NOXILO  Webpage  

                        10  August  2007    (latest corrections :   1  January  2021)

NOXILO ( pronounced NOSHILO ) is an international auxiriary language for everybody.
The following is a brief translation of the 5th part of the NOXILO textbook and webpages
written by MIZUTA Sentaro © 1996,  .......... 2021.

Table  of  the  contents  of  webpage  5

Ch-16    Modification Agents
Ch-17    Composers
Ch-18    Clause Leaders
Ch-19    Naturalist
Ch-20    Sample Letter in NOXILO

 Webpage 6 shows NOXILO Basic Words. 

Ch-16   Modification Agent

There are 2 types of modification agents (MAs);  the MAs (84 words) that work with nouns (pronouns, gerunds),  
and the MAs (6 words) that work with verbs only.  Both types form modification phrase (either adjective phrase
and/or adverb phrase),  and modify other word such as noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb or verb.  

  (Note) As we see soon, EF/EFL, EG/EGL, and EN/ENL of 84 MAs have been enpowered in Version 3.0 (8 Oct 2016);
            these 3 can now work with adjectives, adverbs, and verbs as well as nouns for simpler formation of hypothesis
            and concession.

Any MAs in Mode I are put after noun, pronoun, gerund, or verb, so it is called 'postpositions', whereas the MA in
Mode II are put before noun, pronoun, gerund, or verb, so it is called 'prepositions'.  That is, the English counterpart
of MAs in Mode II would be 'prepositions'.  There are no English counter parts for 'postpositions' in Mode I.

Unlike English, the nouns, pronouns, or gerunds which are paired with the MAs are always in subject mode
instead of object mode as  'with I'  in NOXILO instead of  'with me'  in English.

Adding a letter 'L' at the end of MAs for Mode I, you have the MAs for Mode II.   That is, the MAs in Mode II always
have L-ending, and, naturally one letter 'L' longer than the corresponding MAs in Mode I. 

@  Pattern of the modofication phrase with modofication agents

Mode I  :   Noun (pronoun, gerund, or verb)  +  MA 
Mode II :   MA  +  Noun (pronoun, gerund, or verb)

Examples :  MAs that work with nouns (pronouns, gerunds)  - - -  3 examples out of 84 MAs.

     MA in NOXILO
          Mode I
 Japanese      MA in NOXILO
          Mode II
  Pari  UT 
(MA is postpositioned) 
 Pari to   UTL  Pari
 (MA is prepositioned) 
  to  Paris
  7  IM 
(MA is postpositioned)
  7  from   IML  7
 (MA is prepositioned)
  from  7
  SE  IZ
(MA is postpositioned)
  I  with   IZL  SE
 (MA is prepositioned)
  with  me 

<Note>  SE means ' I '.   Both  SE-O  IZ  and  IZL  SE-O  are wrong because  SE-O  is an object mode.

Example :  MAs that work with verbs.  - - -  an example out of 5 MAs  (BI,  CI,  DI,  FI,  JI).

      Mode I
 Japanese    MA in NOXILO 
     Mode II
 cut  DI 
(MA is post positioned)
 cut to   DIL cut
 (MA is prepositioned)
  to cut

@  Location of the modification phrase (underlined) and the modified word (modificand)

Mode I  :   Noun (pronoun, gerund, or verb)  +  MA  +  modified word
Mode II :   modified word  +  MA  +  Noun (pronoun, gerund, or verb)

Examples :  MAs that work with nouns (pronouns, gerunds)  ----  3 out of some 80 words.

       Mode I
        Japanese    MA in NOXILO
       Mode II
  Pari  UT  go    パリ to  go  go  UTL  Pari    go  to  Pari
  7  IM  meeting    7  from  meeting  meeting  IML  7  meeting  from  7
  SE  IZ  play   
 私 with  play  play  IZL  SE  play  with  me 

<Note>  Modification phrases are underlined for convenience.  
      'go',  'meeting', and 'play',  are modified words (modificand).

Example :  MA that work with verbs.  

      Mode I
  Japanese    MA in NOXILO 
    Mode II
 cut  DI tool  切る to 道具   tool DIL cut   tool to cut

<Note>  Modification phrase is underlined for convenience.
     'tool' is modified word (modificand).

The MAs that work with nouns (pronouns, gerunds) counted some 80 in number,  which are 2- or 3-letter-word
with A, I, U, or E beginning.  Whereas, the MAs that work with verbs are only 3 in number; BI (BIL for M2), CI (CIL),
and DI (DIL).

16-1.  Modification Agents that work with nouns (pronouns, gerunds) ---  84 words

@ The following table shows all modification agents that start with an 'A'.

 MAs in 
 Mode I 
  MAs in
  Mode II
 prepositions in English 
                    Examples in Mode II
AB ABL about ABL this problem (about this problem)
AC ACL instead of ACL doing so (instead of doing so)
AD ADL according to ADL DAFE (according to him)
AE AEL except for (of) AEL Sunday (except Sunday)
AEL this situation (except for this situation)
AF AFL after AFL 7pm (after 7pm, which is excluded)
<note> TAF, TAFL includes 7pm.
AG AGL against medicine AGL virus (medicine against virus),
new missile AGL enemy ICBM (new missile against enemy ICBM)
AI  AIL  by  (time limit) I'll pay off AIL tommorow.  
( = I'll pay off by tomorrow.)
AJ AJL of, in
SEI family-W IPKOM AJL 5 REn.
(My family consist 'of' 5 people.)
AK AKL across AKL Main Street (across Main Street)
AL ALL with ALL a nife (with a knife, if you have a knife)
ALL you (with you, if you are with me)
ALL a life jacket (with a life jacket, if I have a life jacket)
AM AML among, between to be used regardless of the number of people
AN ANL compared to ANL him (compared to him)
AO AOL above AOL roof (above roof)
AP APL opposite, opposit to,
opposite side
APL City Hall (opposite City Hall)
ARP ARPL around ARPL City Hall (around the City Hall)
AS ASL since ASL 1970 (since 1970)
ASL WW II (since WW II)
AT ATL at, in (place) ATL New York (in New York)
ATL my home (at my home)
AU AUL through AUL BOI process (through that process)
AUL TO hole (through this hole)
AUL fax (through fax)
<note> BOI means 'that', and TO means 'this'.
<note>There is no articles in NOXILO.
AX AXL considering AXL low price (considering the low price)
AXL amateur (considering amateur)
AY AYL by, with AYL hammer (with hammer)
AYL MAFE (by her)
<note> AY, AYL are often used in passive voice sentence.
AZ AZL as Mr. Brown AZ governor (possible, or candidate for)

@  Modification agents that start with an 'I'

 MAs in  Mode I    MAs in
  Mode II
 corresponding  prepositions in English                       Examples in Mode II
IA IAL via IAL New York  (via New York)
IB IBL by IBL pond  (Stand by the pond !)
IC ICL until, upto ICL 5pm  (I continue to work until 5pm.)
ID IDL because of IDL DAFEI failure (because of her failure),
IDL innovation (because of innovation),
IDL weather (because of weather)
IE IEL used to show the letter or number of the said word or number 'A' IEL America ('A' in America)
'm' IEL2 America ('m' in America)
'e' IEL3 America ('e' in America)
'5' IEL 50342 ('5' in 503420)
'0' IEL2 50342 ('0' in 503420)
IF IFL as far as concerned IFL SE (as far as I am concerned)
IG IGL good in IGL baseball (good in baseball)
IGL speech (good in speech)
IK IKL in front of IKL station (in front of the railway station)
IKL goal (in front of the goal)
IL ILL like, as 
(example, resemblance)
ILL this (like this)
ILL carrot (like a carrot)
IM IML from IML 7am (from 7am)
IML New York (from New York)
IML love (from love)
IML air (from air)
IML pulp (from pulp)
IN INL in, inside IN Chicago (inside Chicago), in him (inside him)
<note> TINL includes boundary.
IO IOL for IOL him (for him, for the sake of him)
IP IPL parallel to IPL this line (parallel to this line)
IRP IRPL behind, back of IRPL house (behind the house), IRPL TO accident (behind this accident)
IS ISL outside ISL Chicago (outside of Chicago)
<note> TISL includes boundary.
IT ITL into ITL pond (into a pond), ITL car (into a car),
ITL argument (into an argument)
IU IUL in the middst of IUL house cleaning (in the middst of house cleaning),  IUL homework (in the middst of homework)
IX IXL on the way to IXL Berlin (on the way to Berlin),
IXL agreement (on the way to an agreement)
IY IYL in addition to IYL this issue (in addition to this issue)
IZ IZL with (together) box IZL ribbon (box with red ribbon),
work IZL Bank of America (work with BOA)

@  Modification agents that start with an 'U'

 MAs in  Mode I   MAs in
 Mode II
 prepositions in English
                           Examples in Mode II
UA UAL to, for big problem UAL him (big problem to him)
UB UBL of property UBL Pari (property of Pari)
name UBL school (name of the school)
University UBK Texas (University of Texas)
UC UCL without mathematics UCL tear (math. without tears)
welfare UCL tax ? (welfare without tax ?)
UD UDL under UDL desk (under the desk)
UE UEL at, with (cause of
joy, angry, surprise, sadness, etc.)
UEL FENI victory (be surprised with their victory)
UF UFL off UFL surface (off of the surface), UFL TO line (off this line), UFL BOI issue (off that issue)
UG UGL at angle UGL 45 degree (at angle of 45 degree)
UJ UJL  in  in bare foot,  in uniform 
UK UKL of, as (equalty) Mr. Smith UKL Chairman (Mr. Smith as Chiarman),
UL ULL unlike ULL English, NOXILO has two reversible standard word  order, SOV and SVO.  (unlike English, NOXILO has two reversible standard word order)
<note> ULL is pronounced [u_l] or [u_lu]
UM UML within UML these conditions (within these conditions)
UN UNL on UNL table,  UNL ceiling (on the table, on the ceiling)
UO UOL before UOL 9AM (any time before 5pm)
UOL time EEAL  I die. (any time before I die)
<note> TUO, TUOL include boundary.
UP UPL upon UPL treaty (upon treaty)
URP URPL during/for URPL summer vacation (during summer vacation/for summer vacation)
US USL despite USL his zeal (despite his zeal)
UT UTL to to Stockholm, to him, to war, to sky
UU UUL next to nice score UUL his one (nice score next to his one)
UX UXL  in the disguise of  He send-T email UXL me. (He sent an email in the disguise of me.)
UY UYL beyond beyond this line, beyond the law, beyond-right
<note> TUY, TUYL include boundary.
UZ UZL besides UZL this evidence (besides this evidence)

@  Modification agents that start with an 'E'

   (Note)  EF/EFL,  EG/EGL,  and  EN/ENL (in pink cells below) heve been empowered in
         version 3.0 (8 Oct 2016).  These 3 can work with adjectives, adverbs, and verbs as
         well as nouns (pronouns, gerunds).

