shows the end of adjective/adverb clause for M2.

M1:  ME  say  HRA  XU-W  right  (RI). 
M2:  HRA  XU-W  ME  say  (ZA)  (RI)  right.

     <Note> XU means 'what' (relative pronoun) in English, and the '-W' after XU means that XU is the subject.

Ex.  The teacher  takes  whichever  is  better  of  the two  tests.

M1:  Teacher-W  NI  test  AM  better  HRA  TE-O  take.
M2:  Teacher-W  take  better  HRA  TE-O  AML  NI  test.

     <Note> NI means 'two', and AM (AML for M2) means 'among' or 'of'.  You can use IM (=from) instead of AM.

     <Note> The following is wrong because 'better' is not concessive (TE-O is concessive).

                M1:  Teacher-W  NI  test  AM  HRA  better  TE-O  take.
                M2:  Teacher-W  take  HRA  better  TE-O  AML  NI  test.


@   CRA  [ts(u)ra]  ----  up to

CRA means 'up to' in English.  

Ex.  It's up to you.

M1:  TE  CRA  ME  (RI).
M2:  TE  (RI)  CRA  ME.


@   NRA  ----  even if

NRA SOW            even if so
NRA NAI SO          even if not so
NRA IULA OA IUE       sooner or later
NRA AUMA OA UOLT     more or less
NRA BOLT OA BOQIL    adult or child
NRA IRMA or IRDA      man or woman
NRA EILO or NAI       yellow or not
NRA ME              even if you
NRA ME OA NAI ME     even if you or not you
NRA natural number      even if natural number
NRA ITU             even if go

Ex.  The number must be over 1000 even if it is a prime number.

M1:  NRA  prime  AnBAA,  TE  1000  ISBI  RI.
M2:  TE  RI  1000  ISBI,  NRA  prime  AnBAA.  

  <Note>  AnBAA = number,    TE = it,    ISBI = equal and over

   <Note>  If you want to emphasize 'NRA prime AnBAA', You should use 'VI' as below.

        M1:  VI  NRA  prime  AnBAA,  TE  1000  ISBI  RI.
        M2:  TE  RI  1000 ISBI,  VI  NRA  prime  AnBAA.

Ex.  Even if she goes there, I don't go.

M1:  DAFE  NRA  ITU,  SE  NAI  ITU.
M2:  SE  NAI  ITU,  DAFE  NRA  ITU. 

  <Note> DAFE = she,    ITU = go 

  <Note> You can use Clause Leader 'EENL' as follows.       (Note) We study Clause Leaders in the next web page.

       M1:  DAFE  ITU  EEN,  SE  NAI  ITU.
       M2:  SE  NAI  ITU,  EENL  DAFE  ITU. 


@   VRA  ----  even

Ex.  Even I can take a picture (with this camera).

M1:  VRA  SE  picture-O  GIMA  take.
M2:  VRA  SE  GIMA  take picture-O

  <Note> GIMA = can

Ex.  They can't even come close.

M1:  FEN  NAI  GIMA  VRA  close  come.
M2:  FEN  NAI  GIMA  VRA  come  close.



14-8.  Other Particles     SLE,   MO,   -ui,   -mn,   An,   PA,  ZA,  VI,   VII,   HyA,  JIA,  LA,  BBU

@  Addition Particles      SLE  [sle],      MO  [mo]

Both SLE and MO mean  'also'  or  'too'.    SLE is prepositioned,  whereas MO is postpositioned.

Ex.  Also my friend sings.    (Other people sing, and also my friend --.)

M1:  SLE  SEI  friend-W  sing.
M2:  SLE  SEI  friend-W  sing.

M1:  SEI  friend-W  MO  sing.
M2:  SEI  friend-W  MO  sing.

Ex.
She also bought a piano.   (She takes a piano class, and also bought --.)

M1:  DAFE  piano-O  SLE  buy-T.
M2:  DAFE  SLE  buy-T  piano-O.

M1:  DAFE  piano-O  buy  MO.
M2:  DAFE  buy  MO  piano-O.

Ex.  You bought also a solar-watch.    (You bought a book, a pen, ...... also solar-watch.)

M1:  ME  SLE  solar-watch  buy-T.
M2:  ME  buy-T  SLE  solar-watch.

M1:  ME  solar-watch  MO  buy-T.
M2:  ME  buy-T  solar-watch  MO.

@  Enthymeme Partcles     -ui  [ui],     -mn  [mN]

Both '-ui' and '-mn' mean 'etc' and are placed at the end of all kinds of parts of speech.  You can choose
either one, whichever you phonetically prefer.

Ex

ILyUM-ui-W  .......  mother, etc.-W (mother and other people-W)
ILyUM-ui -O .......  mother, etc.-O (mother and other people-O)

BEEK-mn-W ........ book, etc.-W (book, etc.-W)
BEEK-mn-O .......  book, etc.-O (book, etc.-O)

APLO-ui         [aplo ui]  ............  love and do other related things
APLO-uiT       [aplo uita]
APLO-uiR       [aplo uire]
APLO-uiZE      [aplo uize]
APLO-uiTInZE   [aplo uitaiNze]
APLO-uiRInZE   [aplo uireiNze]

APLO-mn          [aplo mN]  ...........  love and do other related things
APLO-mnT         [aplo mNta]
APLO-mnR         [aplo mNre]
APLO-mnZE        [aplo mNze]
APLO-mnTInZE    [aplo mNTAiNze]
APLO-mnRInZE    [aplo mNreiNze]

NURI-ui         [nu:ri ui]  .........  write and do other relevant things
NURI-uiT       [nu:ri uita]
NURI-uiR       [nu:ri uire]
NURI-uiTInZE   [nuri uitaiNze]
NURI-uiRInZE   [nuri uireiNze]

NURI-mn         [nu:ri mN]  ........  write and do other relevant things
NURI-mnT       [nu:ri mNta]
NURI-mnR       [nu:ri mNre]
NURI-mnTInZE    [nu:ri mNtaiNze]
NURI-mnRInZE    [nu:ri mNreiNze]

@  Flag Particle      An  [aN]

An is placed before a postcedent (M1) or an antecedent (M2) as a marker.  However, if the sentence is simple
enough, the use of 'An' is not necessary.