 MAs in  Mode I   MAs in
 Mode II
 prepositions in English
                    Examples in Mode II
EA EAL at, in, on (time) EAL 7pm (at 7pm),  
EAL Sunday (on Sunday)
<note>Time period is expressed by 〜KAn.  (ex. "for 2 hours" = 2 XI KAn )
EB EBL (so) --- for 〜 .
(condition EBL example or descriptive event)
hot EBL boiling (hot as boiling), happy EBL hogging (happy as hogging)
EC ECL for
(condition ECL descriptive
late ECL applying (late for application),  
young ECL marrying (young for marrige)
ED EDL for
(aiming,  seeking)
EDL justice (for justice), EDL clear explanation (for clear explanation),
EDL money (for/aiming/seeking money)
EE EEL with,  making pair go into the treaty EEL the U.S. (go into the treaty with U.S. )
EF EFL if EFL so (if so), EFL murder (if murder)
EFL yellow (if yellow)
EG EGL iff EGL so (only if so), EGL murder (only if murder)
EGL yellow (only if yellow)
EI EIL every EIL week (every week),
EIL two weeks (every two weeks)
EJ EJL  with (doing) /while (doing) 
EK EKL supposing of EKL their failure (supposing of their failure)
EL ELL as long as ELL attending (as long as attending), ELL good membership  (as long as good membership)
EM EML as if walk EML cat (walk as if you were cat)
EN ENL even if not acceptable ENL their custom (not acceptable even if it's their custom)
EO EOL for,
corresponding to
English word EOL 石鹸 (English word corresponding to 石鹸)
<note> '石鹸' means 'soup'.
EP EPL in reply to,
in reacting to
EPL your letter (in reply to your letter),
EPL your request (in reacting to your request)
ERP ERPL regardless of ERPL your mistake (regardless of your mistake)
ES ESL on the way to That happened ESL Arctic (That happened on the way to Arctic)
ET ETL putting it side Let's change our discussion ETL that issue (Let's change our discussion putting that issue a side.)
EU EUL in accordance with Act EUL new rule (Act in accordance with the new rule)
EX EXL under Work EXL his supervision (Work under his supervision)
EY EYL including price EYL all parts (price including all parts),
EYL DAFE OnD SEN (including her and us)
EZ EZL in case of,  for EZL flood (in case of flood),
EZL absence (in case of absence),
EZL FE (in case of him),
EZL (for / in case of professionals)

16-2.  Modification Agents that work with verbs ---  6 words

(BIL for M2),     CI (CIL),      DI (DIL),     FI (FIL),      GI (GIL),     JI (JIL)

@  BI   (BIL  for  M2)         (so) --- as to do  

BI (BIL) show the particular condition or situation with the informative or action (event).

Ex.  Is it really incident to cry ?

M1:  ? TE  cry  BI  incident  (RI).
M2:  ? TE  (RI)  incident  BIL  cry.

   <Note> '?' is pronounced [esk], but can be pronounced  [e]  in conversation.

Ex.  It was a terrorism that killed 500 people.

M1:  TE  500  REn-O  kill-T  BI  terrorism RI-T.
M2:  TE  RI-T  terrorism  BIL  kill-T  500  REn-O.

   <Note> kill-T is pronounced [kilta].

Ex.  He was so kind as to nurture two orphans.

M1:  MAFE  2  orphan-L  nurture  BI  kind  RI-T.
M2:  MAFE  RI-T  kind  BIL  nurture  2  orphan-L.

Ex. This question is easy to get an A.

M1:  TO  question-W  A-L  get  BI  easy  RI.
M2:  TO  question-W  RI  easy  BIL  get  A-L.

Incidentally, the following sentence should be written with Clause Leader EEB (EEBL for M2) because
the 2nd subject 'all students' is added.

 This question is easy as all students will get an A. 

M1:  TO  question-W  (PA)  OOL  student-W  A-L  get  EEB  easy  RI.
M2:  TO  question-W  RI  easy  EEBL  OOL  student-W  get  A-L.

    <Note> 'OOL' means 'all'.   'PA' is pause particle for M1, which is often placed at the beginning of
               in -between modifying sentence for better understanding.  PA is, however, optional.
               Pause particle for M2 ( = ZA ) is usually placed at the end of a in-between modifying
               sentence (relative clause),  but, in the above example, the ZA is not needed at all.

@  CI  (CIL  for  M2)       ---  to do

CI  (CIL )  is used to evaluate or judge any particular action.   CI (CIL) is pronounced [tsi], [tsil] res.

Ex.  This problem is hard to solve.

M1:  TO  problem-W  solve  CI  hard  (RI).
M2:  TO  problem-W  (RI)  hard  CIL  solve.

Ex.  Gustaf is too young to marry Karin.

M1:  Gustaf-W  Karin-L  marry  CI  too  young  (RI).
M2:  Gustaf-W  (RI)  too  young  CIL  marry  Karin-L.

Incidentally, the follwing example should be written with a  Clause Leader EEC (EECL for M2)  because
the person who understand is not the professor but I ( different subject from the 'professor').

 The professor spoke too quickly for me to understand it.

M1:  Professor-W  (PA)  SE  TE-O  understand  EEC  TU quickly  speak-T.
M2:  Professor-W  speak-T  TU quickly  EECL  SE  understand  TE-O.

   <Note> TU means too.

The application of CI (CIL) has been extended in NOXILO Grammar v. 2.5 in 2014 as follows.

Ex.  Nice to meet !  

M1:  Meet  CI  nice.
M2:  Nice  CIL  meet.

Ex.  Nice to see you !        (Good to see you.)

M1:  ME-O  see  CI  nice.
M2:  Nice  CIL   see  ME-O.

   <Note> If you use 'gerund' instead of CI (CIL),  you'll have the following sentences.

             M1:  ME-O  see-M-W  nice  (RI).
             M2:  See-M-W  ME-O  (RI)  nice.

In posters (public short display) or casual conversation,  '-W' and 'RI' may be dropped as follows.

M1:  See-M  nice
M2:  See-M  nice.

Ex.  I am glad to see you. 

M1:  SE  ME-O  see  CI  glad  (RI).
M2:  SE  (RI)  gald  CIL  see  ME-O.

   <Note>  If you use 'gerund' instead of CI (CIL),  you'll have to add modification agent UE (UEL),
              which show the reason for a particular feeling such as glad, sad, etc.

              M1:  SE  ME-O  see-M  UE  glad  (RI).
              M2:  SE  (RI)  glad  UEL  see-M  ME-O.

Ex.  Sorry to hear the news.

M1:  (BOI)  News-O  hear  CI  sorry
M2:  Sorry  CIL  hear  (BOI)  news-O

   <Note> BOI means 'that'.  In NOXILO, simple 'the' isn't translated, but if 'the' means 'that', BOI should be added.

Ex.  I am sorry to hear that news.

M1:  SE  BOI  news-O  hear  CI  sorry  RI.
M2:  SE  RI  sorry  CIL  hear  BOI  news-O.

   <Note> If you use 'gerund' instead of CI (CIL), you'll have the following.

           M1:  SE  BOI  news-O  hear-M  UE  sorry  RI.
           M2:  SE  RI  sorry  UEL  hear-M  BOI  news-O.

Ex.  I am glad to write a recommendation.

In NOXILO, it's easier to use GILE (aux. verb. = be glad to) or APRELI (ad. = gladly) to write this particular sentence.
However, it's stil possible to write the sentence using CI (CIL).  >>> 3rd example below.

M1:  SE recommendation-O GILE write.
M2:  SE GILE write recommendation-O.

M1:  SE recommendation-O APRELI write.
M2:  SE APRELI write recommendation-O.

M1:  SE recommendation-O write CI glad RI.
M2:  SE RI glad CIL write recommendation-O.     (I am glad to write a recommendation.)

   <Note> There are no articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO.  You can add proper words to show quantity
             such as 1,2,3,... , SOM (some), PLU (plural), MUQ (many/much).

@  DI    (DIL  for  M2)          for / in order to do

DI  (DIL)  resembles  'to-infinitive' in English, which connects the purpose and the means (or action).

Ex.  This is a tool to cut trees.

M1:  TO-W  tree-L  cut  DI  tool  (RI).
M2:  TO-W  (RI)  tool  DIL  cut  tree-L.

  <Note> 'TO' means 'This'.   Any objects in modifying phrases and modifying clauses have '-L'  at their end
             although the object in main (noun) clauses have '-O' at the end.   '-L' is pronounced [ol],  and '-O'
             is pronounced [o].

Ex.  It is time to go to school.

M1:  School  UT  go  DI  AHSA  (RI).
M2:  (RI)  AHSA  DIL  go  UTL  school.

  <Note> Above two are not sentence but acceptable in NOXILO, especially in short display or
            conversation because there is no vacant subject 'It' in NOXILO grammar. 
            'AHSA' means 'time point' only, whereas 'AHTA' means either 'time period' or 'time point'. 
            If the 'It' is not vacant subject, the following sentences are possible;
            M1:  TE  School  UT  go  DI  AHSA  RI.
            M2:  TE  RI  AHSA  DIL  go  UTL  school.

  <Note> The following sentences with EEA (EEAL) are possible.

     M1:  People-W  school  UT  go  EEA  AHSA  (RI).
     M2:  (RI)  AHSA  EEAL  people-W  go  UTL  school.

  <Note>  If 'It' is not vacant subject, the following is possible;

           M1:  TE  people-W  school  UT  go  EEA  AHSA  RI.
           M2:  TE  RI  AHSA  EEAL  people-W  go  UTL  school.

             <note>  EEA (EEAL) is Clause Leader which means 'when'.

Ex.  These are the equipment to test their blood.     (This is the equipment used to test their blood.)

M1:  TON-W  blood-L  test  DI  equipment  (RI).
M2:  TON-W  (RI)  equipment  DIL  test  blood-L.