EX. There is still the old, funny looking station with the red roof and many doves where I once met my ex-husband.

M1:  SE once ex-husband-O meet-T Ky old, funny looking, and red roof OnD MUQ dove IZ An station-W still RIZ.
M2:  Old, funny looking An station-W  IZL red roof OnD MUQ dove Ky SE once meet-T ex-husband-O ZA still RIZ.

     <Note> 'An' is a marker for 'station', which is antecedent for M1 and postcedent for M2.  
               Ky is Clause Leader that leads modification clause (adjective clause), and means 'that', 'which', or 'who'.
               RIZ means 'to exist'.   In NOXILO, there is not  'there is --'  structure.   ZA is the Punctuation Particle
               for M2.  ZA is helpful but PA (punctuation particle for M1) is not necessary here.

     <Note> We learn more about the postcedent and the precedent in the homepage 5.

@  Punctuation Particles     PA  (for M1),     ZA  (for M2)

PA is placed to show the beginning of the modification phrase or the modification clause in any complex sentence,
whereas ZA is used to show the end of the modification phrase or modification clause in any complex sentence.

Ex. She went to the railway station where she had met her ex-husband.

M1:  DAFE  PA  DAFE  ex-husband-L  meet-T  Ky  railway  station  UT  ITU-T.
M2:  DAFE  ITU-T  UTL  railway  station  Ky  DAFE  meet-T  ex-husband-L .

     <Note> PA shows the beginning of the modifying clause 'DAFE ex-husband-L meet-T Ky'.
               The use of PA is optional (freehand), but is useful for beginners.
               The M2 sentence doesn't need PA.

Ex. The lawyer whose sister works at the library bought a new car.

M1:  FEI  sister-W  library  AT  work  Ky  lawyer-W  new  car-O  buy-T.
M2:  Lawyer-W  Ky  FEI  sister-W  work  ATL  library  ZA  buy-T  new  car-O.

     <Note> ZA shows the end of the modifying clause 'Ky FEI sister-W work ATL library'.
               FEI means one's (his/her).   ZA is optional, but is useful for begginers.
               There is no room (reason) to place ZA in the M1 sentence.

@  Enhancement Partcles     VI  [vi],      VII  [vi:]

When you need to emphasize any particular word in a sentence, you put VI immediately before the word.
VII is used for phrases and sentences.  You can surround the phrase or sentence with two VIIs as below.

Ex.  

VI UTL New York  ............   UTL (UTL means 'to' in English) is emphasized.
UTL VI New York  ............   'New York' is emphasized but UTL is not.
VII UTL New York VII  .........  'UTL New York' is emphasized.

    <Note> 'to New York'   or   to New York  or  to New York  are all acceptable to NOXILO.

@  Interrogative Particle     HyA  [hya]

HyA is used to ask for specific resons.

Ex.  Why did you visit India ?     (Asking why particularly 'you' rather than another person)

M1:  ?  Hya  ME  India-O  visit-T.
M2:  ?  Hya  ME  visit-T  India-O.

If you need to specifically ask about the reasons for visiting or for India, Hya should be put before 'visit' or 'India'
respectively.

M1:  ?  ME India-O  Hya  visit-T.
M2:  ?  ME  Hya  visit-T  India-O.

M1:  ?  ME  Hya  India-O  visit-T.
M2:  ?  ME  visit-T  HyA  India-O.

When a specification is not necessary,  'HyAA'  or  'HyA,'  should be placed at the beggining of a sentence,
as below.

M1:  ?  HyAA  ME  India-O  visit-T.
M2:  ?  HyAA  Me  visit-T  India-O.

M1:  ?  HyA,  ME  India-O  visit-T.
M2:  ?  HyA,  Me  visit-T  India-O.

@  Respect  Particle        JIA [jia]     LA [la]

JIA is placed before name and personal pronouns,  and LA before verbs to show respect.
JIA is taken from JII in Hindi.

Ex. Sir, You invented the smallpox vaccine. 

M1: JIA  ME  smallpox  vaccine-O  LA  invent-T。
M2: JIA  ME  LA  invent-T  smallpox  vaccine-O.

Ex.  King gave that researcher Nobel Prize medal.

M1: JIA  ERnT-W  BOI  AVRIAn-O  Nobel  EZEL-O  LA  APIS-T
M2: JIA  ERnT-W  LA  APIS-T  BOI  AVRIAn-O  Nobel  EZEL-O.

  <Note> JIA may be deleted for the King, Queen, etc. because these words already carry highest respect.
         ERnT = king,  AVRIAn = researcher,  EZEL = medal,  APIS = give

@  Neglect Particle        BBU [bbu:]

BBU is placed after verbs when continuation of the action is considered improper, unpleasant, or unusual.
In case the last letter of a verb is 'B',  DDU [ddu:] should be used instead of BBU.
When verbs carry other particles like -T, -R, -In, or -ZE,  the BBU should be placed after these particles.

Ex.  The person kept the faucet open and left home.

M1:  FE faucet open keep-T BBU OnD home-O leave-T.
M2:  FE keep-T BBU faucet open OnD leave-T home-O.



14-9.  Prefix

 Prefix  Pronunciation            Meaning                            Example
 AAP  [a:p] meta -, super -  AAP-physics (meta-physics), AAP-conductivity (super-conductivity)
 BA  [ba] fail to -(do), failure to-(do)   BA-catch (fail to catch), BA-wake up (fail to wake up = oversleep)
 DE  [de] de -, anti -  DE-ABEKT (opposite effect), DE-ELBIL (distrust),
 DE-EIHyUS (decolorize), DE-UMRO (backspin)
 EL  [el] self -  EL-AnRU (kill oneself/suicide), EL-AnRUTI (self-killing)
 EQU  [echu:] existing -  EQU-REn (manned/by man)
 GO  [go]  every  GO-2NE (every 2 days), GO-2WIIK (every 2 weeks)
 HAn  [haN] anti -, against -  HAn-IJUL (against law/illegal), HAn-ITn (reaction),
 Han-SUSTI (anti-smoking), HAn-NAAS MyOSL (anti-air missile)
 HI  [hi] action recipient  HI-
 HIn  [hiN] de -, not -  HIn-
 HL  [hl]  anti -   HL-
 IBn  [ibuN] no -, nothing -  IBn-
 KA  [ka] possible -, maybe -  KA- possible
 KRn  [kurN] semi -, partial -  KRn- semi/half
 LEIT  [leit] late -  LEIT-Kennedy (late Kennedy)
 LIM  [lim] most -, extreme -  LIM- ('L-adjective' is acceptable)
 MI  [mi] not yet -, still  MI-
 MTO  [muto] former -, ex -  MTO-President (former President)
 NAn  [naN]  very hard -   NAn-
 OLE  [ole]  less -   OLE-   (=LEE)
 OOL  [o:l(u)] all -  OOL-American (all American)
 OVR  [ovr]  over -   OVR-   (=FAA)
 PAX  [pash] partial(ly) -  PAX-
 POS  [puto] post -, after -  POS-modern (post-modern), POS-Bush (post-Bush administration)
 SAI  [sai] re -  SAI-dial (re-dial)
 XIn  [shiN] pro-  XIn-
 ZEn  [zeN] pre -, before -  ZEn-

(Note) Hyphen (-) after prefix is occasionally deleted.


14-10.  Suffix

 suffix  Pronunciation           Meaning                            Example
 AT  [at]  -place (facility)  EDPEG-AT (sports field/stadium)
 AA    [a:]  -er  InPIS-AA  (one who kills man) or
 AnRU-AA  (one who kills)  
 II  [i:]  -ee  InPIS-II  (person who is killed) or
 AnRU-II  (one who is killed)
 FAn  [faN]  -fan  EVLIT-FAn  (literature fan)
 ILT  [ilt]  -semi professional  AnBAA_ISL-ILT  (those who aim to be mathematician),
 (AnBAAILT for short)
 ISL  [isl]   -study/research  IHyURI-ISL (history/history study/history reserach)  
 IST    [ist]  -professional  AnBAA_ISL-IST (mathematician)  
 (AnBAAIST for short)

 DOOS_ISL-IST (physicist),
 (DOOSIST for short)

 EQMII_ISL-IST (chemist)
 (EQMIIST for short)    
 ISM   [ism]  -ism  AFKOM-ISM (Communism)  
 IUE  [iue]  -early (1st)  EXRIn-IUE (principle first/apriori)
 EDPER-IUE (experience first/aposteriori) 
 IULA  [iul]  -late (2nd)  InTRA-IULA (reason comes late)
 JIn  [jiN]  -ist  UAAR-JIn (liberalist)
 In  [iN]  -in the middst of  AKyRAK-In (under construction)
 NAE  [nae]   -less   AnBAA-NAE (numberless/innumerable)
 NE  [ne]  -nature/being/grounds  1DAIn-NE (subjectivity)
 VIL  [vil]  -zation  Finland-VIL (Finlandization)

(Note 1)  Hyphen (-) before suffix is often omitted although it is left in the above table. 
(Note 2)  A series of three or more of the same vowels, such as AAA or III, should be avoided.




***********************
Ch-15  Interrogatives
***********************

There are four types of Interrogative Sentences in NOXILO, as shown below.

Type 1:  One that only requests YUP ('Yes' in English)  or NAI ('No' in English)
Type 2:  One that seeks an explanation.
Type 3:  Tag questions
Type 4:  Rhetorical questions (Irony).

Interrogative Sentences in NOXILO have the following  features.

  Type 1 and Type 2 have  '?'  or  'ESK'  at the beginning of the sentence.
  Type 2 includes the Interrogatives shown in the left column in table below, and, unlike English,  
     the interrogatives are placed where the missing answers would heve been originally.
  Type 3 (Tag questions) have  ETOn  at the end of the sentence.
  Type 4 (Rhetorical) have  ENA  in the beginning of the sentence.  Also, this type of
   interrogative sentence sometimes contains the interrogatives
such as HyA ('why' in English)  and  HyE ('how').

 Subject form of interrogatives don't take the element particle '-W' as the subject form of personal pronouns
     (SE(N), ME(N), .... TE(N) ) don't take the '-W'.

  The word order of Interrogative Sentences is the same as Affirmative Sentences;  the word order does
     not change for any reason in NOXILO except for the reversion between M1 and M2.
 In conversation, the '?' (or 'ESK') can simply be pronounced [e] instead of [esk].