 <Note> 'TON' is plural form of TO, and means 'these'.

Ex.  We work to earn a living.

M1:  SEN  living-O  earn  DI  work.
M2:  SEN  work  DIL  earn  living-O.

   <Note> SEN means 'We'.

Ex.  Be careful not to fall down !

M1:  YO  NAI  fall-down  DI  careful  RI.
M2:  YO  RI  careful  DIL  NAI  fall-down.

Ex.  She will gather documents to prove the graft.

M1:  DAFE  graft-L  prove  DI  documents-O  gather-R.
M2:  DAFE  gather-R  documents-O  DIL  prove  graft-L.

Ex.  She eats vegetables so she will not suffer from cancer.   ( She eats vegetables not to suffer from cancer.)

M1:  DAFE  cancer-L  NAI  suffer-from  DI  vegetables-O  KU.
M2:  DAFE  KU  vegetables-O  DIL  NAI  suffer-from  cancer-L.

   <Note> 'DAFE' means 'She'.    'KU' means 'to eat'.

@  FI    (FIL  for  M2)       if do

Ex.  If swim, you'd better take your swim suit.      <Note> 'had better do' = GIKI in Noxilo.

M1: Swim  FI,  ME  swim-suit-O  GIKI  take. 
M2:  FIL  swim,  ME  GIKI  take  suim-suit-O.

M1: Swim  FI  ME  swim-suit-O  GIKI  take. 
M2:  ME  GIKI  take  swim-suit-O  FIL  swim.

 <Note> The following sentences with Modification Agent EF/EFL instesd of FI/FIL are possible because
              the fanction of FI/FIL and EF/EFL are pertially overlapped (in terms of connectibility with verbs).

              M1:  Swim  EF,  ME  swim-suit-O  GIKI  take.
              M2:  EFL  swim,  ME  GIKI  take  swim-suit-O.

     M1: Swim  EF  ME  swim-suit-O  GIKI  take. 
     M2:  ME  GIKI  take  swim-suit-O  FEL  swim.

@  GI    (GIL  for  M2)       iff  ( = only if )

This is a sister word of FI/FIL, but works as "exclusive if".  This is mainly used in Logic.

@  JI    (JIL  for  M2)       in doing,  while,  as

Ex.  Mrs. Lawson passed away peacefully in her sleep on February 23rd, 2015 after a long fight with cancer.

M1:  DS,  Lawson-W  CEnT  AG  AULO  UDIGyNA  AF  M15.2Y.23N  AOPILI  EHyUZ  JI  passe-away-T。
M2:  DS,  Lawson-W  passed-away-T  JIL  AOPALI  EHyUZ  M15.2Y.23N  AFL  AULO  UDIGyNA  AGL  CEnT.

<Note> AOPALI means 'peacefully'.  'EHyUZ' means 'to sleep'.  'M15.2Y.23N' means '2015.02.23'.  
          'AFL' means 'after'.  'AULO' means 'long'.  'UDIGyNA' means 'fight against desease'.  
          'AGL' means 'against'.  'CEnT' means 'cancer'.

The above sentence can be written as follows with a composer, OnJ.

M1:  DS, Lawson-W  CEnT  AG  AULO  UDIGyNA  AF  M15.2Y.23N  AOPILI  EHyUZ  OnJ  IBDEZ-T。
M2:  DS, Lawson-W  M15.2Y.23N  AOPILI  EHyUZ  OnJ  IBDEZ-T  AFL  AULO  UDIGyNA  AGL  CEnT.

16-3)  Semantic classification of Modification Agents that work with nouns (pronouns, gerunds)

1. MAs regarding 'time'

AF/AFL       after 〜
AI/AIL         by 〜   * ex. I'll pay my debt by the date.
AS/ASL       since 〜
IC/ICL         till 〜
IM/IML        from 〜    * IM/IML is also used for place, matter, situation, etc.
UO/UOL      before 〜
URP/URPL   during  〜
EA/EAL         at 〜    * EA/EAL is often omitted.

2. MAs regarding 'place', 'location', 'direction'

AK/AKL     across
AO/AOL    above
AP/APL     opposite
ARP/ARPL     around (near)
AT/ATL     at
AU/AUL     through
IA/IAL     via
IB/IBL     by (near/next)
IE/IEL      in the word       * ex. 1st letter in the word 'Boulevard'.   2nd letter in the word 'in-patience'.
IK/IKL      in front of
IM/IML      from     *  IM/IML also be used for 'time', etc.
IN/INL      in
IP/IPL      parallel to
IRP/IRPL      behind
IS/ISL      outside
IT/ITL      into      *  IT/ITL also be used 'situation', etc.
UD/UDL    under
UF/UFL     off
UG/UGL    at angle
UN/UNL    on       * ex. on the desk
UT/UTL     to       * UT/UTL is also used for 'time', etc.
UY/UYL     beyond      * also used for 'condition', etc.
ES/ESL      on the way to
ET/ETL      putting 〜 side       * also for 'condition', etc.
EU/EUL     in accordance with      * also for 'condition', etc.

3. MA regarding 'possetion', etc.

UB/UBL      of, ---'s

4. MAs regarding 'hypothesis', 'concession'

EF/EFL     if
EG/EGL    if only if  (iff)
EK/EKL        assuming
EN/ENL       concession

5. MA regarding 'means', 'tools', 'doer' (agent) in passive sentences

AY/AYL    by    * Mayor was killed by him. = Mayor kill-TZE AYL MAFE.

6. MA regarding 'pick-up', 'focusing'

AB/ABL    about,  concerning

7. MAs regarding 'reson', 'cause'

ID/IDL        because of,  due to
UE/UEL       at,  with      * cause of joy, pain, sadness, surprise, etc.

8. MAs regarding 'comparison'

AN/ANL      compared with, compared to
IL/ILL         like, just like
UL/ULL       unlike

9. MAs regarding 'assumption', 'condition', 'restriction'

AC/ACL     instead of
AD/ADL     according to
AE/AEL    except for
AS/ASL      as        * ex. lion as a king of beasts
IF/IFL      as far as -- concerned      * ex. as far as the mayor is concerned = IFL Mayor.
IG/IGL     good in        * ex. He is good in baseball. = MAFE (He) RI (is) good IGL baseball.
IY/IYL     in addition to
UA/UAL     to      * ex. This math is hard to him.
UC/UCL     without
UZ/UZL     besides
EU/EUL     in accordance with
EX/EXL    under      * ex. under his supervision
EY/EYL    including
EZ/EZL    in the case of

16-4)  Modification Agent,  Clause Leader, and Verbals in table

that work
with verbs
meaning Modification
that work
with nouns
meanings   Clause Leader meanings     Verbals     meanings
My  [myu]
   noun clause
that -M  [m(u)]
that .....
Dy  [dyu]
   noun clause
whether -D  [d(u)]
whether .....
Ky  [kyu]
    adjec. clause  
that or
-K  [k(u)]
to-infinitive, or
relative pronoun
 EA  [ea] for M1
 EAL [eal] for M2
    adjec. phrase
    adverb phrase
at  (time)  EEA  [e:a] for M1
EEAL [e:al] for M2
    adjec. clause
    adverb clause 
BI  [bi] for M1
BIL [bil] for M2
so ... as
 EB  [eb] for M1
 EBL [ebl] for M2
    adjec. phrase
    adverb phrase
.... for
EEB  [e:b] for M1
EEBL [e:bl] for M2
    adjec. clause
    adverb clause
as .... as
-BI  [bi]
CI  [tsi] for M1
CIL [tsil] for M2
.... for  EC  [ets] for M1
 ECL [etsl] for M2
    adverb phrase
 .... for
(proper or
EEC  [e:ts] for M1
EECL [e:tsl] for M2
    adverb clause
..... to do Deleted
-CI  [tsi]
DI  [di] for M1
DIL [dil] for M2
in order
to do
 ED  [ed] for M1
 EDL [edl] for M2
  adjec. phrase
  adverb phrase
 .... for
EED  [e:d] for M1
EEDL [e:dl] for M2
    adjec. clause
    adverb clause
in order
to do that
-AI  [ai]
FI   [fi] for M1
FIL  [fil] for M2 
 if  EF  [ef} for M1
 EFL  [efl] for M2
    adjec. phrase
  adverb phrase
 if EEF  [e:f] for M1
EEFL  [e:fl] for M2
    adjec. clause
    adverb clause
GI   [gi] for M1
GIL  [gil] for M2 
 iff  EG  [eg] for M1
 EGL [egl] for M2
 iff  EEG [e:g] for M1
EEGL [e:gl] for M2
JI   [ji] for M1
JIL  [jil] for M2 
 in doing
while, as
 EJ  [ej] for M1
 EJL  [ejl] for M2
    adjec. phrase
  adverb phrase
 in doing  EEJ  [e:j] for M1
 EEJL  [e:jl] for M2
    adjec. clause
    adverb clause
while, as   

  (Note)  Verbals -AI, -BI, and -CI have been deleted from NOXILO grammar since December 2011.

Ch-17   Composers

17-1. Indivisual composer

Composers play role in forming logic.  English counterpart for Composers is Conjunctions such as 'and', 'or',
'therefore', 'because', etc.  Please note the Conjunctions such as 'that', 'if', and 'although' are not included;
these are categolized into Clause Leaders in NOXILO.  All composers except of 'NOA' start at 'O'.

Ex. OnD ( [ond(u)] 'and' ),  OA ( [oa], 'or' ),  OENI ( [oeni], 'therefore' ),  OOZ ( [o:z]  'because' ),  etc.