  Interrogatives     Pronunciation        Classifications                Meaning
HA
HAS
HANA
[ha]
[has]
[hana]
Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative verb
Interrogative adjective
what
HI
HIS
HINA
HILI
[hi]
[his]
[hina]
[hili]
Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative verb
Interrogative adjective
Interrogative adverb
which
HU [hu:] Interrogative pronoun Who
HE
HENA
HELI
[he]
[hena]
[heli]
Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative adjective
Interrogative adverb
when
HO
HONA
HOLI
[ho]
[hona]
[holi]
Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative adjective
Interrogative adverb
where
HyA
HyAA
[hya]
[hya:]
Interrogative partcle
Interrogative adverb
why
Hy
HyNA
HyLI
[hy(u)]
[hy(u)na]
[hy(u)li]
Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative adjective
Interrogative adverb
How much (degree)
HyE
HyELI
[hye]
[hyeli]
Interrogative pronoun
Interrogative adverb
How (method)
ESK  or   ? [esk],
[e] for conversation
Interrogative adverb to be placed at the beginning
of interrogative sentences.
ETOn [etoN] Interrogative adverb Tag questions
ENA [ena] Interrogative adverb Rhetorical questions (Irony)


First, we will learn the simplest form of Interrogative Sentences (Type 1), which request only a YUP ('Yes' in English)
or a NAI ('No') for an answer.

15-1. Interrogative Sentences that request only a YUP (Yes)  or  a NAI (No) response

Type 1 and Type 2 Interrogative Sentences must have a '?'  or  an 'ESK' at the beginning of the sentence.
The '?' is better than 'ESK' simply because the '?' is shorter than 'ESK'.   Either '?' or 'ESK' is pronounced [esk],
but in cenversation these can be pronounced [e] instead of [esk].

Ex. Did you have a lunch ?

M1 :  ? ME  lunch-O  KU-T.
M2 :  ? ME  KU-T  lunch-O.

  <Note> KU means 'to eat and drink'.  For your reference, KUI means 'to eat', and KUD 'to drink'.
              TUV ( = to have) instead of KU is acceptable.   'ESK' for '?' is acceptable as shown below.

              M1 :  ESK  ME  lunch-O  KU-T.
              M2 :  ESK  ME  KU-T  lunch-O.

Ex.  Wasn't the baby sleeping ?

M1 :  ? Baby-W  NAI  sleep-TIn.
M2 :  ? Baby-W  NAI  sleep-TIn.

    <Note> '-TIn' denotes the past progressive tense, and is pronounced [taiN].

If the baby was sleeping, the answer would be as follows.

M1 :  YUP,  baby-W  sleep-TIn.
M2 :  YUP,  baby-W  sleep-TIn.

If not,

M1 :  NAI,  baby-W  NAI  sleep-TIn.
M2 :  NAI,  baby-W  NAI  sleep-TIn.

If you do not know if the baby is sleeping, you can answer as follows:

M1 :  SE  NAI  know.
M2 :  SE  NAI  know.


15-2. Interrogative Sentences which request explanations

In NOXILO, Type 2 of Interrogative Sentence also starts with  '?'  or  'ESK'  at the beginning of the
sentence and include any interrogatives shown below:

Interroga.
Pronouns
Subject


possession


complement


object
Interrog.
Verbs

Interrog.
Adjectives

Interrog.
Adverbs

Interrog.
Particles
 
Clause
Leaders

(for ref.)
English

(for ref.)
HA
What
HAI
what
HA-E
What
HA-O
What
HAS
do what
HANA
What
  what
HI
Which
HII
which
HI-E
Which
HI-O
Which
HIS
do which
HINA
Which
HILI
Which
  which
HU
Who
HUI
whom
HU-E
Whom
HU-O
Whom
    who
HE
When
HEI
when
HE-E
When
HE-O
When
  HENA
when 
HELI
When
  EEA when
HO
Where
HOI
where
HO-E
Where
HO-O
Where
  HONA
where
HOLI
Where
  AAT where
  HyAA
Why
HyA
why
IID why
Hy
How much
HyI
How much
Hy-E
How much
Hy-O
How much
  HyNA
How much
HyLI
How much
  how
(degree)
HyE
How
HyEI
How
HyE-E
How
HyE-O
How
  HyELI
How
  how
(method)

(Note)  Subject form of interrogatives don't take the element particle '-W'. (HA is right, but HA-W is wrong.)


The following table includes Interrogative Possessive Pronouns which show attachment, application, etc.

 Subject    Complement   Object
HAM
of what
HAM-E
HAM-O
HIM
of which
HIM-E
HIM-O
HUM
of who
HUM-E
HUM-O


The obvious difference between NOXILO Interrogative Sentences and the English equivalent is the position of
the Interrogatives.  As mentioned before, the Interrogatives of NOXILO should be put in the position where the
missing answer-word was originally occupied.  In addition, the word order never changes and remains the same
as the word order of affirmative sentences.  In conversation, '?' (or ESK) can be pronounced [e] instead of [esk].


Let's look at each of the interrogatives in Type 2 one by one (from 'HA' ......  to 'ENA').

@  HA  (what/ interrogative pronoun)

Ex.  What is the problem?

M1 :  ?  HA  problem  (RI).
M2 :  ?  HA  (RI)  problem.

    <Note> The '-E' that complements the word 'problem' is not needed because the sentence is simple.
               RI can be omitted because it's a 'S be C' (SC be for M1) type sentence in present tense.
               HA is right but HA-W is wrong.

Ex.  What (about that/it) is wrong ?        (Note) = What is wrong with it ?

M1 :  ?  TEI  HA  wrong  (RI).
M2 :  ?  TEI  HA  (RI)  wrong.

Ex.  What did you eat ?

M1 :  ?  ME  HA-O  KUI-T.
M2 :  ?  ME  KUI-T  HA-O.

    <Note> KUI means 'to eat', and KUD 'to drink', and KU 'to eat and drink' (= have).
               KUI can be replaced with KU in this example.

Ex.  What are these parts for ?

M1 :  ?  TE  HAI  part  (RI).
M2 :  ?  TE  (RI)  HAI  part.

    <Note> HAI is possesive form of HA, which isn't seen in English.  For instance, the answer would be
              'for engine' (engine parts).

Ex.  What is it ?

M1 :  ?  TE  HA  (RI).
M2 :  ?  TE  (RI)  HA.

Ex.  What is the NOXILO word for the English word 'song' ?     (= How do you say for 'song' in NOXILO ?)

M1 :  ?  English'Z  song-W  NOXILO'Z  HA  (RI).
M2 :  ?  English'Z  song-W  (RI)  NOXILO'Z  HA.

    <Note> The 'song' UBL English (English UB 'song' for M1) is a bit too long, but still acceptable.  
              'HA-E' is not necessary because the sentence is simple and easy to understand.

Ex.  How do you say this in NOXILO ?

M1 :  ?  TO-W  NOXILO'Z  HA  (RI).
M2 :  ?  TO-W  (RI)  NOXILO'Z  HA.

    <Note> The following is long, but still acceptable.

               M1:  ?  TO-W  NOXILO UB HA  (RI).
               M2:  ?  TO-W  (RI)  HA UBL NOXILO.

Ex.  What are the differences between A and B ?     (= How do A and B differ ? )

M1 :  ?  A  OnD  B  AM  difference-W  HA  (RI).
M2 :  ?  Difference-W  AML  A  OnD  B  (RI)  HA.


We will examime SOCV (SVOC for M2) including Interragatives, and the case that  'My+S2+V2'  in  S1+V1+ My+S2+V2
(S1+ S2+V2+My + V1 for M1) is the object clause or the complementary clause of V1.  'My', the equivalent to 'that' in
English is a Clause Leader that leads the noun clause.

Ex.  I know what it is. 

M1 :  SE  TE  HA  know.
M2 :  SE  know  TE  HA.

M1 :  SE  TE  HA  RI  My  know.
M2 :  SE  know  My  TE  RI  HA.

   <Note> The 2nd example is long but it's acceptable.

Ex.  I do not understand what is what.

M1 :  SE  HA  HA  NAI  understand.
M2 :  SE  NAI  understand  HA  HA.

M1 :  SE  HA  HA-E  NAI  understand.
M2 :  SE  NAI  understand  HA  HA-E.

M1 :  SE  HA  HA-E  RI  My  NAI  understand.
M2 :  SE  NAI  understand  My  HA  RI  HA-E.

   <Note> The 3rd example is not very good because it's long.

Ex.  I know what will happen.

M1 :  SE  HA  happen-R  My  know.
M2 :  SE  know  My  HA  happen-R.

The above example could be written as follows with verb-adjective.

M1 :  SE  happen-RK  HA-O  know.
M2 :  SE  know  happen-RK  HA-O.

    <Note> Verb-adjective 'happen-RK' stands alone without taking any object. Therefore, it is treated
               as an one-word-adjective and is placed immediately before HA-O for both M1 and M2.

If we use a Clause Leader 'Ky' for the verb adjective '-K', the word order must change as follows.

M1 :  SE  happen-R  Ky  HA-O  know.
M2 :  SE  know  HA-O  Ky  happen-R.

    <Note> The HA-O in M1 is a postcedent, and the HA-O in M2 an antecedent.
              This 3rd example is not very good because it's long.

Ex.  I consider what made her do so.

M1 :  SE  (PA)  HA  DAFE  SOO  DU  BLE-T My  INOGS.
M2 :  SE  INOGS  My  HA  BLE-T  DAFE  SOO  DU.

    <Note> DU is a proverb (=do).  BLE is causative verb (=make/have).  INOGS means to think.

If we use the verb-adjective '-K',

M1 :  SE  DAFE  SOO  DU  BLE-TK  HA-O  INOGS.
M2 :  SE  INOGS  HA-O  BLE-TK  DAFE  SOO  DU.

If we use Clause Leader 'Ky' that leads an adjective clause,

M1 :  SE  (PA)  HA  DAFE  SOO  DU  BLE-T  Ky  HA-O  INOGS.
M2 :  SE  INOGS  HA-O  Ky  BLE-T  DAFE  SOO  DU.

Ex.  I want to know what you have (eat & drink).

M1 :  SE  ME  HA-O  KU  My  know  <  IYAnS.
M2 :  SE  IYAnS  >  know  My  ME  KU  HA-O.

   <Note> IYAnS means to want,  and IYAA is a polite expression for IYAnS.
             Incidentally, IYUS means to ask/want, and IYPES to hope.
             KU means to eat & drink, and KUD to drink, KUI to eat.

@  HAS  (interrogative verb)

HAS is the verb form of HA.

Ex.  What do you do ?

M1:  ?  ME  HAS.
M2:  ?  ME  HAS.

Ex.  What did he do for (to) you ?

M1:  ?  MAFE  ME-O  HAS-T.
M2:  ?  MAFE  HAS-T  ME-O.

Ex.  What should I do next ?

M1:  ?  SE  IUGA  GIMI  HAS.
M2:  ?  SE  IUGA  GIMI  HAS.

    <Note> IUGA means 'next', and GIMI (auxiliary verb) means 'should'.  Auxiliary verbs are pleced
              immediately before verbs for M1 and M2.

@  HANA  (what/ interrogative adjective)

HANA is the adjective form of HA.

Ex.  What country is the most eager for foreign aid ?

M1 :  ? HANA country-W foreign aid AB FAST eager (RI).
M2 :  ? HANA country-W (RI) FAST eager ABL foreign aid.

    <Note> HANA country means 'what country'.  AM (ABL for M2) is 'about' (preposition).

Ex.  What color do you like ?