 Composerss       meaning                             remarks (example)
 OnD  and white car OnD house --> Car is white but house may not.
 OnP  - do- white car OnP house --> 'white' modifies both car and house.
 OnS  - do - white car OnS house --> 'white' modifies car only.
 OA  or (probably inclusive) tea or coffee --> tea or coffee or maybe both.
 OAP  - do - hot tea OAP coffee --> 'hot' modifies both tea and coffee.
 OAS  - do - hot tea OAS coffee --> 'hot' modifies tea only.
 OI  or (strictly exclusive) tea OI coffee --> tea or coffee (Taking both is not allowed)
 OIP  - do - hot tea OIP coffee --> 'hot' modifies both tea and coffee.
 OIS  - do - hot tea OIS coffee --> 'hot' modifies tea only.
 OU  or (strictly inclusive) tea OU coffee --> tea or coffee or both (Both is good, too.)
 OUP  - do - hot tea OUP coffee --> 'hot' modifies both tea and coffee.
 OUS  - do - hot tea OUS coffee --> 'hot' modifies tea only.
 NOA  nor NAIDE ** NOA -- ( = neither ** nor -- ).
  Both  **  and  --  are denied.
 OENI  therefore
 OERA  ,whereas Younger brother is very kind, whereas older brother is greedy.
 OKyLI  [okyuri]  consequently
 ONEVI  nevertheless,
ONEVI is placed at the top of independent sentence.
It can be placed between two sentences and tie them as well.
ONEVI is more formal than OTT.
 On  per  120 Japanese Yen per one U.S. Dolar
 OnJ  do1 while do2 (ing)  two actions are overlapped.
 OOZ  because
 ORIE  in addition,  further
 OST  Va OST Vb Plural actions start at the same time.
at least plural actions overlap for a cetain period of time.
 O2ST [onist]  Vc O2ST Vd Plural actions start at the same time (t1), and end at the
same time (t2).
 OTO  symmetry beauty and love, strength and truth, east wing and west wing
 OTT  but,  however OTT is placed at the top of independent sentence.
It can be placed between two sentences and tie them as well.
 OV  versus Red Sox OV Yankees game
Washington OV Mosquva
 OZK  and for that case He didn't attend,  and for that case
 OZn  and then immediately,  soon
 OZUn  and then afterwards

  <Note> UUS (UUSL for M2; 'though' or 'although') is not Composer, but Clause Leader, and is always
              used with subordinate sentence.

 <Note> Let's see some sister words of 'OOZ' .

       OOZ          (Composer)    - - - - - -    because
     ID (IDL)   (Modification Agent)  - - -  because of
     IID (IIDL)   (Clause Leader)  - - - - -   because
     HyALI        (Prerogative Adverb)  - - -  why

17-2.  Structure with composer

 IILA  **  OA  --    ( either  **  or  -- )

Ex. You should report either to me or the school.

M1:  ME IILA SE OA school UT GIMI report.
M2:  ME GIMI report IILA SE OA UTL school.

  <Note> GIMI means 'should'.  IILA can be omitted sometimes.

Ex. You should report it to the school or me.

M1:  ME TE-O IILA school OA SE UT GIMI report.
M2:  ME GIMI report TE-O IILA school OA UTL SE.

   <Note> 'the' is not translated because there are articles in NOXILO.   
             You can use BOI (=that) for 'the' if necessary.

  <Ref.>  'Either one' in English is translated to 'IILA TE' in NOXILO.

 NAIDE  **  NOA  --   ( neither  **  nor  -- )

It is neither dead nor living.

M1:  TE  NAIDE  living  NOA  dead  (RI).
M2:  TE  (RI)  NAIDE  living  NOA  dead.

 SOO  **  OZn  --   ( so  **  that  -- )

Ex. The scenery was so beautiful that we stayed there.

M1:  Scenery-W  SOO  beautiful  RI  OZn  SEN  BOIE  stay-T.
M2:  Scenery-W  RI  SOO  beautiful  OZn  SEN  BOIE  stay-T.

  <Note> 'The' is not translated.    BOIE means 'there'.    SEN (= We) is a plural form of SE (= I).
       Tense particle '-T' after 'RI' is not necessary because the tense of 'RI' is the same
                as that (=past tense) of 'stay'.  

    <Note> 'SOO  **  OENI -- '    or   'SOO  **  OKyLI  -- '  is possible, too.

1類: NAI OnLI SE OTT SLE 兄−W 外国 UT 行く。
2類: NAI OnLI SE OTT SLE brother−W go UTL foreign country.

1類 : NAI OnLI SE OTT 兄−W MO 外国 UT 行く。
2類 : NAI OnLI SE OTT brother−W MO go UTL foreign country.

 NAI  OnLI  **  OTT  SLE  --      (not only   **  but  also  --  )
     NAI  OnLI  **  OTT --  MO        (not only   **  but  --  too )

'**'  and  '--'  are filled by a word, a phrase, or a sentence.  MO is always postpositioned.

Ex. Not only I but also my brother go to foreign country (abroad).

M1:  NAI  OnLI  SE  OTT  SLE  SEI  brother-W  foreign  country  UT  go.
M2:  NAI  OnLI  SE  OTT  SLE  SEI  brother-W  go  UTL  foreign  country.

M1:  NAI  OnLI  SE  OTT  SEI  brother-W  MO  foreign  country  UT  go.
M2:  NAI  OnLI  SE  OTT  SEI  brother-W  MO  go  UTL  foreign  country.

M1:  NAI  OnLI  SE  OTT  SEI  brother-W  MO  abroad  go.
M2:  NAI  OnLI  SE  OTT  SEI  brother-W  MO  abroad  go.

  <Note> SEI is possesive form of SE.  SLE is prepositioned, but MO postpositioned.
       'Abroad' is adverb, and therefore it's placed before verb in NOXILO.

Ex. Japan concluded an treaty with not only China but also India.

M1:  Japan-W  NAI  OnLI  China  EE  OTT  SLE  India  (EE)  treaty-O  conclude-T.
M2:  Japan-W  conclude-T  treaty-O  NAI  OnLI  EEL  China  OTT  SLE  (EEL)  India.

M1:  Japan-W  NAI  OnLI  China  EE  OTT  India  (EE)  MO  treaty-O  conclude-T.
M2:  Japan-W  conclude-T  treaty-O  NAI  OnLI  EEL  China  OTT (EEL)  India  MO.

  <Note> The 'conclude-T' can be replaced with 'go-into-T'.

Ex. That woman informed not only me but also the police department.

M1:  BOI  DAFE  NAI  OnLI  SE-O  OTT  SLE  police  department-O  inform-T.
M2:  BOI  DAFE  inform-T  NAI  OnLI  SE-O  OTT  SLE  police  department-O.

Ex. That woman will not only call me up, but also write a letter to the police department.

M1:  BOI DAFE NAI OnLI ME-O call-up OTT SLE police-O letter-O write-R.
M2:  BOI DAFE NAI OnLI call-up ME-O OTT SLE write-R police-O letter-O.

    <Note> For M1, NAI OnLI covers ME-O call-up, and SLE covers police-O letter-O write-R.
               For M2, NAI OnLI covers call-up ME-O, and SLE covers write-R police-O letter-O.

M1:  BOI DAFE NAI OnLI ME-O call-up OTT police-O letter-O write-R MO.
M2:  BOI DAFE NAI OnLI call-up ME-O OTT write-R police-O letter-O MO.

    <Note> For M1, NAI OnLI covers ME-O call-up, and MO covers police-O letter-O write-R.
               For M2, NAI OnLI covers call-up ME-O, and MO covers write-R police-O letter-O.

Ex. That woman will not only inform me it, but also will write the police department a letter.

M1:  BOI  DAFE  NAI  OnLI  ME-O  TE-O  inform  OTT  SLE  police  department-O  letter-O  write-R.
M2:  BOI  DAFE  NAI  OnLI  inform  ME-O  TE-O  OTT  SLE  write-R  police  department-O  letter-O.

Ch-18   Clause Leaders

English counterparts for Clause Leaders (CLs) are the words such as 'that' (= My in NOXILO), 'whether' (Dy),  
'who' (Ky),  'which' (Ky),  'that' (Ky),  'what' (XU),  although' (UUS),  'if' (EEF/EEFL),  'until' (IIC/IICL),  etc.
The CLs for Mode I are placed at the end of clauses,  and therefore they are called post-clause-leaders,
whereas the CLs for Mode II are placed at the head of clauses,  and they are called pre-clause-leaders.

The CLs for mode II is the same as Conjunctions in English since they are placed at the head of clauses.  
The CLs in NOXILO do not include 'and' and 'or', which are categolized into Composers.  You can distinguish
the type of clauses (noun clause, adjective clause, or adverb clause) by seeing each clause leader.

Position of Clause Leaders (CL) :

M1:   clause  +  CL
M2:   CL  +  clause

     <Note> Clauses are consist of noun clauses, adjective clauses, and adverb clauses.

Examples.  They  know  that  I  love  you.         <Note> that = My (pronounced [my(u)] not [mai] ).

M1:  FEN  SE  ME-O  love  My  know.
M2:  FEN  know  My  SE  love  ME-O.

     <Note> FEN (plural form of FE) means 'They'.   SE means 'I'.   ME-O means 'you'. 
               My (prnounced my(u) ) is CL that lead noun clauses (underlined) only.

The following table shows some other examples of CLs.

         English       NOXILO Mode I      NOXILO  Mode II      remarks about CL
 whether I see you  SE  ME-O  MU  Dy  Dy  SE  MU  ME-O  Dy leads a noun clause.
 whom we invited  SEN  ELVIS  Ky  Ky  SEN  ELVIS  Ky leads adjective clause.
 although I like you  SE  ME-O  APLIS  UUS  UUS  SE  APLIS  ME-O  UUS leads adverb clause.

 (Note)  MU means 'to see'.   ELVIS : to invite.   APLIS : to like.

18-1.  Clause Leaders that lead noun clauses.

There are only two CLs to lead noun clauses;  My and Dy.
My is pronounced [my(u)], and means 'that' in English.   Dy [dy(u)] means 'Whether' or 'If'.

@   My  [my(u)]  =  that

As we learned earlier, 'My' means 'that' in English.  The noun clauses which are lead by 'My' become either subject
clause, object clause, or complement clause.  You can write My-O (by adding -O) for 'My' which leads object clause,
and My-E for 'My' which lead complement clause.  We usually do not write My-W except for sentence analysis.

Ex. That you studied NOXILO hard is important.      

M1:  ME  NOXILO-O  hard  study-T  My  important  RI.         (note) Noun clauses are underlined. 
M2:  My  ME  hard  study-T  NOXILO-O  (ZA)  RI  important.

     <Note> There is no 'It is -- that' structure in NOXILO.
       ZA is a punctuation particle for M2, and it is placed at the end of clause in the sentence.
       A (punctuation particle for M1) is not needed for the above example.  Adverb (one word)
       should be placed before verb in NOXILO, therefore the adverb 'hard' comes before 'study'.

Ex. That you go means that she goes.

M1:  ME  go  My  DAFE  go  My-O  mean.
M2:  My  ME  go  mean  My-O  DAFE  go.