M1 :  ? ME HANA color-O APLIS.
M2 :  ? ME APLIS HANA color-O.

    <Note> 'HANA color' means 'what color'.

Ex.  What time is it now?

M1 :  ? TAU HANA AHSA (RI).
M2 :  ? TAU (RI) HANA AHSA.

    <Note> TAU means 'now', and HANA AHSA means 'what time-point'.
               AHSA can be replaced with SAMAE.

Ex.  I do not know what time it is.

M1 :  ?  SE  TAU  HANA  AHSA-O  NAI  know.
M2 :  ?  SE  NAI  know  TAU  HANA  AHSA-O.

@  HAM  (interrogative possessive pronoun)

Ex.
 I want to investigate what this gene belongs to.

M1 :  SE  (PA)  TO  gene-W  HAM  (RI)  My  investigate  <  IYAnS.
M2 :  SE   IYAnS  >  investigete  My  TO  gene-W  (RI)  HAM.

    <Note> HAM is an Interrogative Possessive Pronoun, which shows possession, attachment, or application.
              'HAM-E' is not necessary because this sentence is simple and easy to understand.  PA is a punctuation
              particle for M1.   ZA (punctuation particle for M2) is not necessary in this particular example.


@  HI  (which/ interro. pronoun),  HIS  (interro. verb),  HINA (interro. adjective),  HILI  (interro. adverb),
     HIM  (interro. possessive pronoun)

HI means 'which', and HINA and HILI are the adjective and adverb forms of HI, respectively.

Ex.  Which is right ?

M1 :  ?  HI  right  (RI).
M2 :  ?  HI  (RI)  right.

Ex.  Which do you like ?

M1 :  ? ME HI-O APLIS.
M2 :  ? ME APLIS HI-O.

Ex.  Which will attract you, love or moneymaking ?

M1 :  ? Love OA moneymaking HI ME-O attract-R.
M2 :  ? Love OA moneymaking HI attract-R ME-O.

M1 :  ? HI ME-O attract-R love OA moneymaking.
M2 :  ? HI attract-R ME-O love OA moneymaking.

EX.  Which do you do ?     (to work or to take day off ?)

M1:  ? ME HIS.
M2:  ? ME HIS.

    <Note> Answer would be 'I will go to my office.'  or  'I will take day off today'.

Ex.  Which building is taller ?

M1 :  ? HINA building-W tall (RI).
M2 :  ? HINA building-W (RI) tall.

    <Note> FAA is not necessary.

M1 :  ? HINA building-W FAA tall (RI).
M2 :  ? HINA building-W (RI) FAA tall.

    <Note> The above example is possible if there's an agreement that both bulidings are tall.

Ex.  Which do you like to drink, coffee or black tea ?

M1:  ? ME  coffee  OA  black  tea  HI-O  KUD  <  IYAA.
M2:  ? ME  IYAA  >  KUD  coffee  OA  black  tea  HI-O.

M1:  ? ME  HINA  coffee  OA  black  tea-O  KUD  <  IYAA.
M2:  ? ME  IYAA  >  KUD  HINA  coffee  OA  black  tea-O.

The following is acceptable in a conversation.

M1:  ? coffee  OA  black  tea.
M2:  ? coffee  OA  black  tea.

M1:  ? CEEKA  OA  EIBLA_CEEI.
M2:  ? CEEKA  OA  EIBLA_CEEI.

    <Note> CEEKA means 'coffee', and EIBLA_CEEI means black tea. 

Ex.  Which way must I go ?

M1:  ? SE  HINA  way  GIM  go.
M2:  ? SE  GIM  go  HINA  way.

    <Note> GIM means 'must'.   UT (UTL for M2) means 'to' (Preposition in English).

M1:  ?  SE  HILI  GIM  go.
M2:  ?  SE  HILI  GIM  go.

Ex.  Which of you sister or brother has this book ?

M1 :  ?  TO  book-W  HIM  sister  OA  brother  (RI).
M2 :  ?  TO  book-W  (RI)  HIM  sister  OA  brother.

M1 :  ?  TO-W  sister  OA  brother  HII  book  (RI).
M2 :  ?  TO-W  (RI)  sister  OA  brother  HII  book.

    <Note> TO means 'this', and OA means 'or'.   HIM is an interrogative possesive pronoun.
              HII is the possessive form of HI.


@  HU  (who/ interrogative pronoun),   HUM  (interrog. possessive pronoun)

Ex.  Who goes there ?

M1 :  ? HU  BOIE  go.
M2 :  ? HU  BOIE  go.

    <Note> BOIE means 'there'.

Ex.  Who are you ?

M1 :  ?  ME  HU  (RI).
M2 :  ?  ME  (RI)  HU.

Ex.  Who(m) do you meet ?

M1 :  ?  ME  HU-O  meet.
M2 :  ?  ME  meet  HU-O.

Ex.  To whom did she send the letter ?

M1 :  ?  DAFE  HU  UT  letter-O  send-T.
M2 :  ?  DAFE  send-T  UTL  HU  letter-O.

M1 :  ?  DAFE  HU  letter  send-T.
M2 :  ?  DAFE  send-T  HU  letter.

    <Note> The 2nd sentences are better (see the webpage 1).

Ex.  I asked who he was.

M1 :  SE  MAFE  HU  ask-T.
M2 :  SE  ask-T  MAFE HU.

M1 :  SE MAFE HU (RI) My ask-T.
M2 :  SE ask-T My MAFE (RI) HU.

Ex.  Whose bicycle is this ?

M1 :  ? TO  bicycle-W  HUM  (RI).
M2 :  ? TO  bycicle-W  (RI)  HUM.

M1 :  ? TO-W  HUI  bicycle  (RI).
M2 :  ? TO-W  (RI)  HUI  bycicle.

Ex.  Do you know whose book this is ?

M1 :  ? ME  TO-W  HUI  book  (RI)  know.
M2 :  ? ME  know  TO-W  (RI)  HUI  book.

M1 :  ? ME  TE  HUI  book  (RI)  My  know.
M2 :  ? ME  know  My  TE  (RI)  HUI  book.

Ex.  I do not know whose thing this is.

M1 :  SE  TO-W  HUM  (RI)  My  NAI  know.
M2 :  SE  NAI  know  My  TO-W  (RI)  HUM.


@  HE  (when/ interrogative pronoun),  HENA  (interro. adjective),  HELI  (interro. adverb)

Ex.  'When' is very important.

M1 :   HE  ZAO  important  (RI).
M2 :   HE  (RI)  ZAO  important.

    <Note> ZAO means 'very'.   HE is the subject, but it doesn't need '-W'.

Ex.  When was the report made ?

M1 :  ? TE  HENA  report  (RI).
M2 :  ? TE  (RI)  HENA  report.

M1 :  ? TE  HEI  report  (RI).
M2 :  ? TE  (RI)  HEI  report.

    <Note> HEI is a possessive form of HE.   A possible answer would be  'February 25th, 2010',  or
               The report is dated (or made) February 25th, 2010.

M1 :  ? report-W HELI NURI-TZE..
M2 :  ? report-W HELI NURI-TZE..

    <note> NURI means 'to write', and NURI-TZE (pronounced [nu:ritaze]) means 'was written' and can be
              replaced with EKAM-TZE. (=was made).

Ex.  We are asking when.

M1 :  SEN  HE-O  ask-In.
M2 :  SEN  ask-In  HE-O.

Ex.  When did it happen ?

M1 :  ? TE  HELI  happen-T.      (a possible answer = yesterday morning)
M2 :  ? TE  HELI  happen-T.      (a possible answer = yesterday morning)

Ex.  She considers when it happened.

M1 :  DAFE  TE  HELI  happen-T  My  INOGS.
M2 :  DAFE  INOGS  My  TE  HELI  happen-T.


@  HO (where/ interrogative pronouns)  and  HOLI  (interro. adverbs)

Ex. 'Where' must come first.

M1 :  HO  1DAI  GIM  come.
M2 :  HO  1DAI  GIM  come.

Ex.  You do not understand the importance of when.

M1 :  ME  HOI  importance-O  NAI  understand.
M2 :  ME  NAI  understand  HOI  importance-O.

   <Note> HOI is a possessive form of HO.

Ex.  Where is it ?

M1 :  ?  TE  HOLI  RIZ.       (a possible answer = my room AT or simply my room)
M2 :  ?  TE  HOLI  RIZ.       (a possible answer = ATL my room or simply my room)

    <Note> RIZ means 'to exist'.

Ex.   Where should we go ?

M1 :  ?  SEN  HOLI  GIMI  go.       (a possible answer = SE New York UT GIMI go, or simply New York)
M2 :  ?  SEN  HOLI  GIMI  go.       (a possible answer = SE GIMI go UTL New York, or simply New York)

Ex.  I do not know where it is.

M1 :  SE  TE  HOLI  RIZ  My  NAI  know.
M2 :  SE  NAI  know  My  TE  HOLI  RIZ.


@  HyA  (why/ interrogative particle)  and  HyAA  (why/ interrogative adverb)

Ex.  I do not know why it is.

M1 :  SE HyA TE RI My NAI know.
M2 :  SE NAI know My HyA TE RI.

Ex.  Why does mother go to India?

M1:  ? HyA, mother-W BAARAT UT go.
M2:  ? HyA, mother-W go UTL BAARAT.

    <Note> 'HyA,' at the head of the sentence modifies whole sentence, whereas 'HyA' modifies the next word only.

M1:  ? HyAA mother-W BAARAT UT go.
M2:  ? HyAA mother-W go UTL BAARAT.

    <Note> 'HyAA' is always placed at the top of sentence and modifies the whole sentence ( HyAA = HyA, ). 
              BAARAT means India.  

If the 'mother' is questioned ,

M1:  ? HyA mother-W BAARAT UT go.
M2:  ? HyA mother-W go UTL BAARAT.

If 'BAARATO' is to be questioned,

M1:  ? mother-W HyA BAARAT UT go.
M2:  ? mother-W go UTL HyA BAARAT.

If 'go' is to be questioned,

M1:  ? mother-W BAARAT UT HyA go.
M2:  ? mother-W HyA go UTL BAARAT.

Ex.  It is of little importance as to why it happend.

M1 :  TE  HyA  happening -T  My  LEE  important  RI.
M2 :  My  TE  HyA  happen-T  (ZA)  RI  LEE  important.

Ex.  I asked the sister why mother would go to India.

M1 :  SE  sister-O  (PA)  HyA  mother-W  BAARAT  UT  go  My  ask-T.
M2 :  SE  ask-T  syster-O  My  HyA  mother-W  go  UTL  BAARAT.


@  Hy  (how much/ interrogative pronouns),  HyNA  (interro. adjectives),  and  HyLI  (interro. adverbs)

Ex.  How are you ?

M1 :  ?  ME  HyNA  (RI).
M2 :  ?  ME  (RI)  HyNA.

Ex.  How much do you have ?

M1 :  ?  ME  Hy-O  TUV.
M2 :  ?  ME  TUV  Hy-O.

M1 :  ?  ME  HyNA  MUQ-O  TUV.
M2 :  ?  ME  TUV  HyNA  MUQ-O.

Ex.  How much money do you have ?

M1 :  ?  ME  HyNA  InKMA-O  TUV.
M2 :  ?  ME  TUV  HyNA  InKMA-O.