   <Note> The following is acceptable especially for sentence analysis by beginners.

                 M1:  ME  go  My-W  DAFE  go  My-O  mean.
         M2:  My-W  ME  go  mean  My-O  DAFE  go.

Ex. The point is that I am right.

M1:  Point-W  SE  right  My  RI.
M2:  Point-W  RI  My  SE  right.

     <Note> Beginners can write as follows.

        M1:  Point-W  (PA)  SE  right  RI  My-E  RI.
        M2:  Point-W  RI  My-E  SE  RI  right.

          <Note> PA is a punctuation particle for M1.  

@  Dy  [dy(u)]  =  whether  (if)

Ex.  Whether (if) the man is alive is important.  =  It is important if the man is alive (or not).

M1:  FE  alive  (RI)  Dy  important  RI.
M2:  Dy  FE  (RI)  alive  RI  important.

   <Note> There is no 'It is --- if' structure in NOXILO.   There are no articles (a, an, the) in NOXILO.

Ex. The point is whether you loved her.

M1:  Point-W  (PA)  ME  DAFE-O  love-T  Dy  RI.
M2:  Point-W  RI  Dy  ME  love-T  DAFE-O.

18-2.  Clause Leaders that lead adjective clauses.

There are more than 10 CLs that lead adjective clause.   We study 7 ( 'Ky'  to  'EED' ) of them here.

@   Ky  [ky(u)]  =  that, who, which

'Ky' is very useful CL since it connects any adjective clause (modifying clause) and noun (modified word
= modificand).   The location of 'Ky' is the same as that of other CLs as learned earlier.

M1:   Adjective clause  +  Ky  +  noun (pronoun/gerund)
M2:   noun (pronoun/gerund)  +  Ky  +  adjective clause

   (Note) Adjective clauses are underlined for better understanding.

Let's see some examples.

Ex. The man who is studying PC is her father.

M1:  PC-L  study-In  Ky  FE  DAFEI  father  RI.      <Note> FE is modificand and postcedent.
M2:  FE  Ky  study-In  PC-L  RI  DAFEI  father.       <Note> FE is modificand and antecedent. 

     <Note> FE means the one, which can be replaced with REn (person).   Any object in modifying clause
                (adjective clause and adverb clause) has an element particle '-L' instead of '-O'. 
               The '-L' is pronounced [ol],  and '-O' pronounced [o].   FE is modified word (= modificand).

Ex.  The class that I chose was cancelled.

M1:  SE  chose-T  Ky  class-W  cancel-TZE.         <Note> class is modificand and postcedent.
M2:  Class-W  Ky  SE  chose-T  (ZA)  cancel-TZE.        <Note> Class is modificand and antecedent.

Ex.  My friend took the class that I canceled.

M1:  SEI  friend-W  SE  cancel-T  Ky  class-O  take-T.       <Note> class is modificand and postcedent.
M2:  SEI  friend-W  take-T  class-O  Ky  SE  cancel-T.      <Note> class is modificand and antecedent.

Ex.  The lawyer whose sister works at the library bought a car.

M1:  Sister-W  library  AT  work  Ky  lawyer-W  car-O  buy-T.              <Note> lawyer is postcedent.
M2:  Lawyer-W  Ky  sister-W  work  ATL  library  (ZA)  buy-T  car-O.      <Note> Lawyer is antecedent.

   <Note> Sister-W can be replaced with 'FEI sister-W' or 'DAFEI sister-W'. 
       ZA is a punctuation particle for M2.  PA for M1 is not necessary at all.
       AT (ATL for M2) is modification agent, which means 'at' in English.

Ex.  I know the lawyer whose sister works at the library.

M1:  SE  FEI  sister-W  library  AT  work  Ky  lawyer-O  know.        <Note> lawyer is postcedent.
M2:  SE  know  lawyer-O  Ky  FEI  sister-W  work  ATL  library.         <Note> lawyer is antecedent.

Ex.  She went to the railway station where she had met her ex-husband.

M1:  DAFE  (PA)  DAFE  ex-husband-L  meet-T  Ky  railway  station  UT  go-T.      <Note> railway station is postcedent.
M2:  DAFE  go-T  UTL  railway  station  Ky  DAFE  meet-T  ex-husband-L.            <Note> railway station is antecedent.

   <Note> The above sentences can be written with KyUT as follows, which is even closer to
        'Relative Pronoun' in English.   AT (ATL for M2) should be left anywhere in the sentence.

       M1:  DAFE  (PA)  DAFE  AT  ex-husband-L  meet-T  KyUT  railway  station  UT  go-T.
       M2:  DAFE  go-T  UTL  railway  station  KyUT  DAFE  meet-T  ex-husband-L  ATL.

Ex. The blind teacher heard the sound that the pages made as many students turned them.

M1:  Blind  teacher-W  (PA)  MUQ  student-W  page-L  turn-T  EED  page-W  make-T  Ky  sound-O  hear-T.
M2:  Blind  teacher-W  hear-T  sound-O  Ky  page-W  make-T  EEDL  MUQ  student-W  turn-T  page-L.

    <Note> MUQ means 'many' and 'much'.   'The' is not translated since there are no articles in NOXILO.
                 If identifying is necessary, you would use 'TO' (this)  or  'BOI' (that).  --> Ex. BOI teacher-W .....

The following 4 expressions are acceptable in NOXILO because 'Ky' and 'EED (EEDL) ' are not relative pronoun
but 'Clause Leader' that leads relevant adjective clause to modify a noun. 

M1:  Blind  teacher-W  (PA)  MUQ  student-W  page-L  turn-T  Ky  sound-O  hear-T.
M2:  Blind  teacher-W  hear-T  sound-O  Ky  MUQ  student-W  turn-T  page-L.

M1:  Blind  teacher-W  (PA)  MUQ  student-W  page-L  turn-T  EED  sound-O  hear-T.
M2:  Blind  teacher-W  hear-T  sound-O  EEDL  MUQ  student-W  turn-T  page-L.

      <Note> EED (EEDL for M2) means 'when'.   EED (EEDL) lead adjective clauses or adverb clauses.

Ex.  I liked the nice smell of the leaves that mother burned in the back yard.

M1:  SE  (PA)  mother-W  backyard  AT  burn-T  Ky  leave  UB  nice  smell-O  like-T.
M2:  SE  like-T  nice  smell-O  UBL  leave  Ky  mother-W  burn-T  ATL  backyard.

The following 4 expressions are acceptable in NOXILO because 'Ky' and 'EED (EEDL)' are not Relative Pronoun
but Clause Leader that lead relevant adjective clause to modify nouns (or pronouns).  

M1:  SE  (PA)  mother-W  backyard  AT  fallen-leaf-L  burn-T  Ky  nice  smell-O  like-T.
M2:  SE  like-T  nice  smell-O  Ky  mother-W  burn-T  fallen-leaf-L  ATL  backyard.

M1:  SE  (PA)  mother-W  backyard  AT  fallen-leaf-L  burn-T  EED  nice  smell-O  like-T.
M2:  SE  like-T  nice  smell-O  EEDL  mother-W  burn-T  fallen-leaf-L  ATL  backyard.

     <Note> EED (EEDL) means 'when'.   They lead adjective clauses or adverb clauses.

Ex.  I wanted to take the next seat which a handsome youngman was in sitting.

M1:  SE  (PA)  hansome  youngman-W  sit-In  Ky  next  seat-O  take  <  want-T
M2:  SE  want-T  >  take  next  seat-O  Ky  handsome  youngman-W  sit-In.

The word order for the case that two adjective clauses and an adjective phrase and an adjective modify
nouns (postcedent for M1 and antecedent for M2) is as follows.  The next seat is modified word (=modificand).

M1:  Adjective clause + Ky + OnD + adjective clause + Ky + OnD + adjective phrase + adjective + An + postcedent
                                                      (modified word)

M2:  adjective + An + antecedentadjective phrase + OnD + Ky + adjective clause + OnD + Ky + adjective clause
             (modified word)

Example. The large railway station by the pond that pigeon lived in and many people used burned down.

M1:  Pigeon-W  live-in-T  Ky  OnD  MUQ  people-W  use-T  Ky OnD  pond  IB  large  An  railway  station-W  burn-down-T.

M2:  Large  An  railway  station-W  IBL  pond  OnD  Ky  pigeon-W  live-in-T  OnD  Ky  MUQ  people-W  use-T  (ZA)  burn-down-T.

    <Note>  MUQ: many and much,   OnD: and,    IB (IBL for M2): by
         An: flag particle (for M1 & M2) to show a postcedent (antecedent). 
         Neither PA nor ZA is needed.

We can put 'An' (flag particle) immediately before postcedent (M1) and antecedent (M2) for quick recognition, especially for the
case that a post (ante) cedent has plural adjectives on it.

@   XU  [shu:]  =  what   (Ky + postcedent for M1 / antecedent + Ky  for M2)

Ex. What I want is a knife and fork.

M1:  SE   IYUS  XU-W  knife  OnD  fork  (RI).
M2:  XU-W  SE   IYUS  (RI)  knife  OnD  fork.

   <Note> SE  =  I,      IYUS  =  to want,     OnD  =  and

Ex. You answerd what I wanted to know.  

M1:  ME  (PA)  SE  know  <   IYUS  XU-O  answer-T.
M2:  ME  answer-T  XU-O  SE   IYUS  >  know.

   <Note> ME = You,       SE = I,      'IYUS > know'  =  want to know

@   UUK  [u:k]  (UUKL [u:kl]  for M2)  =  that (of equivalent/apposition)

Ex. The idea that all children must go to school might be wrong.

M1: OOL children-W school UT GIM go UUK idea-W wrong GIME RI.
M2: Idea-W UUKL OOL children-W GIM go UTL school  (ZA) GIME RI wrong.

   <Note> OOL = all,    GIM = must,    GIME = may   

Ex.  I can't help reporting the fact that many people were killed.

M1: SE (PA) MUQ REn-W kill-TZE UUK fact-O GIVI report-T.
M2: SE GIVI report-T fact-O UUKL MUQ REn-W kill-TZE.

   <Note> MUQ = many (much),  REn = people,  kill-TZE = were killed,  GIVI = can not help doing

@   EEA  [e:a]  (EEAL [e:al]  for M2)  =  when

Ex.  That was the sound when he closed the back door.

M1:  BOI-W  MAFE  back  door-O  close-T  EEA  sound  RI-T.
M2:  BOI-W  RI-T  sound  EEAL  MAFE  close-T  back  door-O.

@   EEB  [e:b]  (EEBL [e:bl]  for M2)   =  as,   as much as

Ex.  Is that incident so sad it makes you cry ?

M1:  ?  TE  (PA)  ME  cry  EEB  sad  incident  (RI).
M2:  ?  TE  (RI)  sad  incident  EEBL  ME  cry.

Ex.  We supplied so much heat that everything evaporated.

M1:  SEN  (PA)  OOL-W  evaporate  EEB  MUQ  heat-O  supplied.
M2:  SEN  supplied  MUQ  heat-O  EEBL  OOL-W  evaporate.

   <Note> OOL means 'all' (everything).

EEB leads adverb clauses, too.   See below.

Ex.  It was so hot that everything evaporated.

M1:  TE  OOL-W  evaporated  EEB  hot  RI-T.
M2:  TE  RI-T  hot  EEBL  OOL-W  evaporated.

M1:  Temperature-W OOL-W evaporated EEB high RI-T.
M2:  Temperature-W RI-T high EEBL OOL-W evaporated.

@   IIL  [i:l]   (IILL [i:_l]  for M2)   =  as  (like, resemblance)

Ex.  It was a warm welcome as the citizen welcomed a Olympic-gold-medalist.

M1:  TE  (PA)  citizen-W  Olympic-gold-medalist-O  welcome-T  IIL  welcome  RI-T.
M2:  TE  RI-T  welcome  IILL  citizen-W  welcome-T  Olympic-gold-medalist-O.

     <Note> IIL  leads adverb clause, too.

@   EED   [e:d]  (EEDL for M2)

Ex. This is an equipment for which the intern test blood.

M1: TO-W (PA) intern-W blood-L test EED equipment (RI).
M2: TO-W (RI) equipment EEDL intern-W test blood-L.

   <Note> '-W' is an element partcle, and means TO is a subject.   
        The object in modification clauase takes -L instead of -O.   TO means 'this'. 

If the above example were  'This is an equipment to test blood.',

M1:  TO-W  blood-L  test  DI  equipment  (RI).
M2:  TO-W  (RI)  equipment  DIL  test  blood-L.

   <Note> DI (DIL) is a Modification Agent that works with verb.

EED can leads adverb clauses, too.  See below.

Ex. They transfered it to new labs so they continue to test the blood.

M1:  FEN  (PA)  FEN  blood-L  test  <  continue  EED  new  labs  UT  transfer-T.
M2:  FEN  transfer-T  UTL  new  labs  EEDL  FEN  continue  >  test  blood-L.

18-3.  Clause Leaders that lead mainly adverb clauses.

There are over 50 CLs to lead mainly adverb clauses.  Many of them are derived from Modification Agents, and
therefore the CLs for M2 inherit L-ending.   A 15 out of some 50 are original CLs, and naturally there is no
defference in spelling of CLs between M1 and M2.   We first see three important rules (A, B, and C) before
going to 18-3-1.

A)  Japanese, Korean, Hindi, etc. (M1type language) and Arabic (M3) are typical 'conditional-clause-first and
main-clause-at-last' language, and therefore translation of their languages into NOXILO would follow the same
clause order.   In English (M2 type language), the word order is mostly opposite; that is, 'main-clause-first and
conditional clause-last'.   However, adverb clauses are often placed first for emphasizing purpose in English.   
Although the English sentence with this clause order could be translated into NOXILO in the same clause order,
the purpose of emphasizing adverb clause is not translated.   If emphasizing an averb clause is necessary, the
adverb clause must have VII on head or be sandwiched by VII and -VII.

The following is a typical clause order in NOXILO.

Example :   I will visit Musee-du-Louvre before I die.

 M1    SE  die  UUO  SE  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit-R.
 (adverb clause)   (main clause= noun clause)
 M2  SE  visit-R  Musee-du-Louvre-O  UUOL  SE  die.
 (main clause = noun clause)     (adverb clause)  

      <Note> UUO  (UUOL for M2)  means 'before'.

When a CL stays between main clause and adverb clause,  a  ','  is not necessary as above sentences.
However,  when the CL is placed at the head (M2) or last (M1) of sentence,  a ',' must be placed between
main clause and adverb clause.
  See below.

Example:  I visit Musee-du-Louvre-O before I die.

M1:  SE  die  UUO  SE  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit.   ..........  right  (',' is not necessary bcs UUO is placed inbetween clauses.)
   (adverb clause) (main clause)                          <note> Most M1 and M3 people would like this clause order.

M1:  SE  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit,  SE  die  UUO.   .........  right  (because ',' is placed between main and adverb clauses.)
       (main clause)               (adverb clause)            <note> Most M1 and M3 people won't like this clause order.

M1:  SE  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit  SE  die  UUO.    .........  wrong  (bcs ',' is dropped between main and adverb clauses.)
       (main clause)          (adverb clause)           <note> Most M1 and M3 people won't like this clause order.

M2:  SE  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O  UUOL  SE  die.   ........  right  (',' is not necessary bcs UUOL is placed inbetween two clauses.)
           (main clause)           (adverb clause)

M2:  UUOL  SE  die,   SE  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O.   ........ right  (because ',' is placed between adverb and main clauses.)
    (adverb clause)    (main clause)

M2:  UUOL  SE  die   SE  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O.   ........  wrong  (bcs ',' is dropped between adverb and main clauses.)
   (adverb clause)    (main clause)

B)  A  ','  should be placed between adverb clause and imperative clause (main clause) anyhow.  See below.

Ex.  Visit Musee-du-Louvre before you die.

M1:  ME  die  UUO,  YO  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit.
  (adverb clause)  (main clause = imperative)

M2:  YO  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O,  UUOL ME  die.
   (main clause = imperative)    (adverb clause)

The following is acceptable though the clause order for M1 is not typical.

M1:  YO  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit,  ME  die  UUO.
M2:  YO  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O,  UUOL  ME  die.

The following is acceptable although the clause order for M2 is not typical.

M1:  ME  die  UUO,  YO  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit.
M2:  UUOL  ME  die,  YO  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O.

The above explanations stand for a set of adverb clause and interrogative clause (main clause), too.

Ex.  Where did you go after you visited Shanghai Expo 2010 ?

M1:  ME Shanghai-Expo-2010-O  visit-T  AAF,   ?  ME  HE-O  go-T.
    (adverb clause)               (main clause = interrogative)

M2:  ?  ME  go-T  HE-O,  AAFL  ME  visit-T  Shanghai-Expo-2010-O.
   (main clause=interr.)  (adverb clause)

M1:  ?  ME  HE-O  go-T,  ME Shanghai-Expo-2010-O  visit-T  AAF.
M2:  ?  ME  go-T  HE-O,  AAFL  ME  visit-T  Shanghai-Expo-2010-O.

M1:  ME  Shanghai-Expo-2010-O  visit-T  AAF,  ?  ME  HE-O  go-T.
M2:  AAFL  ME  visit-T  Shanghai-Expo-2010-O,  ?  ME  go-T  HE-O,  .

C)  Please keep in mind there is no rule that the first clause is emphasized in NOXILO.  Any word, phrase, or
clause to be emphasized must have 'VI' (for a word) or 'VII' (for phrase and clause) before these.  
In case the range to be emphasized is not clear, the range (phrase or clause) in particular should be sandwiched
by VII and -VII, which are enhancement particles.   'VI' is pronounced [vi],  and 'VII' [vi:].   See examples below.

VI paper (M1 & M2)  .......................  word (paper) is emphasized by a VI.      <Note> 'VI' is for a word only. 

VII school AT -VII  (for M1) ..........  phrase (school AT) is emphasized by VI and -VII.
ATL school -VII  (for M2) .........  phrase (ATL school) is emphasized by VII and -VII. 

VII SE go-T EEF -VII  (for M1) ........  clause (SE go-T EEF -VII) is emphasized by VII and -VII.
VII EEFL SE go-T -VII  (for M2) ........ clause (EEFL SE go-T) is emphasized by VII and -VII. 

   <Note> '-VII' (a closing VII) can be omitted if there is no risk of confusion.

18-3-1.  CLs (derived from MAs) for supposition

There are 6 CLs (EEF,  EEG,  EEK,  EEL,  EEM,  and  EEN) for supposition.   These are all derived from Modification
Agents, therefore these for mode II have 'L' ending as EEFL,  EEGL,  EEKL,  EELL,  EEML,  and  EENL., respectively.
EEF means 'conditional if', and EEG means 'exclusive if'.   EEN (EENL for M2) is rather for concession.

@   EEF  (EEFL for M2)  =  if  ( conditional if )

In NOXILO, supposition clauses (adverb clauses) do not have a distictive part to show true or false of the contents.  
If supposition is contrary to facts, conclusive clause must have GITT (auxiriary verb) before verb.   If the contents
are right, conclusive clauses have GIMO (aux. verb) before verb.   However, the use of GIMO is not mondatery.
The word order of supposition clause is

M1:  Supposition clause + EEF
M2:  EEFL + supposition clause

Before we study examples, we first set particular situations.

[Situation A]

You live in New York, and your father lives in Los Angeles.   Both are fine.  
You do not know whether your father will come to see you in N.Y. at all.

Ex.  If my father comes to see me,  I want to show him New York Stock Exchange.

M1:  Father-W  SE-L  see-DI  come  EEF   SE  DAFE-O  N.Y.S.E.-O  show  <  IYUS.
M2:  SE   IYUS  >  show  DAFE-O  N.Y.S.E.-O  EEFL  father-W  come  see-DI  SE-L.

   <Note> Father may come or may not come.  If he comes, I want to show ........ .
        '-L' shows object in modification clause (= adverb and adjective clause).
        '-DI' is modification agent (MA) that work with verbs, and means 'in order to'.  
        'DAFE-O' means 'him' (father).  IYUS' means 'to want'.

[Situation B]

Your father passed away many years ago.   Therefore, he can not come to see you now or in the future.

Ex.  If my father comes to see me,  I want to show him the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

M1:  Father-W  SE-L  see-DI  come  EEF   SE  father-O  Metropolitan Museum of Art-O  GITT  show  <  IYUS.
M2:  SE  GITT  IYUS  >  show  father-O  Metropolitan Museum of Art-O  EEFL  father-W  come  see-DI  SE-L

   <Note> GITT (aux verb) shows that supposition is impossible (or contrary to facts), and you do not (can not)
       show him the museum.  You can go alone.  You enjoyed the museum very much, and you wish your
       father was alive and could come to N.Y. although that's impossible (bcs he passed away many years ago).