Ex.  How (often) do you perform ?

M1:  ?  ME  HyLI  perform.
M2:  ?  ME  HyLI  perform.

    <Note> This does not ask about method, but about something like eagerness, work hours, or the like.

Ex.  How big it is ?

M1:  ?  TE  HyLI  AUB  (RI).
M2:  ?  TE  (RI)  HyLI  AUB.

Ex.  How fast did she run ?

M1:  ?  DAFE  HyLI  fast  run-T.
M2:  ?  DAFE  HyLI  fast  run-T.

Ex.  My question is how fast that airplane flies.

M1 :  SEI  question-W  BOI  airplane-W  HyLI  fast  fly  My  RI.
M2 :  SEI  question-W  RI  My  BOI  airplane-W  HyLI  fast  fly.

The above sentences could be shortened in SOCV (SVOC for M2) as below.

M1:   SE  BOI  airplane  HyLI  fast  fly  ask.
M2:   SE  ask  BOI  airplane  HyLI  fast  fly.

    <Note> 'BOI airplane' is for O, and 'HyLI fast fly' for C in SOCV (SVOC for M2).
              'BOI airplane' should be in the basic form (BOI airplane) instead of the subject form (BOI airplane-W).

Ex.  Do you understand how important this is.

M1 :  ?  ME  (PA)  TO-W  HyLI  important  (RI)  My  understand.
M2 :  ?  ME  understand  My  TO-W  (RI)  HyLI  important.

    <Note> The above sentences can be written in SOCV (SVOC for M2), as shown below.

M1 :  ?  ME  TO  HyLI  important  understand.
M2 :  ?  ME  understand  TO  HyLI  important.

    <Note> 'TO' is for O, and 'HyLI important' for C in SOCV (SVOC for M2).
               'TO' must be in the basic form (TO) instead of the subject form (TO-W).


@  HyE  (how/ interrogative pronouns),   HyELI  (interro. adverbs)

Ex.  'How' is not important.

M1 :  HyE  NAI  important  (RI).
M2 :  HyE  (RI)  NAI  important.

Ex.  How do we make this cookie ?

M1 :  ?  SEN  TO  cookie-O  HyELI  make.
M2 :  ?  SEN  HyELI  make  TO  cookie-O.

Ex.  We study how to use this machine.

M1 :  SEN  TO  machine  HyELI  use  study.
M2 :  SEN  study  TO  machine  HyELI  use.

M1 :  SEN  (PA)  SEN  TO  machine-O  HyELI  use  My  study.
M2 :  SEN  study  My  SEN  HyELI  use  TO  machimne-O. 

Ex.  The question is how it was obtained.

M1 :  Question-W  TE  HyELI  obtain-TZE  My  RI.
M2 :  Question-W  RI  My  TE  HyELI  obtain-TZE.

Ex.  The question is how did heobtain it.

M1 :  Question-W  he  TE-O  HyELI  obtain-T  My  RI.
M2 :  Question-W  RI  My  he  HyELI  obtain-T  TE-O.

Ex.  How it was obtained is the question.

M1 :  TE-O  HyELI  obtain-TM-W  question  RI.
M2 :  TE-O  HyELI  obtain-TM-W  RI  question.

  <Note> A gerund is used since the subject is unknown.


@  ETOn  (tag question)

ETOn is placed at the end of the sentence.

Ex.  I can move this term to the left side, can't I ?

M1 : SE  TO  term-O  left  side  UT  GIMA  move,  ETOn.
M2 : SE  GIMA  move  TO  term-O  UTL  left  side, ETOn.

Ex.  You were sleeping, weren't you ?

M1 :  ME  sleep-TIn,  ETOn.
M2 :  ME  sleep-TIn,  ETOn.


@  ENA  (rhetorical question /irony)

ENA is placed a the beginning of the sentence.

Ex.  Who knows ?   (=nobody knows) .

M1 :  ENA,  HU know.
M2 :  ENA,  HU know.

Ex.  How can I become so cruel ?    (= I cannot become so cruel.)

M1 : ENA, SE  GIMA  SOO  cruel  EQKAZ.
M2 : ENA, SE  GIMA  EQKAZ  SOO  cruel.

    <Note> EQKAZ means 'to become'.   The '-E' after 'cruel' is not necessary because it is a very
                simple SCV (SVC for M2) sentence.


5-3. Difference from the English interrogative sentences

In NOXILO, interrogatives are used only for question situation, whearas in English, the conjunctions such as
'when' or 'where' are used for both question and non-question cases.

Ex.  When did mother visit the house ?

M1 :  ?  Mother-W  BOI  House-O HELI visit-T.
M2 :  ?  Mother-W  HELI  visit-T  BOI  house-O.

Ex.  I want to know when mother visited the house.

M1 :  SE  mother-W  house-O  HELI  visit-T  My  know  <  IYAAS.
M2 :  SE  IYAAS  >  know  My  mother-W  HELI  visit-T  house-O.

However, the following sentence does not ask or imply a question.  In this case, in NOXILO, Clause Leader
'EEA' (EEAL for M2) instead of HELI is used instead of using 'when' (HELI) as in English.

Ex.  He was watching TV when mother visited his house.

M1:  Mother-W  DAFEI  house-L  visit-T  EEA  DAFE  TV-O  watch-TIn.
M2:  DAFE  watch-TIn  TV-O  EEAL  mother-W  visit-T  DAFEI  house-L.

    <Note> The object in a modifying clause (adjective/adverb clause) takes '-L' instead of '-O'.
      EEA (EEAL) means when (time but non-interrogative). 




    Thank you for reading! See you again on webpage 5!
           
( Webpage 5 will include Modification Agents, Composers, Clause Leaders, and a sample letter.)