[Situation C]

Conversation about future occupations between you and your good friend.

Ex.  If I were you,  I would become a painter.

M1:  SE  ME  RI  EEF  SE  painter  GITT  EQKAZ.
M2:  SE  GITT  EQKAZ  painter  EEFL  SE  RI  ME.

   <Note> Supposition is contrary to fact (I is not you.).  The good friend probably attempt not to become a painter.
       I may or may not become painter; this sentence does not refer to myself.

[Situation D]

You are speaking to a person who will not say whether he studied hard or not.

Ex.  If you studied hard, an acceptance letter will come tomorrow.

M1:  ME  hard  study-T  EEF  acceptance  letter-W  tomorrow  come-R.
M2:  Acceptance  letter-W  tomorrow  come-R  EEFL  ME  hard  study-T.

   <Note> There is no way you know whether he studied hard.

[Situation E]

You are speaking to a honest person who said that he did not study at all.

Ex.  If you had studied hard, an acceptance letter would have come tomorrow.

M1:  ME hard study-T EEF  acceptance letter-W tomorrow GITT come-R.
M2:  Acceptance letter-W tomorrow GITT come-R  EEFL ME hard study-T.

** Note **

Verb  'IYX' (= 'wish' in English) is used to state an impossible desire on contrary-to-fact condition.
In this expression, neither CL to lead adverb clause nor GITT is used.

Ex.  I wish I had a camera now.

M1:  SE  (PA)  SE  camera-O  TUV  My  IYX.
M2:  SE  IYX  My  SE  TUV  camera-O.

   <Note> In fact,  I don't have a camera with me now.  GITT is not used.

Ex.  I wish I would have had a camera then.

M1:  SE  SE  camera-O  TUV-T  My  IYX.
M2:  SE  IYX  My  SE  TUV-T  camera-O.

   <Note> Unfortunatelly,  I did not have a camera with me then.  GITT is not used.

@   EEG  (EEGL for M2)   =  exclusive if  (= iff)

@   EEK  (EEKL for M2)   =  supposing that

Ex.  Solve the following equation supposing that there is no friction.

M1:  Friction-W  NAI  RIZ  EEK,  YO  following   equation-O  solve.
M2:  YO  solve  following   equation-O,  EEKL  friction-W  NAI  RIZ.

@   EEL  (EELL for M2)   =  as long as

Ex.  As long as you help them, I will help you.

M1:  ME  FEN-O  help  EEL  SE  ME-O  help.
M2:  SE  help  ME-O  EEFL  ME  help  FEN-O.

@   EEM   (EEML for M2)   =  as if

Ex.  She talked as if she knew it all.

M1:  DAFE  OOL-O  know  EEM   DAFE  talk-T.
M2:  DAFE  talk-T  EEML  DAFE  know  OOL-O.

   <Note> In fact, she only knows part of it or knows nothing.

@  EEN   (EENL for M2)   =  even if / even though

Ex.  Even though he makes mistake, nobody complaints.

M1:  MAFE  mistake-O  make  EEN  NAI  JE  complaint-O  say.
M2:  NAI  JE  say  complaint-O  EENL  MAFE  make  mistake-O.

18-3-2.  Other CLs (derived from MAs) to lead mainly adverb clauses

CLs in the following table are also derived from Modification Agent, and therefore the CLs for M2 inherit L-ending.
Many lead adjective clause as well (the CLs with * lead adverb clause only).   We will study 10 CLs of them with
example later.

Clause Leaders
AAB / AABL concerning that --
AAC / AACL instead of that
AAE / AAEL except that
AAF / AAFL after
AAG / AAGL against that
AAI /AAIL by the time (time limit) 
AAN / AANL compared with that
AAS / AASL since (time point)
AAT / AATL at (place)
IIC / IICL until
IID / IIDL since (reason)
IIE / IIEL  * as -- as concerned
IIF / IIFL  * as for that --
IIL / IILL as, like
IIM / IIML from that
IIN / IINL in, inside --
IIRP / IIRPL back of that
IIY / IIYL in addition to that
IIZ / IIZL with that
UUC / UUCL without that
UUO / UUOL before
UUP / UUPL based upon that
UURP / UURPL while
UUS / UUSL  * though (although)
UUY / UUYL beyond
UUZ / UUZL besides
EEA / EEAL time (when)
EEB / EEBL to infinitive
EEC / EECL to infinitive
EED / EEDL in order to (do)
EERP / EERPL regardless of
EET / EETL putting -- side
EEY / EEYL including
EEZ / EEZL for the case that

      M1 / M2      meaning
AATTI /  AATLTI  place + where
EEDTI  /  EEDLTI  time + when
EEZTI  /  EEZLTI  for the case + that

We study 10 CLs with examples that follow.

@ AAB  (AABL for M2)   =  about that

AAB /AABL has an effect of picking a particular topic.

Ex.  We discussed about that he gave her illegal money.

M1:  SEN  (PA)  MAFE  DAFE  illegal  money  give-T  AAB  discuss-T.
M2:  SEN  discuss-T  AABL  MAFE  give-T  DAFE  illegal  money.

   <Note> Above NOXILO sentences are the same as below in terms of meaning.  
        Ky and UUK (L) are CLs to lead adjective clause.

    M1:  SEN  (PA)  MAFE  DAFE  illegal  money  give-T  Ky  issue  AB  discuss-T.
    M2:  SEN  discuss-T  ABL  issue  Ky  MAFE  give-T  DAFE  illegal  money.

       <Note> Ky is CL to lead adjective clause.  AB (ABL for M2) is Modification Agent (=about).

    M1:  SEN  (PA)  MAFE  DAFE  illegal  money  give-T  Ky  issue-O  discuss-T.
    M2:  SEN  discuss-T  issue-O  Ky  MAFE  give-T  DAFE  illegal  money.

    M1:  SEN (PA)  MAFE  DAFE  illegal  money  give-T  UUK  issue-O  discuss-T.
    M2:  SEN  discuss-T  issue-O  UUKL  MAFE  give-T  DAFE  illegal  money.

    The following is acceptable.   My is CL to lead noun clauses.

    M1:  SEN (PA)  MAFE  DAFE  illegal  money  give-T  My-O  discuss-T.
    M2:  SEN  discuss-T  My-O  MAFE  give-T  DAFE  illegal  money.

@   AAN  (AANL for M2)   =  compared with that

 His action is even worse comapred with that she broke many window glasses.

M1:  DAFE  MUQ  window-glass-O  break-T  AAN  MAFEI  action-W  even  worse  RI.
M2:  MAFEI  action-W  RI  even  worse  AANL  DAFE  break-T  MUQ  window-glass-O.

@   AAT  (AATL for M2)   =  where

Ex.  I grew up where I was born.

M1:  SE  IBAA-TZE  AAT  SE  grow-T.
M2:  SE  grow-T  AATL  SE  IBAA-TZE.

   <Note> IBAA: bear   IBAA-TZE: was born   

@   IIC  (IICL for M2)    =  until,  till

Ex.  I'll visit Musee du Louvre until I die.      ( = I will continue to visit it until I die.)

M1:  SE  die  IIC  SE  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit.
M2:  SE  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O  IICL  SE  die.

Ex.  Visit Musee du Louvre until you die.      ( = You should continue to visit it until you die.)

M1:  ME  die  IIC,  YO  Musee-du-Louvre-O  visit.
M2:  YO  visit  Musee-du-Louvre-O,  IICL  ME  die.

   <Note> The ',' is necessary between adverb clause and imperative clause anyways.
        The following sentences are acceptable though they are not typical.

        M1:  YO  Louvre-O  visit,  ME  die IIC.
        M2:  YO  visit  Louvre-O,  IICL  ME  die.

@   IID  (IIDL for M2)   =  because,  since (reason)

Ex.  I went to LSE in London since the school has a nice Ph.D. program.

M1:  TE  nice  Ph.D.  prgram-O  have  IID  SE  LSE  UT  go-T.
M2:  SE  go-T UTL  LSE  IIDL  TE  have  nice  Ph.D.  program-O.

@   IIL  (IILL for M2)   =  like that,  as -- so,  as -- as

Ex.  Just German people enjoy beer, so French people enjoy wine.

M1:  German people-W beer-O enjoy IIL French people-W wine-O enjoy.
M2:  French people-W enjoy wine-O IILL German people-W enjoy beer-O.

Ex.  Leave that as it is.

M1:  TE  RI  ILL,  YO  TE-O  leave.
M2:  YO  leave  TE-O,  IILL  TE  RI.

   <Note> The following is acceptable though the clause order is not typical.

M1:  YO  TE-O  leave,  TE  RI  ILL.
M2:  YO  leave  TE-O,  IILL  TE  RI.

M1:  TE  RI  ILL,  YO  TE-O  leave.
M2:  IILL  TE  RI,  YO  leave  TE-O.

Ex.  Medical terminology is as necessary to treatment as the name of auto parts are to repairman.

M1:  Auto parts UB name-W repairman IO necessary IIL  medical terminology-W treatment IO necessary RI.
M2:  Medical terminology-W RI necessary IOL treatment  IILL name-W UBL auto parts RI necessary IOL repairman.

   <Note> UB (UBL for M2) means 'of'.   IO (IOL for M2) means 'to' or ''for',
        and can be replaced with UO(L).

@   UUS  (UUSL for M2)   =  althogh

Ex.  She failed admission test to Oslo University although she study very hard.

M1:  DAFE hard study-T UUS DAFE Oslo University UT admission test-O fail-T.
M2:  DAFE fail-T admission test-O UTL Oslo Universuty UUSL DAFE hard stdy-T.

@   UURP  (UURPL for M2)   =  while

Ex.  WE visited Carolinska Hospital two times while we were staying in Sweden.

M1:  SEN Sverie AT stay-TIn UURP SEN Carolinska Hospital-O 2 KRAn visit-T.
M2:  SE 2 KRAn visit-T Carolinska Hospital-O UURPL SEN stay-TIn ATL Sverie.

   <Note> SEN : WE    Sverie : Sweden   KRAn : times.

@   EED  (EEDL for M2)   =  in order to do that

Ex.  The Euro crisis started when we arrived at Athens Int'l Airport.

M1:  SEN Athens Int'l Airport AT arrive-T EED Euro crisis start-T.
M2:  Euro crisis start-T EEDL SEN arrive-T ATL Athens Int'l Airport.

@   EEP  (EEPL for M2)   =  as

Ex.  Interest rate goes down as the central bank supplies a lot of money.

M1:  Central bank-W MUQ money-O supply EEP interest-rate-W go-down.
M2:  Interest-rate-W go-down EEPL central bank-W supply MUQ money-O.

** Note **

Please note that AAT (place), EEA (time), and IID (reason) are not Interrogatives.   In NOXILO, interrogatives
(HA, HI, HU, HE, HO, HyA, Hy, and HyE) are used only for the case where a real question or wonder exists.   
Pls see below.

Ex.  I went to a point where high priest Ganjin landed.

M1:  SE  (PA)  high  monk  Ganjin-W  land-T  AAT  point  UT  go-T.
M2:  SE  go-T  UTL  point  AATL  high  monk  Ganjin-W  land-T.

   <Note> AAT(L) is the CL to lead adjective clause.    It leads adverb clause, too.
        Interrogative 'HO' (where) should not be used since there is no question. 
        The 'point' is postcedent (M1), and antecedent (M2).

M1:  SE  (PA)  high  monk  Ganjin-W  land-T  Ky  point  UT  go-T.
M2:  SE  go-T  UTL  point  Ky  high  monk  Ganjin-W  land-T.

   <Note> Ky is the CL to lead adjective clause.
        Interrogative 'HO' (where) should not be used since there is no question.

M1:  SE  (PA)  high monk  Gaijin-W  land-T AATTI  UT  go-T. 
M2:  SE  go-T  UTL  AATLTI  high monk  Ganjin-W  land-T.  

   <Note> AATTI is  'Ky + a certain place'  for M1.      AATLTI  is  'a certain place + Ky'  for M2.

Ex.  He was watching TV when his mother visited his house.

M1:  Mother-W  MAFEI  house-O  visit-T  EEA  MAFE  TV-O  watch-TIn.
M2:  MAFE  watch-TIn  TV-O  EEAL  mother-W  visit-T  MAFEI  house-O.

   <Note 1> There is no question in example, and therefore, interrogative 'HE' (when) is not used.
   <Note 2> The following clause order is acceptable.  A ',' is necessary betweeen adverb clause and main clause.

         M2:  EEAL mother-W visit-T MAFEI house-O,  MAFE watch-TIn TV-O.

Ex.  The orphans know the reason why their American foster mother continued to work till her 70s.

M1:  Orphan-W  (PA)  American  foster  mother-W  70 year-old  IC  work  <  continue-T  Ky  reason-O  know.
M2:  Orphan-W  know  reason-O  Ky  American  foster  mother-W  continue-T  >  work  ICL  70 year-old.

   <Note> There is no question, therefore, 'HyA' (why) is not used.

18-3-3.  Original CLs to lead adverb clauses.

The following 15 CLs are not derived from Modification Agents, and therefore the same form stand for M1 and M2. 

  CLs for M1 & M2               meaning
ALES  unless 
NVAL  lest (lest they misunderstand it)
NVEE  lest one can do (lest they can break jail easily)
PLA   little before
PLI    immediately before
PLP   at the same time, as
PLE   immediately after
PLO   little after
PEEC  first time -- in (year, etc.)
PEEN  This is even more -- although that's important.
SZA  Seeing that --
TWA   in case
TWI   contingent upon
YUD   so that one do
YUM   so that one can do 

We study the following 4 CLs out of 15.

@   NVAL  = lest 

Ex.  I gave him a good work manual lest he makes mistake.

M1:  MAFE mistake-O make NVAL SE MAFE good work-manual give-T.
M2:  SE give-T MAFE good work-manual NVAL MAFE make mistake-O.

M1:  MAFE mistake-O make NVAL SE MAFE-O good work-manual-O give-T.
M2:  SE give-T MAFE-O good work-manual-O NVAL MAFE make mistake-O.

@   NVEE  = lest one can do

Ex.  They supplied electricity to the bars lest prisoners can break it.

M1:  Prisonor-W TE-O break NVEE  FEN electricity-O bar UT supply-T.
M2:  FEN supply-T electricity-O UTL bar  NVEE prisonor-W break TE-O.

   <Note> The above sentences can be re-written as below.

        M1:  Prisonor-W TE-O GIMA break NVAL  FEN electricity-O bar UT supply-T.
        M2:  FEN supply-T electricity-O UTL bar  NVAL prisonor-W GIMA break TE-O.

          <Note> GIMA is aux verb and means 'can'.

@   YUD  = so that one do

Ex.  They prepared the judge some new documents so that the judge could further consider the case.

M1:  Judge-W case-O further consider YUD  FEN judge some new document prepare-T.
M2:  FEN prerare-T judge some new document  YUD judge-W further consider case-O.

M1:  Judge-W case-O further consider YUD  FEN judge-O some new document-O prepare-T.
M2:  FEN prerare-T judge-O some new document-O  YUD judge-W further consider case-O.

@   YUM  = so that one can do

Ex.  Alumni sent the best coach so that their baseball team can win the tournament.

M1:  FENI baseball-team-W tournament-O win YUM  almni-W best coach-O send-T.
M2:  Almni-W send-T best coach-O  YUM FENI baseball-team-W win tournament-O.

   <Note> The above sentences can be re-written as below.

       M1:  FENI baseball-team-W tournament-O GIMA win YUD  almni-W best coach-O send-T.
       M2:  Almni-W send-T best coach-O  YUD FENI baseball-team-W GIMA win tournament-O.

        <Note> GIMA is aux verb and means 'can'.

Ch-19   Naturalist

There are only 3 naturalists so far ;  AA (Ah in English),  OO (Oh),  and  SOO (So).  
These are Admiration & Exclamation Adverbs as well.
Some onomatopoeia may be added into this category in the future.

Ch-20   Letter in NOXILO

20-1.  Sample letter in NOXILO

                                                               (Sample letter)
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

ALOO / English                                                                                                       M 20. 05. 08.

                       EPL  MEI  webpage

DS.  OBANA  Yoko


SE  enjoy-T  MEI  webpage-O  OnD  know-T  My  ME   IYUS  International  e-friend-O.
SE  study  computer  science  and  Japanese  language-O  ATL  U.C.Berkeley.
PLII  ME  send  email-O.


MR.  GRIGGS  F  John

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


ALOO / English  ........... Hello !     I am writing in NOXILO Mode II.  /  I use NOXILO Basic and English words.

M 20. 05. 08.   ................   8  May  2020   ('M' stands for magenta/red.)

For ref.      15 July 1998    T2.7.15.     (T is from EITA = white.)
                15 July 1999    T1.7.15.

                15 July 2000    XS.7.15.     (XUNyA SAAL = base year)

                15 July 2001    M1.7.15.     (M is from EIMA = magenta/red.)
                15 July 2009    M9.7.15.
                15 July 2010    M10.7.15.

                15 July 2015     M15.7.15.
      15 July 2020           M20.7.15.
                15 July 2029           M29.7.15
                15 July 2100     M100.7.15.

EPL MEI webpage  ............... Title ..............  Replying to your webpage (ABL MEI webpage is OK, too.)

DS.  .........................  Pronounced [da:s],  Ms.

HAIKEI  ...................  Starting respect ........... Dear Sir/Madame,  (This is not necessary in email.)

I enjoyed your webpage and knew that you were seeking an international e-friend.
I study computer science and Japanese language at U.C. Berkeley.
Please send me email.

KEIG  .......................  Closing respect  ........... Regards  (This is write out for most cases.)

MR.  .........................  pronounced [ma:r],  Mr.  

20-2.  Useful symbols

Proper usage of the following symbols could avoid possible misleading or misunderstanding.

        symbols to be used          examples
     Personal Name  :   :
 (Note) Personal name should be written in the order
 of family name, middle name, then given name, and
 the family name is expressed by capital letters
 unless said people feel uncomfortable.  
 NOXILO way to express name.
    : DOE John : 
    : MIZUTA Sentaro :
 Original way.
    : Fryderyk  F  Chopin :  
    : George Washington :   
 Company, organization  :    ;  : IBM ;   .....  IBM Corporation
 : UN ;    ...... United Nations  
           Place  ;    ;  ; Pari ;   ........... Pari
  ; Stockholm ;  ........ Stockholm
       Terminology   |    |   | DNA |  ....... Deoxyribo nucleic acid 
           Brand   _    _   _Mercedes_   ....... Mercedes Benz
  _SONY_  ..................  Sony
         Emphasis  Underlined, or write in Gothic or Italic.
 Place VI before the word to be emphasized.
 Place VII before phrase and clause to be emphasized
 or Sandwitched by VII and -VII.
 new rule,  new rule,  new rule
 VI new rule
 VII upon new rule
 VII We conducted upon new rule -VII
         Citation  Sandwitched by  >     <
 or sandwitched by  '     '
 > government of people, by people,
    for people <
      Conversation  Sandwitched by  "    " (for M2) or  「     」 (for M1)  "I laughed" (English)
 「私は笑った」  (Japanese)
      Object of TO  If it is necessary to show the object of TO, and
 the object is in the same paragraph as TO is,

   TO-1  and   ^1 word, phrase, or clause 1^
   TO-2  and   ^2 word, phrase, or clause 2^ 
   TO-3  and   ^3 word, phrase, or clause 3^

 If it is in other paragraph,

   TO-A  and   ^A word, phrase, or clause A^
   TO-B  and   ^B word, phrase, or clause B^ 
   TO-C  and   ^C word, phrase, or clause C^

 -1, ^1, and 1^ are not read out.

 -A, ^A, and A^ are not read out.
      Object of BOI    BOI-1  and  ~1 word, phrase, or clause 1~
   BOI-2  and  ~2 word, phrase, or clause 2~
   BOI-3  and  ~3 word, phrase, or clause 3~

   BOI-A  and  ~A word, phrase, or clause A~
   BOI-B  and  ~B word, phrase, or clause B~
   BOI-C  and  ~C word, phrase, or clause C~
 same as above.

 (Note)  The '、' and '。' for M1 can be replaced with ',' and '.' respectively.

    Thank you for reading! See you again in  the  next  webpage  6!
( Webpage 6 will include 500 Basic Words.)